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1.
Gut and Liver ; : 62-70, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914386

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Although mucosal healing (MH) is acknowledged as the treatment target in the treat-to-target era, there are limitations on repeated endoscopic examinations, especially in pediatric patients. We aimed to investigate whether fecal calprotectin (FC) could serve as a surrogate marker for the assessment of MH in pediatric patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) who have achieved sustained clinical remission (CR) while treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents. @*Methods@#This multicenter retrospective cross-sectional study included pediatric CD patients who had sustained a CR for at least 6 months with anti-TNF agents and who simultaneously underwent ileocolonoscopy and FC tests during follow-up. MH was defined as the absence of any ulcer on ileocolonoscopy. @*Results@#A total of 131 patients were included in this study. MH was observed in 87 patients (66.7%). The FC level was significantly lower in patients with MH than in those without MH (median 49.0 mg/kg vs 599.0 mg/kg; p<0.001). According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, FC was the only factor associated with MH (odds ratio, 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52 to 0.73; p<0.001). According to the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the optimal cutoff value for FC for the association with MH was <140 mg/kg (area under the curve 0.890, 95% CI 0.829 to 0.951, sensitivity 78.2%, specificity 88.6%, p<0.001). @*Conclusions@#FC was associated with MH in pediatric patients with CD who had achieved a sustained CR for at least 6 months with anti-TNF agents. In these patients, FC can be used to stratify patients and guide decisions regarding ileocolonoscopy in the treat-to-target era.

2.
Gut and Liver ; : 71-80, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914384

ABSTRACT

Background/aims@#The efficacy of biologics for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) is affected by the drug concentrations. We aimed to evaluate the importance of albumin and globulin which are known to be associated with drug concentrations as prognostic biomarkers in CD. @*Methods@#In total, 121 pediatric patients with CD who had received anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α therapy were retrospectively examined between January 2010 and February 2019. @*Results@#Relapse was observed in 48.8% of patients (59/121). The level of calprotectin (odds ratio, 2.13; p=0.03) and the albumin-to-globulin ratio (AGR) at 1 year after anti-TNF-α therapy (odds ratio, 0.0002; p=0.003) were associated with relapse. The AGR at 1 year after anti-TNF-α therapy was the only factor associated with the time-to-relapse (hazard ratio, 0.02; p<0.001). The optimal AGR cutoff value for the prediction of relapse was 1.47 (area under the curve, 0.916; p<0.001). The median infliximab trough level (TL) was lower in patients with AGRs <1.47 than in those with AGRs ≥1.47. Anti-drug antibody (ADA) concentrations were negatively correlated with the AGR at 1 year of anti-TNF-α therapy (r=-0.413, p=0.032). @*Conclusions@#AGR can be used to predict relapse. Patients with AGRs <1.47 at 1 year after anti-TNF-α therapy are more likely to have low drug TLs and develop ADAs, which increase the possibility of relapse than those with AGRs ≥1.47. Therefore, if the AGR at 1 year after anti-TNF-α therapy is less than 1.47, clinicians should monitor disease activity, assess the TLs of the anti-TNF-α agents, test for ADAs and determine the appropriate therapeutic strategies.

3.
Gut and Liver ; : 763-770, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890775

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We evaluated whether anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody (ASCA) titers are associated with diagnostic findings, disease activity, Paris classification phenotypes, and persistence after infliximab (IFX) treatment in children with Crohn’s disease (CD). We also investigated the role of ASCA as a predictor of mucosal healing (MH) and clinical remission (CR). @*Methods@#This study included 61 CD patients aged 19 years or younger who were diagnosed and treated between September 2010 and January 2019 and followed for at least 1 year. ASCA was regularly measured at the diagnosis of CD and at least 1 year after IFX therapy. @*Results@#The average follow-up period was 3.8±3.4 years (range, 1.0 to 7.2 years). Regression analysis showed that the ASCA titer was the only factor associated with Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn's Disease (SES-CD) or CR among all the parameters. In patients who had achieved MH (SES-CD=0), ASCA immunoglobulin G (IgG) was not associated with MH, but in patients without MH, ASCA IgG was associated with SES-CD (p=0.005) and CR (p<0.001). The cutoff value of ASCA IgG in patients with CR was 21.8 units. However, there was no difference in the relapse rate between the ASCA IgG-positive and -negative groups during the follow-up period. @*Conclusions@#In patients who have not achieved MH, ASCA IgG is closely related to mucosal damage and CR. Unlike Western studies, ASCA IgG may be more helpful in predicting prognosis than immunoglobulin A in Korean patients, but it is not an appropriate indicator to predict the relapse of CD.

