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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937271

ABSTRACT

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare disease characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney injury without any association with preceding diarrhea. Dysregulation of the complement system is the most common cause of aHUS, and monoclonal humanized anti-C5 antibodies are now recommended as the first-line treatment for aHUS. However, if the complement pathway is not the cause of aHUS, C5 inhibitors are ineffective. In this study, we report the second reported case of aHUS caused by DGKE mutations in Republic of Korea. The patient was an 11-month-old infant who presented with prodromal diarrhea similar to typical HUS, self-remitted with conservative management unlike complement-mediated aHUS but recurred with fever. While infantile aHUS often implies genetic dysregulation of the complement system, other rare genetic causes, such as DGKE mutation, need to be considered before deciding long-term treatment with C5 inhibitors.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937269

ABSTRACT

Nephrocalcinosis often occurs in infants and is caused by excessive calcium or vitamin D supplementation, neonatal primary hyperparathyroidism, and genetic disorders. Idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia (IIH), a rare cause of nephrocalcinosis, results from genetic defects in CYP24A1 or SLC34A1. Mutations in CYP24A1, which encodes 25-hydroxyvitamin D 24-hydroxylase, disrupt active vitamin D degradation. IIH clinically manifests as failure to thrive and hypercalcemia within the first year of life and usually remits spontaneously. Herein, we present a case of IIH wih CYP24A1 mutations.An 11-month-old girl visited our hospital with incidental hypercalcemia. She showed failure to thrive, and her oral intake had decreased over time since the age of 6 months. Her initial serum parathyroid hormone level was low, 25-OH vitamin D and 1,25-OH vitamin D levels were normal, and renal ultrasonography showed bilateral nephrocalcinosis. Whole-exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous variants in CYP24A1 (NM_000782.4:c.376C>T [p.Pro126Ser] and c.1310C>A [p.Pro437His]). Although her hypercalcemia and poor oral intake spontaneously resolved in approximately 8 months, we suggested that her nephrocalcinosis and renal function be regularly checked in consideration of potential asymptomatic renal damage. Hypercalcemia caused by IIH should be suspected in infants with severe nephrocalcinosis, especially when presenting with failure to thrive.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900018

ABSTRACT

Background@#Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a negative impact on growth and development in children and is a risk factor for neurocognitive impairment; however, there is limited research on the cognitive function of children and adolescents with CKD. This study therefore aimed to investigate the mean intelligence and risk factors for low intelligence in children and adolescents with CKD. @*Methods@#Eighty-one patients with CKD under 18 years old were included in the KoreaN cohort study for Outcomes in patients With Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-Ped CKD). Participants completed either the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (6–16 years), or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (> 16 years). @*Results@#The mean full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) was 91 ± 19; 24.7% of participants scored a full-scale IQ below 80. Participants with a short stature (height Z scores < −1.88), failure to thrive (weight Z scores < −1.65), more severe CKD stage (≥ IIIb), longer duration of CKD (≥ 5 years), and those who were Medicare or Medicaid beneficiaries, had significantly lower mean full-scale IQs. @*Conclusion@#On linear regression analysis, the association between the full-scale IQ, and longer duration of CKD and growth failure, remained significant after controlling for demographic and clinical variables. It is therefore necessary to investigate cognitive impairment in pediatric patients with CKD who exhibit growth failure or for a longer postmorbid period. It is believed that early interventions, such as kidney transplantation, will have a positive effect on IQ in children with CKD, as the disease negatively affects IQ due to poor glomerular filtration rate over time.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897485

ABSTRACT

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children is associated with various complications, including poor growth and development, mineral bone disorder, cardiovascular disease, kidney failure, and mortality. Slowing down the progression of CKD is important since CKD is often not curable. Prospective cohort studies have been conducted to understand the progression and outcomes of CKD in children, and these studies have identified non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors. Recognition of known risk factors and early intervention are important to delay the progression of kidney function decline in children.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897482

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes of non-carbapenem treatment for urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) in young children. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of children under 2 years of age who were diagnosed and treated for UTIs caused by ESBL-producing E. coli from September 2014 to March 2020. @*Results@#Forty-three children under 2 years of age were treated with non-carbapenem antimicrobials for UTIs caused by ESBL-producing E. coli without bloodstream infections. The overall clinical and microbiological success rates for empirical antimicrobial treatment were 90.7% and 97.7%. Three of the patients (7.0%) experienced a relapse of UTI within a month. An in vitro susceptibility test showed that two patients were sensitive and one was resistant to the antimicrobial treatments. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the time to defervescence, clinical success, microbiological success, and relapse rate between the susceptible (n=13) and non-susceptible groups (n=30). @*Conclusion@#In this study, the overall relapse rate of patients treated with non-carbapenem antimicrobials was 7.0%. The patients showed high success rates in the clinical and microbiological responses to the non-carbapenems regardless of the results of the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility test. These results provide evidence that non-carbapenems may be viable alternative treatments for UTIs caused by ESBL-producing E. coli.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915021

