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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-712035


Objective To explore the clinical significance of abnormal fetal genitalia detected by routine prenatal ultrasound. Methods In Peking University Third Hospital from January 2014 to January 2016, the ultrasonic diagnosis and sonographic features in 14 suspected cases of abnormal fetal genitalia were analyzed retrospectively and compared with postpartum morphological and pathological characteristics. Results The fetal ultrasound findings and clinical outcomes in 14 cases were: (1) There were 4 cases of partial penoscrotal transposition (28.6%, 4/14), in which all fetus hadshort penis and hypospadias. In 2 termination cases, unilateral hydronephrosis and anal atresia was found in one case, while ventricular septal defect was found in the other case. In 2 term-birth cases, there was one case of recessive spina bifida. In the 4 cases, prenatal ultrasonographic manifestation showed that the short penis was located between the division of the scrotum, named as ″tulip sign″. (2) There were 2 cases (14.3%, 2/14) of complete penoscrotal transposition, in which all the pregnancies were terminated. On prenatal ultrasound of external genitalia, the location of the penis and scrotum was reversed. In one case, anal atresia and small eye malformation were found. In one case, the tetralogy of Fallot, duodenal atresia and anal atresia were found. (3) There were 4 cases of the micropenis (28.6%, 4/14). On prenatal ultrasound, the penis was difficult to demonstrated and was shown merely as an echoic dot. Among 2 cases of FGR, one infant dies for unexplained reasons after birth, and one infant has hypospadias after birth. The pregnancy was terminated in two cases of 18-trisomia and microdeletion in chromosome 9. (4) There were 2 cases of penis absence (14.3%, 2/14), in which all pregnancies were terminated. The sonographic manifestations show the absence of penis and bladder eversion. (5) In 2 cases, sex couldn`t be identified (14.3%, 2/14). In one case, the 46 xy infant showed a female external genitalia appearance after birth. In one case, the clitorism and congenital adrenal cortical hyperplasia were found in a 46 xx infant after birth. Conclusions Prenatal ultrasonography is effective and feasible in detecting genitalia abnormalities, especially for penis scrotal transposition and penis absence. When the fetal gender cannot be identified on ultrasound, chromosome examination is warranted. For indeterminable cases, ultrasound follow-up in 2nd and 3rd trimester is necessary.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-641044


Objective To analyze the ultrasonic features of gynecological emergency and severe cases.Methods To analyze 431 cases in clinical,ultrasonic images and examination data of gynecological emergency and severe patients in Peking University Third Hospital from September 2014 to September 2015,and to study clinical pathological and ultrasonic imaging examination.Results In 431 severe cases of gynecologic emergency,the clinical symptom were shown as acute abdominal pain or and vaginal bleeding.They were divided into seven types by clinical examination,operation or conservative treatment under dynamic observation.There were 137 cases of fracture disease,accounting for 31.8%,with corpus luteum rupture in 67 cases,ectopic pregnancy burst in 59 cases and tumor rupture in 11 cases.There were 114 cases of pelvic inflammatory disease,accounting for 26.5%,with hemorrhagic disease of department of gynaecology in 67 cases (15.5%),dysfunctional uterine bleeding in 39 cases,cervical cancer in 11 cases,submucosal myoma in 7 cases,endometrial carcinoma in 6 cases,carcinosarcoma in 4 cases.There were 58 cases of early pregnancy related diseases,accounting for 13.5%.Among them,32 cases were incomplete abortion,and 21 cases were inevitable abortion and 5 cases were hydatidiform mole.Forty-six cases were torsion of pedicle (10.6%).Five cases were genital tract malformation,accounting for 1.2%,with vaginal septum obliquumevery 4 cases and cervical atresia in one case.There were damages after the operation in 4 cases (0.9%),uterus perforation in 2 cases,abdominal wall hematoma in 1 case after cesarean section,and false aneurysm in 1 case after cesarean section.In the 431 cases,there was emergency surgery oroperation after symptomatic treatment in 329 cases,interventional treatment in one case and non-operative treatment in 101 cases.Conclusions There are corresponding typical ultrasonographic characteristics in different diseases of emergency and severe gynaecologic cases,combined with clinical symptoms and medical history.The right diagnosis can be made.Therefore,there are important clinical values of ultrasound in the treatment of emergency and severe gynecologic cases.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-502524