4.
Intestinal Research ; : 472-477, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914726

ABSTRACT

Crohn’s disease (CD) presenting as gastric outlet obstruction is rare but serious clinical presentation of CD causing severe morbidity. However, there have been few case reports concerning this disorder in East Asian children and adolescents. The current case report describes 2 pediatric patients with CD who had had gastric outlet obstruction as an initial symptom of CD. Two pediatric patients developed postprandial vomiting, bloating, and unintentional weight loss. The upper endoscopy result indicated that there was pyloric obstruction with mucosal edema, inflammation and ulcers. The serologic test and colonoscopy results suggested CD. These patients were treated with infliximab, and endoscopic balloon dilation without surgery and showed remarkable improvement in obstructing symptoms with maintaining clinical and biochemical remission. This case report elucidates the benefits of early intervention using infliximab and endoscopic balloon dilation to improve gastric outlet obstruction and achieve baseline recovery in patients with upper gastrointestinal B2 phenotype of CD.

5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 470-473, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904258

ABSTRACT

Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) can cause leakage of lymphatic fluids into the gastrointestinal tract, eventually leading to protein-losing enteropathy. A 15-year-old male patient, whose disease began at the age of 8 years, recently felt worsening general weakness. After diagnosing abnormal lymphatic lesions in the duodenum through endoscopy with biopsy and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance lymphangiography, glue embolization of the leaking duodenal lymphatic channel was successfully performed. This procedure is typically reserved for adult patients, although as shown in this case, it can be properly performed in children. His serum albumin level was initially 1.5 g/dL, but elevated to 5.0 g/dL after two sessions of lymphatic embolization. Accordingly, we suggest that embolization could potentially be considered a first-line treatment for focal lesions of primary intestinal IL.

6.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 608-614, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904240

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to investigate clinical outcomes between top-down (TD) and conventional step-up (SU) therapies in pediatric patients with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis (UC). @*Materials and Methods@#All patients underwent clinical and endoscopic evaluation at diagnosis and 4 months and 1 year after treatment. Patients who started treatment with corticosteroid were grouped in the SU group, while those that initiated early infliximab (IFX) were grouped in the TD group. Among the SU group, patients who eventually changed to IFX treatment due to steroid resistance or dependency were included in the SU(R) group. @*Results@#In total, 44 children with moderate to severe UC were included for analysis. Twenty-one patients were included in the SU group, 23 were included in the TD group, and 10 were enrolled in the SU(R) group. Relapse rates were 47.6% (10/21) in the SU group and 17.4% (4/23) in the TD group (p=0.033). Among relapsed patients, the durations from remission to relapse were 17.3 months (0.9–46.9) in the SU group and 24.3 months (1.8–44.9) in the TD group. There was no statistically significant difference in the sustained durations of remission after IFX administration between the SU(R) and TD groups [3.9 (1.4–6.3) and 2.3 (0.3–5.2) years, respectively (p>0.05)]. @*Conclusion@#According to our study, early use of IFX without corticosteroid treatment for children with moderate to severe UC helps to lower relapse rates. We also found that IFX was a very effective treatment for pediatric UC, with a sustained duration of remission similar between TD and SU(R) groups.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903595

ABSTRACT

With the increasing incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children and its impact throughout life, transition care has become an important issue. In Korea, no guidelines have been proposed to support the transition from the pediatric clinic to the adult IBD clinic. This paper reviews the current issues related to IBD patient care during the transition from pediatrics to adults to identify the barriers and critical elements for a successful transition. Thus far, a multi-disciplinary pediatric/adult clinic or alternate visits between pediatric and adult health care providers is the best model for pediatric to adult IBD clinics. Self-reliance and independence of patients with pediatric IBD are also essential for a successful transition. In addition, the timing of the transition from a pediatric clinic to an adult IBD clinic should not be determined because the issue is not the chronological age but rather the individual maturity.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902203