ABSTRACT

Alagille syndrome (AGS) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited disorder, with major clinical manifestations of bile duct paucity, cholestasis, cardiovascular anomaly, ophthalmic abnormalities, butterfly vertebrae, and dysmorphic facial appearance. It is caused by heterozygous mutations in JAG1 or NOTCH of the Notch signaling pathway presenting with variable phenotypic penetrance and involving multiple organ systems. The following case report describes a unique case of a 16-year-old female with AGS who presented with the primary complaint of renovascular hypertension. She had a medical history of ventricular septal defect and polycystic ovary syndrome. The patient had a dysmorphic facial appearance including frontal bossing, bulbous tip of the nose, a pointed chin with prognathism, and deeply set eyes with mild hypertelorism. Stenoocclusive changes of both renal arteries, celiac artery, lower part of the abdominal aorta, and left intracranial artery, along with absence of the left internal carotid artery were found on examination. Whole exome sequencing was performed and revealed a pathologic mutation of JAG1, leading to the diagnosis of AGS. Reverse phenotyping detected butterfly vertebrae and normal structure and function of the liver and gallbladder. While the representative symptom of AGS in most scenarios is a hepatic problem, in this case, the presenting clinical features were the vascular anomalies. Clinical manifestations of AGS are diverse, and this case demonstrates that renovascular hypertension might be in some cases a presenting symptom of AGS.

7.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 92-111, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913885

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is the most common form of glomerulopathy in children. Most pediatric patients respond to glucocorticosteroid treatment (steroid-sensitive NS, SSNS), while approximately 10–15% will remain unresponsive or later become steroid-resistant. There has been a long-standing effort to find biomarkers that may predict steroid responsiveness. @*Methods@#We systematically reviewed current studies which investigated clinically relevant biomarkers for predicting steroid responsiveness in pediatric NS. We performed a PubMed and EMBASE search to identify eligible articles. We collected data on urinary markers, blood/serum markers (including cellular phenotypes and mRNA expression), genotypes and HLA allele frequency. @*Results@#A total of 659 articles were identified following electronic and manual searches. After reviewing the titles, abstracts, and full texts, 72 eligible articles were finally included. Vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) seemed to be significantly elevated in SRNS than in SSNS, in both serum and urine specimen, although further validation is required. @*Conclusions@#The present paper narratively illustrates current understandings of potential biomarkers that may help predict steroid responsiveness. Further investigation and collaboration involving a larger number of patients are necessary.

8.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 117-121, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913883

ABSTRACT

Chronic kidney disease (CKD)-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is a common complication of CKD, often accompanied by extra-skeletal calcification in adult patients. As increased vascular calcification is predicted to increase cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, the revised Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommend avoiding calcium-containing phosphate chelators. However, extra-skeletal calcification is less commonly noticed in pediatric patients. Here, we report our experience of such a complication in pediatric patients receiving maintenance peritoneal dialysis. Extra-skeletal calcification was noticed at the corneas, pelvic cavity, and soft tissues of the lower leg in 4 out of 32 patients on maintenance peritoneal dialysis. These patients experienced the aggravation of extra-skeletal calcifications during peritoneal dialysis, and 2 of them underwent excisional operations. It is required to monitor extra-skeletal calcifications in children on kidney replacement therapy.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889781

ABSTRACT

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children is associated with various complications, including poor growth and development, mineral bone disorder, cardiovascular disease, kidney failure, and mortality. Slowing down the progression of CKD is important since CKD is often not curable. Prospective cohort studies have been conducted to understand the progression and outcomes of CKD in children, and these studies have identified non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors. Recognition of known risk factors and early intervention are important to delay the progression of kidney function decline in children.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889778

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes of non-carbapenem treatment for urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) in young children. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of children under 2 years of age who were diagnosed and treated for UTIs caused by ESBL-producing E. coli from September 2014 to March 2020. @*Results@#Forty-three children under 2 years of age were treated with non-carbapenem antimicrobials for UTIs caused by ESBL-producing E. coli without bloodstream infections. The overall clinical and microbiological success rates for empirical antimicrobial treatment were 90.7% and 97.7%. Three of the patients (7.0%) experienced a relapse of UTI within a month. An in vitro susceptibility test showed that two patients were sensitive and one was resistant to the antimicrobial treatments. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the time to defervescence, clinical success, microbiological success, and relapse rate between the susceptible (n=13) and non-susceptible groups (n=30). @*Conclusion@#In this study, the overall relapse rate of patients treated with non-carbapenem antimicrobials was 7.0%. The patients showed high success rates in the clinical and microbiological responses to the non-carbapenems regardless of the results of the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility test. These results provide evidence that non-carbapenems may be viable alternative treatments for UTIs caused by ESBL-producing E. coli.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892314

