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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932193


Objective:To investigate the distribution and antimicrobial resistance patterns of common pathogens in children with urinary tract infections in a single center in Shanghai, and to provide basis for the selection of empirical antibiotics in the clinical practice.Methods:The clinical data, urine culture and drug sensitivity tests results of children with urinary tract infections between 0 to 14 years admitted to the Children′s Hospital of Fudan University from January 2016 to December 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. According to the time of onset and the complicated factors, the patients were divided into different groups. The distributions and antimicrobial resistance patterns of common pathogens were compared among the groups. The chi-square test was used for statistical analysis.Results:Among the 1 832 children, 1 042 cases had positive urine culture, with the culture positive rate of 56.9%. The top five pathogens detected were Escherichia coli (375 strains, 36.0%), Enterococcus faecium (164 strains, 15.7%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (133 strains, 12.8%), Enterococcus faecalis (95 strains, 9.1%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (44 strains, 4.2%). The annual detection rates of gram-negative bacteria (65.3% to 72.9%) were always higher than those of gram-positive bacteria (22.6% to 30.1%). The distributions of pathogens among the years were not significantly different ( χ2 =27.79, P=0.146). In patients with complicated urinary tract infections, the detection rates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.8%(40/688) vs 1.1%(4/354)) and fungi (6.5%(45/688) vs 1.7%(6/354)) were significantly higher than those in patients with simple urinary tract infections ( χ2=12.68 and 11.79, respectively, both P<0.050). Both of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae had the highest resistance rates to ampicillin, which were 87.2%(301/345) and 87.1%(115/132), respectively. The resistance rates of Escherichia coli to amikacin, nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin, cefmetazole, piperacillin/tazobactam, ertapenem, imipenem and meropenem were 1.4%(5/345), 6.1%(21/345), 6.1%(21/345), 8.3%(11/132), 11.6%(40/345), 6.4%(22/345), 4.6%(16/345) and 4.6%(16/345), respectively. The resistance rates of Klebsiella pneumoniae to these drugs were 6.1%(8/132), 37.9%(50/132), 15.2%(20/132), 23.2%(13/56), 26.5%(35/132), 23.5%(31/132), 17.4%(23/132) and 16.7%(22/132), respectively, which were all higher than those of Escherichia coli, and the differences were all statistically significant ( χ2=6.02, 76.17, 9.99, 7.94, 16.04, 28.29, 20.79 and 18.84, respectively, all P<0.050). The resistance rates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to cefoperazone/sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam and ceftazidime were 6.8%(3/44), 4.5%(2/44) and 2.3%(1/44), respectively, while those to carbapenems, amikacin and ciprofloxacin were all 0(0/44). The resistance rate of Enterococcus faecium to ampicillin was 96.8%(153/158), while that of Enterococcus faecalis was 9.1%(8/88). There was no Enterococcus strain resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin or linezolid. When dynamically comparing the trends of the antimicrobial resistance from 2016 to 2019, the resistance rates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae to β-lactams (including carbapenems) antimicrobial agents had shown a downward trend. Conclusions:Gram-negative bacteria are still the main pathogens of urinary tract infections in children, with a downward trend of drug resistance rates to β-lactams (including carbapenems) antimicrobial agents.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-753852


Objective To investigate the clinical manifestations, treatment and prognosis of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) in children. Methods One case of STSS was reported in a child who was admitted to Children's Hospital of Fudan University. Search terms such as "streptococcal toxic shock syndrome", "children" and "case report" were used to identify relevant reports from PubMed database, as well as Chinese databases including Chongqing VIP, Wanfang, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure for further review. Results The patient in this report was a 11-year-old female. The main clinical manifestations were fever, red, swelling, and pain in the right lower extremity, associated with impaired walking and hypotension. Imaging examination suggested diffuse abnormal signals in the soft tissue of right thigh. Group A Streptococcus (namely Streptococcus pyogenes) was isolated from the puncture fluid. The patient was improved after active shock-correcting and anti-infective treatment. A total of 6 STSS cases were identified from Chinese databases between January 1, 1996 and May 1, 2017. All the 7 cases (including this one, 4 males and 3 females, 15 months to 13 years of age) reported fever and skin rashes, and rapidly progressed to shock. Respiratory failure was reported in 4 cases and supported with a ventilator. Three patients died, including 2 within 24 hours after hospitaladmission. A total of 38 STSS cases (40 days to 18 years of age) were identified from PubMed database. The main clinical manifestations of these cases were respiratory tract or digestive tract symptoms, and skin and soft tissue infection. In addition, chickenpox was found in 3 cases, Kawasaki disease in 2 cases, neonatal bullous impetigo, pancreatitis, infectious mononucleosis, and lymphohistiocytosis in one case each. Of the 38 patients, 22 survived and 16 died. Conclusions STSS is a rare and severe form of invasive streptococcal infection in children. The early manifestations are not specific, which may be mistaken for upper respiratory tract infection, gastrointestinal dysfunction symptoms, skin and soft tissue infection, or muscle and joint disorder, or even similar to or associated with Kawasaki disease. But rapid progression to shock and multiple organ failure of STSS pose a serious threat to children. Pediatricians should keep alert on STSS. Early identification, timely diagnosis, and adequate treatment are key to improving patient outcome.

Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 605-609, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-254662


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the main factors that influence measles morbidity and the genotype of measles virus, so as to provide evidence for scientific decision making to further control the prevalence of measles.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>A retrospective analysis included 182 children in Children's Hospital of Fudan University, diagnosed with measles from January 1, 2012 to December 31. The clinical and epidemiological characteristics, including the gender, age, the incidence of seasonal trends, measles vaccine vaccination history, contact history and other clinical manifestations, laboratory test results, and so on were analyzed. And the reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was adopted to detect sputum specimens from suspected patients with measles,who were selected randomly,the sequence of the part of the PCR products was analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>(1) Clinical and epidemiological data: Totally were 182 children with measles (125 males, 57 females) were enrolled into this study. The age of the patients ranged from 3 months to 89 months, 127 cases were younger than 9 months (69. 8%). The prevalence season was from April to August, while the peak month was April and May (22. 5%, 23. 1%). Among 182 hospitalized children, only 11 cases underwent measles vaccination (6. 0%), and among them 5 cases were within 2 weeks before disease onset. A total of 167 cases (91. 8%) had not been vaccinated, most of whom were immigrants, and the measles vaccination history of the remaining 4 cases were unknown. There was a positive correlation between the measles vaccination ratio in children of the floating population (8. 45%, 6/71) and the settled children (29.4%, 5/17, χ =8. 11 P =0. 004). In total, 24 cases (13. 2%) had definite measles exposure history, with 153 cases (84. 1%) of unknown origin,5 cases (2.7%) without any history of contact. (2) Clinical manifestations: All the 182 patients had fever (100%) and obvious rashes (100%), among them 145 cases had body temperature higher than 39 °C (79. 7%). The fever period ranged from 2 to 38 days. Among 182 hospitalized children,165 cases (90. 7%) had typical measles,17 cases had atypical measles. Among the 17 cases, two had severe measles, one had heterotypic measles. (3) The common complica tions: 96 cases had pneumonia (52. 8%), 80 had laryngitis (44. 0%), 38 had bronchitis (20. 9%),15 had hepatic dysfunction (8. 2%), 11 had myocardial damage (6. 0%), 3 had febrile seizures (1. 6%), and no patient had encephalitis. Of the 96 cases with pneumonia, 92 received sputum test; 38 were sputum culture positive (41%). The dominant pathogens were Streptococcus pneumoniae(11/38,29%), Haemophilus influenzae (6/ 38,16%), Moraxella catarrhalis (4/38, 11%), Escherichia coli (4/38, 11%), Candida albicans (4/38, 11%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (4/38, 11%) and Staphylococcus aureus (3/38, 8%). (4) The H1a genotype was the only one genotype in the detected sequence of 54 measles virus strains.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Measles was more often seen in the children under the age of 9 months from the floating population. The morbidity peak month was from April to May in Shanghai. The H1a genotype was the only one genotype. We should try to improve vaccination coverage rate in the children who are at the age for vaccination, so as to prevent measles outbreak.</p>

Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Child, Hospitalized , China , Epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Genotype , Measles , Epidemiology , Measles Vaccine , Measles virus , Classification , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-397579


Objective To understand the erythromycin resistance rate and the erythromycin resistant gene spectrum in Streptococcus pyogenes strains isolated in Shanghai.Methods The outpatient children who were diagnosed with scarlatinal in the Children's Hospital of Fudan University from November 2004 to June 2006 were enrolled and 100 strains of Streptococcus pyogenes were isolated by pharyngeal swab culture.The distributions ofermA,ermB,mefA genes were determined by polymerase chain reaction(PCR)amplification.The relationship between ermA,ermB,mefA genes and erythromycin resistance were also analyzed.Results The erythromycin and clindamycin resistance rates of Streptococcus pyogenes in Shanghai were 98%and 95%,respectively;the concordance rate of these two drugs was 97%.Among 100 strains of Streptococcus pyogenes,94 strains(94%)contained ermB gene,with 100%of erythromycinresistance rate.Sixteen(16%)contained mefA gene,with 100% of erythromycin resistance rate.ermA was not detected inall the 100 strains.The ermB and mefA genes were not found in 5 strains,among which,2 were susceptible to erythromycin and 3wereresistant to erythromycin.Only 1%of isolates was mefA genesingle positive.Conclusions There is a high erythromycin resistance rate of Streptococcus pyogenes strains isolated inShanghai,and the cross resistance to clindamycin is high.TheermB gene is important erythromycin resistancedeterminants of Streptococcus pyogenes in Shanghai.