Objective To explore the value of ultrasound scoring system in predicting the type and risk of placenta accreta.Methods Clinical data of 180 placenta accreta patients who delivered in the Peking University Third Hospital between January 2005 and November 2014,were retrospectively analyzed.Prenatal ultrasonographic features were analyzed,including position and thickness of the placenta,disappearance of hypoechoes in posterior placenta,continuousness of bladder line,existence of lacuna,condition of the subplacental vascularity,completeness of cervical morphology,existence of cervical sinus,and history of cesarean section.A score of 0,1 or 2 was given to each item,and a sum-up was calculated for each patient.The cut-off scores of patients with placenta accreta,placenta increta and placenta percreta were calculated by receiver operating characteristic carve,respectively.At the same time,blood loss and hysterectomy rate were compared among the three groups.Variance analysis,rank sum or Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis.Results Among the 180 cases,there were 115 cases of placenta accreta,38 of planceta increta and 27 of placenta percreta.Placenta increta and percreta were defined as the severe type.Blood loss in placenta accreta was lower than in the severe type [200 (100-4 000) ml vs 3 025 (100-15 000) ml,P<0.01].There was no difference in blood loss between patients with placenta increta or percreta (P=0.350).No hysterectomy was performed for patients with placenta accreta,the rate being lower than in the severe type [0 vs 29.2% (19/65),P<0.01].Among the severe type,18.4% (7/38) of the placenta increta patients underwent hysterectomy,the rate being lower than in placenta percreta patients [44.4% (12/27),P<0.01].The score in placenta accreta was lower than in the severe type [(1.88± 1.45) vs (7.01 ±2.15) scores,P<0.01].In the severe type,the score in placenta increta was lower than in placenta percreta [(6.08 ± 2.62) vs (8.74 ± 2.75),P<0.01].The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the cut-off score of placenta accreta and the severe type was 5 [area under the curve (AUC)=94.3%,the score ≥ 4.5,the sensitivity=81.5%,and the specificity=95.7%],the cut-off score of placenta accreta and increta was 3 (AUC=91.1%,score ≥ 2.5,the sensitivity=92.1%,and the specificity=75.7%),and the cut-off score of placenta increta and percreta was 10 (AUC=74.6%,score ≥ 9.5,the sensitivity=55.6%,and the specificity=89.5%).Conclusions Ultrasound scoring system is effective in assessing types of placenta accreta and predicting its associate risks,and alerting the possibility of hysterectomy.It also facilitates preoperative planning and guides physicians in formulating subsequent treatment plans.Placenta accreta and the severe type (placenta increta and percreta) can be distinguished by cut-offscores ≥ 5,and a score ≥ 10 implies a higher risk of placenta percreta.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-469586


Objective To explore the clinical value of MRI in diagnosing and treating cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP).Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on the clinical manifestations of 54 patients diagnosed with CSP between January 2009 to January 2013 in Peking University Third Hospital.Based on the patients' MRI image and other clinical datas,we did transvaginal operation on patients with CSP1,and transvaginal combined with abdominal operations on patients with CSP2.The intraoperative blood loss,operation time,postoperative hospital stay,and the length of time required for of serum hCG dropping to normal of the patients were analyzed.Results The average age of the 54 patients was (34±5) years and the average duration of gestation was (56± 16) days,all patients' vital sign were stable,the hCG level was 23-142 962 U/L before treatment.Twelve patients were diagnosed with CSP1 by MRI,and 5 of them had focus of 1-2 cm in diameter,the 5 patients' serum hCG level was 436-1 159 U/L and 23-32 days after drug administration,their hCG level returned to normal; the other 7 patients had focus of 2.0-4.4 cm in diameter,and their hCG level was 2 218-63 446 U/L,lesion resection was done on the 7 patients by hysteroscope or under B-uhrasound monitor.Forty-two patients were diagnosed with CSP2,and their focus were 1.0-7.1 cm in diameter,and serum hCG level were 23-142 962 U/L.We did bilateral uterine artery occlusion by laparoscope or laparotomy during operation for 22 patients or bilateral uterine artery embolization (UAE) before operation for 20 patients,then we did lesion resections.The blood loss during operation of CSP1 or CSP 2 was 50.1,267.2 ml; operation time was 30,128 minutes; postoperative hospital stay was 4.6,6.7 days;their serum hCG returned to normal 13-30 days after the surgery.All the 54 patients' uterus were preserved,and the patients undergoing operations were all cured without the second operation.Conclusion MRI is an effective method to conduct clinical treatment in CSP.