ABSTRACT

Background@#Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a negative impact on growth and development in children and is a risk factor for neurocognitive impairment; however, there is limited research on the cognitive function of children and adolescents with CKD. This study therefore aimed to investigate the mean intelligence and risk factors for low intelligence in children and adolescents with CKD. @*Methods@#Eighty-one patients with CKD under 18 years old were included in the KoreaN cohort study for Outcomes in patients With Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-Ped CKD). Participants completed either the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (6–16 years), or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (> 16 years). @*Results@#The mean full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) was 91 ± 19; 24.7% of participants scored a full-scale IQ below 80. Participants with a short stature (height Z scores < −1.88), failure to thrive (weight Z scores < −1.65), more severe CKD stage (≥ IIIb), longer duration of CKD (≥ 5 years), and those who were Medicare or Medicaid beneficiaries, had significantly lower mean full-scale IQs. @*Conclusion@#On linear regression analysis, the association between the full-scale IQ, and longer duration of CKD and growth failure, remained significant after controlling for demographic and clinical variables. It is therefore necessary to investigate cognitive impairment in pediatric patients with CKD who exhibit growth failure or for a longer postmorbid period. It is believed that early interventions, such as kidney transplantation, will have a positive effect on IQ in children with CKD, as the disease negatively affects IQ due to poor glomerular filtration rate over time.

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834968

ABSTRACT

Background@#Premature infants are at high risk for acute kidney injury (AKI). Serum creatinine (Cr) has limitations for evaluating kidney function in premature infants. We evaluated whether urine biomarkers could be used to monitor AKI in premature infants. @*Methods@#A prospective cohort study was conducted among infants born at < 37 weeks. Urine biomarkers and serum Cr were measured on postnatal days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14. Infants were divided into 3 groups according to gestational age (GA); < 28, 28 to < 32 and 32 to < 37 weeks. @*Results@#AKI occurred in 17 of 83 (20.5%) recruited infants at a median age of 7 (interquartile range 5–10) days. While the most common cause of AKI was hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (53.8%) in infants of GA < 28 weeks, necrotizing enterocolitis was the leading cause (50.0%) in infants of GA 28 to < 32 weeks. Urinary levels of neutrophil-gelatinase-associated lipocalin/Cr were higher and epidermal growth factor/Cr were lower in AKI group before the onset of AKI in infants of GA < 28 weeks. In infants of GA 28 to < 32 weeks, urinary interleukin-8/Cr levels were higher in AKI group at approximately the time of AKI onset. @*Conclusion@#Several urine biomarkers were significantly different between AKI and no AKI groups, and some had changed before the onset of AKI. These groups were distinct according to causative factors of AKI and GA. Urine biomarkers could be useful for monitoring the development of AKI in premature infants.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831682

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hearing loss (HL) in children may adversely affect their development. HL is more prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) than in the general population.This study evaluated the prevalence of HL and its underlying diseases in patients with childhood-onset in CKD. @*Methods@#In this retrospective study of a tertiary referral center, childhood-onset CKD patients (stage 2–5, age at onset of renal symptom < 18 years) were recruited. We referred to the “renal” syndromic HL as cases with genetic or syndromic diseases, or extra-renal anomalies in addition to HL and CKD. @*Results@#A total of 421 patients (male:female = 279:142) were reviewed according to the causes of CKD: congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT; n = 184, 43.7%), glomerulopathies (GP; n = 105, 24.9%), cystic kidney diseases (CYST; n = 39, 9.3%), perinatal problems (PP; n = 29, 6.9%), and others (n = 64, 15.2%). HL was detected in 82 (19.5%) patients, including 51 (12.1%) patients with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), 30 (7.1%) with conductive hearing loss (CHL), and 1 patient with mixed HL. The prevalence of HL in each group was as follows: 16.8% in the CAKUT group, 28.6% in the GP group, 12.8% in the CYST group, 24.1% in the PP group, and 14.1% in the others group. HL was more common in higher CKD stages, especially CHL in end-stage renal disease. SNHL was more prevalent in CKD from GP. Of the 82 patients with HL, 50% had renal syndromic HL: 58.8% of SNHL and one-third of CHL were renal syndromic HL. @*Conclusion@#One-fifth of the childhood-onset CKD had HL. Collectively, renal syndromic HL comprised half of the HL in this study. To improve the quality of life in patients with childhood-onset CKD, we suggest that HL should be considered, requiring surveillance, and if necessary, early intervention.

