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1.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 461-465, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920913

ABSTRACT

Sphingomyelinases (SMase) are the main enzymes that regulate the signaling pathway of sphingomyelin and the metabolism of related products, and they are involved in the key steps of the complex metabolic process of sphingomyelin. In recent years, many studies have shown that SMase is involved in the biological processes such as cell cycle arrest, cell migration, and inflammation and promotes the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma by regulating the apoptosis and proliferation of tumor stem cells. SMase has an important potential biological value in the development, progression, diagnosis, and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. This article summarizes the exact role of SMase in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma, in order to provide new ideas and strategies for the clinical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and the development of new drugs.

2.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 682-687, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922980

ABSTRACT

Lysyl oxidase (LOX) family is a group of copper-containing amine oxidases composed of LOX and LOX-like proteins (LOXL1, LOXL2, LOXL3, and LOXL4). It is overexpressed in tumor tissue and promotes tumor metastasis through covalent cross-linking of extracellular matrix, with the functions of cell growth control, tumor inhibition, senescence, and chemotaxis. In recent years, more and more evidence has shown that LOX family members play a key role in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), suggesting that they have great potential as therapeutic targets. This article reviews the role of LOX family members in the development and progression of HCC and the intervention effect of traditional Chinese medicine extracts on HCC by regulating LOX family, in order to provide a reference for further research on the prevention and treatment of HCC.

3.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 2696-2700, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905024

ABSTRACT

Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a life-threatening disease with a high risk of multiple organ failure, sepsis, and death. ACLF activates innate and acquired immune responses in human body and thus leads to the progression of persistent systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction, leading to the high mortality rate of this disease. Dysregulated immune response plays a key role in disease progression, and immunotherapy may help to target immune-mediated organ damage and inhibit the progression of liver failure. This article reviews the role and mechanism of drugs and means with a potential immune regulatory effect in ACLF, in order to provide a reference for immunotherapy for ACLF.

4.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 2488-2492, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904977

ABSTRACT

Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) is a cytoplasmic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) sensing protein that can recognize the dsDNA released during cell disturbance and pathogen invasion and trigger the activation of inflammasome cascade. Activation of inflammasomes leads to the maturation and release of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β and interleukin-18), induces pyroptosis, and initiate innate immune response. Among these inflammasomes, AIM2 and its mechanism of action and clinical significance in liver diseases has become a research hotspot at present. This article summarizes and discusses the importance of AIM2 in the pathogenesis of various liver diseases including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, hepatitis B virus infection, liver fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, so as to provide new ideas and a reference for clinical treatment.

5.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 2488-2492, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904927

ABSTRACT

Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) is a cytoplasmic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) sensing protein that can recognize the dsDNA released during cell disturbance and pathogen invasion and trigger the activation of inflammasome cascade. Activation of inflammasomes leads to the maturation and release of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β and interleukin-18), induces pyroptosis, and initiate innate immune response. Among these inflammasomes, AIM2 and its mechanism of action and clinical significance in liver diseases has become a research hotspot at present. This article summarizes and discusses the importance of AIM2 in the pathogenesis of various liver diseases including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, hepatitis B virus infection, liver fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, so as to provide new ideas and a reference for clinical treatment.

6.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 2847-2850, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837663

ABSTRACT

As a novel form of programmed cell death different from cell necrosis, apoptosis, and autophagy discovered in recent years, pyroptosis is characterized by cell membrane rupture and release of cell contents and proinflammatory factors mediated by gasdermin, thus leading to cell death. Pyroptosis signaling pathways can be classified into classical pathways dependent on caspase-1 and non-classical pathways dependent on caspase-4/5/11; the activation of caspase-1 in classical pathways depends on the function of inflammasome, while the direct activation of caspase-4/5/11 is observed in non-classical pathways, which leads to the lysis of gasdermin D and induce the formation of membrane pores, the maturation and release of interleukin-1β and interleukin-18, and the rupture of cell membrane to cause pyroptosis. Latest research has shown that pyroptosis plays an important role in the development and progression of chronic liver diseases. This article introduces the mechanism of pyroptosis and summarizes the role of pyroptosis in the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, viral hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, in order to provide new ideas and methods for the prevention and treatment of liver diseases in clinical practice.

7.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 1874-1879, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-825048

ABSTRACT

The development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have complex potential mechanisms. The traditional “two-hit” pathophysiological theory has been challenged, and in recent years, an increasing number of studies have been performed to investigate the interaction between insulin resistance, adipokines, and other unknown pathogenic factors in various organs. This article summarizes the factors of the liver, intestinal tract, hypothalamus, and extracellular cysts, as well as genetic factors, with an emphasis on the synergistic mechanism of action of the liver and extrahepatic organs in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, in order to provide a reference for obtaining new insights into NAFLD regulatory network and determining new targets for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD.

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