ABSTRACT

It is necessary to reflect on the question, “How to prepare for medical education after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?” Although we are preparing for the era of Education 4.0 in line with the 4th industrial revolution of artificial intelligence and big data, most measures are focused on the methodologies of transferring knowledge; essential innovation is not being addressed. What is fundamentally needed in medicine is insightful intelligence that can see the invisible. We should not create doctors who only prescribe antispasmodics for abdominal pain, or antiemetic drugs for vomiting. Good clinical reasoning is not based on knowledge alone. Insightology in medicine is based on experience through Bayesian reasoning and imagination through the theory of mind. This refers to diagnosis of the whole, greater than the sum of its parts, by looking at the invisible using the Gestalt strategy. Identifying the missing process that links symptoms is essential. This missing process can be described in one word: context. An accurate diagnosis is possible only by understanding context, which can be done by standing in someone else’s shoes. From the viewpoint of medicine, Education 4.0 is worrisome because people are still clinging to methodology. The subject we should focus on is “human”, not “artificial” intelligence. We should first advance the “insightology in medicine” as a new paradigm, which is the “essence” that will never change even when rare “phenomena” such as the COVID-19 outbreak occur. For this reason, we should focus on teaching insightology in medicine, rather than teaching medical knowledge.

9.
Gut and Liver ; : 763-770, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898479

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We evaluated whether anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody (ASCA) titers are associated with diagnostic findings, disease activity, Paris classification phenotypes, and persistence after infliximab (IFX) treatment in children with Crohn’s disease (CD). We also investigated the role of ASCA as a predictor of mucosal healing (MH) and clinical remission (CR). @*Methods@#This study included 61 CD patients aged 19 years or younger who were diagnosed and treated between September 2010 and January 2019 and followed for at least 1 year. ASCA was regularly measured at the diagnosis of CD and at least 1 year after IFX therapy. @*Results@#The average follow-up period was 3.8±3.4 years (range, 1.0 to 7.2 years). Regression analysis showed that the ASCA titer was the only factor associated with Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn's Disease (SES-CD) or CR among all the parameters. In patients who had achieved MH (SES-CD=0), ASCA immunoglobulin G (IgG) was not associated with MH, but in patients without MH, ASCA IgG was associated with SES-CD (p=0.005) and CR (p<0.001). The cutoff value of ASCA IgG in patients with CR was 21.8 units. However, there was no difference in the relapse rate between the ASCA IgG-positive and -negative groups during the follow-up period. @*Conclusions@#In patients who have not achieved MH, ASCA IgG is closely related to mucosal damage and CR. Unlike Western studies, ASCA IgG may be more helpful in predicting prognosis than immunoglobulin A in Korean patients, but it is not an appropriate indicator to predict the relapse of CD.

10.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 470-473, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896554

ABSTRACT

Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) can cause leakage of lymphatic fluids into the gastrointestinal tract, eventually leading to protein-losing enteropathy. A 15-year-old male patient, whose disease began at the age of 8 years, recently felt worsening general weakness. After diagnosing abnormal lymphatic lesions in the duodenum through endoscopy with biopsy and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance lymphangiography, glue embolization of the leaking duodenal lymphatic channel was successfully performed. This procedure is typically reserved for adult patients, although as shown in this case, it can be properly performed in children. His serum albumin level was initially 1.5 g/dL, but elevated to 5.0 g/dL after two sessions of lymphatic embolization. Accordingly, we suggest that embolization could potentially be considered a first-line treatment for focal lesions of primary intestinal IL.