14.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 120-125, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831208

ABSTRACT

Gorham-Stout syndrome is a rare bone disorder characterized by progressive massive osteolysis and proliferation of vascular and lymphatic vessels. A 15-year-old boy was initially diagnosed with Gorham-Stout at the age of 8 years based on clinical and radiological findings. Following diagnosis, he was treated with pamidronate, interferon alfa, propranolol, oral corticosteroids, and sirolimus. He developed proteinuria at the age of 15 and progressed into the nephrotic range 2 years later. A renal biopsy revealed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, not otherwise specified variant. The sequential increase in proteinuria associated with medications suggested that the focal segmental glomerulosclerosis may be caused by pamidronate and sirolimus, but cannot completely rule out the possibility of kidney involvement of GSS itself.

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18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760192

ABSTRACT

The most common type of refractory hypertension found in children is secondary hypertension, which is a potentially curable disease. Reninoma, a renin-secreting juxtaglomerular cell tumor, is a rare cause of severe hypertension that is usually diagnosed in adolescents and young adults. Surgical resection of the tumor completely cures the hypertension of patients with reninoma. The typical clinical presentation of reninoma includes hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and features secondary to the increased activation of the renin-angiotensin system without renal artery stenosis. We report a case of reninoma in a female adolescent with a typical clinical presentation, in which surgical removal of the tumor completely cured hypertension. We discuss here the clinical features, imaging studies, and immunohistochemical examination of the tumor used to establish the diagnosis of reninoma and for the management of the condition.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Alkalosis , Child , Diagnosis , Humans , Hypertension , Hypertension, Renal , Hypokalemia , Juxtaglomerular Apparatus , Renal Artery Obstruction , Renin , Renin-Angiotensin System , Young Adult
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765034

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is one of the major complications of organ transplantation, especially in children with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viremia (EV). We performed a retrospective study to evaluate risk factors for PTLD in children with EV. METHODS: Among 199 pediatric kidney transplantation (KT) recipients at our center from January 2001 to October 2015, records of those with EBV viral loads of > 1,000 copies/mL and/or PTLD were reviewed. RESULTS: Diagnosis of PTLD was made in seven patients (PTLD group), and 39 patients had EV only (EV only group). The median time from KT to EV and PTLD diagnosis was 6.7 (range 0.4–47.8) months and 8.2 (range, 2.8–98.9) months, respectively. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of sex, age at transplantation, donor type, EBV viral load, or EV-free duration after KT. Higher tacrolimus level before EV (hazard ratio, 44.5; P = 0.003) was an independent risk factor for PTLD in multivariate Cox regression analysis. Six patients with a high EBV load (median 171,639 copies/mL) were treated with preemptive rituximab (RTX) therapy, resulting in transient reduction of EBV load. None of these patients developed PTLD (median follow-up 51.5 months); however, two had neutropenia and two developed infection requiring hospital admission. CONCLUSION: In pediatric KT recipients, higher tacrolimus levels were associated with a higher incidence of PTLD. Conversely, those who received preemptive RTX for EV did not develop PTLD.


Subject(s)
Allografts , Child , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Transplantation , Kidney , Neutropenia , Organ Transplantation , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Rituximab , Tacrolimus , Tissue Donors , Transplants , Viral Load , Viremia
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713210

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Steroids can be used as an adjuvant therapy in the management of mycoplasma pneumonia, but no definite guidelines for the use of steroids have been established. The purpose of this study was to analyze the current usage and effects of steroids in the management of childhood mycoplasma pneumonia in a secondary hospital in Korea. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 152 patients who were admitted due to mycoplasma pneumonia. The patients were divided into 3 groups as follows: those who did not use steroids (81 patients, 53%), those who used steroids after their fever subsided (42 patients, 28%) and those who used steroids during fever (29 patients, 19%). RESULTS: In decreasing order of values, the duration of fever during hospitalization (60.0±40.2 hours vs. 37.3±28.5 hours vs. 29.7±29.5 hours, P=0.006) and duration of hospitalization (5.9±1.7 days vs. 5.0±1.4 days vs. 4.0±1.5 days, P < 0.001) were reported in the group which received steroids during fever, the group which received steroids after the fever subsided and the group which did not receive steroids. In the group which received steroids during fever, patients with early steroid use (within 24 hours) had a shorter fever duration in the hospital (12.0 hours vs. 73.5 hours, P < 0.001) and a hospitalization duration (5.0 days vs. 6.5 days, P=0.007) than those with late steroid use (after 24 hours). CONCLUSION: Steroids were used in 47% of patients with mycoplasma pneumonia. The patients who received early steroids had a shorter fever duration and a shorter hospital stay than those who received late steroids.


Subject(s)
Child , Fever , Hospitalization , Humans , Korea , Length of Stay , Medical Records , Mycoplasma , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Retrospective Studies , Steroids
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