11.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 608-614, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896536

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to investigate clinical outcomes between top-down (TD) and conventional step-up (SU) therapies in pediatric patients with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis (UC). @*Materials and Methods@#All patients underwent clinical and endoscopic evaluation at diagnosis and 4 months and 1 year after treatment. Patients who started treatment with corticosteroid were grouped in the SU group, while those that initiated early infliximab (IFX) were grouped in the TD group. Among the SU group, patients who eventually changed to IFX treatment due to steroid resistance or dependency were included in the SU(R) group. @*Results@#In total, 44 children with moderate to severe UC were included for analysis. Twenty-one patients were included in the SU group, 23 were included in the TD group, and 10 were enrolled in the SU(R) group. Relapse rates were 47.6% (10/21) in the SU group and 17.4% (4/23) in the TD group (p=0.033). Among relapsed patients, the durations from remission to relapse were 17.3 months (0.9–46.9) in the SU group and 24.3 months (1.8–44.9) in the TD group. There was no statistically significant difference in the sustained durations of remission after IFX administration between the SU(R) and TD groups [3.9 (1.4–6.3) and 2.3 (0.3–5.2) years, respectively (p>0.05)]. @*Conclusion@#According to our study, early use of IFX without corticosteroid treatment for children with moderate to severe UC helps to lower relapse rates. We also found that IFX was a very effective treatment for pediatric UC, with a sustained duration of remission similar between TD and SU(R) groups.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895891

ABSTRACT

With the increasing incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children and its impact throughout life, transition care has become an important issue. In Korea, no guidelines have been proposed to support the transition from the pediatric clinic to the adult IBD clinic. This paper reviews the current issues related to IBD patient care during the transition from pediatrics to adults to identify the barriers and critical elements for a successful transition. Thus far, a multi-disciplinary pediatric/adult clinic or alternate visits between pediatric and adult health care providers is the best model for pediatric to adult IBD clinics. Self-reliance and independence of patients with pediatric IBD are also essential for a successful transition. In addition, the timing of the transition from a pediatric clinic to an adult IBD clinic should not be determined because the issue is not the chronological age but rather the individual maturity.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894499

ABSTRACT

It is necessary to reflect on the question, “How to prepare for medical education after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?” Although we are preparing for the era of Education 4.0 in line with the 4th industrial revolution of artificial intelligence and big data, most measures are focused on the methodologies of transferring knowledge; essential innovation is not being addressed. What is fundamentally needed in medicine is insightful intelligence that can see the invisible. We should not create doctors who only prescribe antispasmodics for abdominal pain, or antiemetic drugs for vomiting. Good clinical reasoning is not based on knowledge alone. Insightology in medicine is based on experience through Bayesian reasoning and imagination through the theory of mind. This refers to diagnosis of the whole, greater than the sum of its parts, by looking at the invisible using the Gestalt strategy. Identifying the missing process that links symptoms is essential. This missing process can be described in one word: context. An accurate diagnosis is possible only by understanding context, which can be done by standing in someone else’s shoes. From the viewpoint of medicine, Education 4.0 is worrisome because people are still clinging to methodology. The subject we should focus on is “human”, not “artificial” intelligence. We should first advance the “insightology in medicine” as a new paradigm, which is the “essence” that will never change even when rare “phenomena” such as the COVID-19 outbreak occur. For this reason, we should focus on teaching insightology in medicine, rather than teaching medical knowledge.

15.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834135

ABSTRACT

The musculoskeletal system can be involved as an extra-intestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease. Among these, myositis in ulcerative colitis (UC) is very rare. A 14-year-old girl was admitted due to severe shoulder tenderness. She had complained of left jaw pain and swelling for the past 10 days. Inflammatory markers were elevated with no evidence of infectious etiology. Myositis was suspected by shoulder magnetic resonance imaging. Three days after admission, she developed hematochezia. Muscle biopsy and colonoscopy was performed due to worsening left mandibular area pain and persistent hematochezia. Colonoscopy showed consistent findings with UC. She was finally diagnosed with UC with myositis as an extra-intestinal manifestation. She showed a dramatic response to UC treatment. Gastrointestinal symptoms were well-controlled. After 14 months, UC symptoms and muscle pain were aggravated, which were relieved after steroid and cyclosporin treatment. We report a unique case of UC initially presented with myositis, preceding gastrointestinal symptoms.

16.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 542-546, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833355

ABSTRACT

Activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ syndrome (APDS)1 is caused by gain-of-function mutations in PIK3CD, which encodes the catalytic p110δ subunit of phosphoinositide 3 kinase. We describe three patients with APDS1, the first thereof in Korea. Therein, we investigated clinical manifestations of APDS1 and collected data on the efficacy and safety profile of sirolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor and pathway-specific targeted medicine. The same heterozygous PIK3CD mutation was detected in all three patients (E1021K). After genetic diagnosis, all patients received sirolimus and experienced an excellent response, including amelioration of lymphoproliferation and improvement of nodular mucosal lymphoid hyperplasia in the gastrointestinal tract. The median trough level of sirolimus was 5.5 ng/mL (range, 2.8–7.5) at a dose of 2.6–3.6 mg/m2. Two patients who needed highdose, short-interval, immunoglobulin-replacement treatment (IGRT) had a reduced requirement for IGRT after initiating sirolimus, and the dosing interval was extended from 2 and 3 weeks to 4 weeks. The IgG trough level after sirolimus treatment (median, 594 mg/dL; range, 332–799 mg/dL) was significantly higher than that before sirolimus treatment (median, 290 mg/dL; range, 163–346 mg/dL) (p<0.001). One episode of elevated serum creatinine with a surge of sirolimus (Patient 2) and episodes of neutropenia and oral stomatitis (Patient 1) were observed. We diagnosed the first three patients with APDS1 in Korea. Low-dose sirolimus may alleviate clinical manifestations thereof, including hypogammaglobulinemia.

17.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832103

ABSTRACT

In children and adolescents, acute pancreatitis is a rare cause of abdominal pain.The causes of pancreatitis in children are various including infection and drugs, but the overall cause of this condition in a pediatric patient is sometimes unknown. We describe a case of Burkitt lymphoma which showed acute pancreatitis findings as an initial presentation. In this case, a 16-year-old boy presented with abdominal pain in the left upper quadrant that had been present for one month. Pancreatitis was suspected due to high amylase and lipase and the computed tomography findings in the patient, which showed swelling and adjacent infiltration of the pancreas. However, initial treatments did not improve the patient’s symptoms. The following imaging studies showed mass-like lesions involving the pancreas, distal duodenum and jejunum associated with mesenteric lymphadenopathy that suggested a lymphoma in this case. In the final analysis, the patient was diagnosed with Burkitt lymphoma which was seen on bone marrow biopsies and also found on the small bowel tissue biopsies.

18.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831491

ABSTRACT

Background@#Limited data exist regarding mucosal healing (MH) and therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) patients treated with adalimumab (ADL). We aimed to investigate the associations between ADL trough levels (TLs) and MH, and between ADL TLs and histologic remission (HR) at 16 weeks from ADL treatment in pediatric CD patients. @*Methods@#This was a prospective study on moderate-to-severe luminal pediatric CD patients receiving ADL. Ileocolonoscopies and biopsies, as well as clinical activity assessments, laboratory examinations, including tests for ADL TLs and antibody to ADL, were performed 16 weeks after ADL initiation. MH was defined as a Simple Endoscopic Score for CD of 0. HR was defined as the complete absence of microscopic inflammation. @*Results@#Seventeen subjects (13 males, 4 females) were included. At 16 weeks from ADL initiation, 14 (82.4%), 8 (47.1%), and 4 (23.5%) patients achieved clinical remission, MH, and HR, respectively. ADL TLs were significantly higher in patients who achieved MH compared to those who did not (13.0 ± 6.5 vs. 6.2 ± 2.6 μg/mL, respectively; P = 0.023) and also significantly higher in patients who achieved HR compared to those who did not (17.9 ± 5.3 vs. 6.8 ± 2.5 μg/mL, respectively; P = 0.02). The optimal TL for predicting MH was 8.76 μg/mL. @*Conclusion@#Serum ADL TLs at 16 weeks were significantly higher in pediatric patients with CD who achieved MH and HR, respectively. TDM may guide in optimizing treatment efficacy and better target MH in the era of treat-to-target.

19.
Gut and Liver ; : 541-548, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763872

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Infliximab (IFX) often loses its therapeutic effect in initial responders with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) over time. Low serum IFX trough levels (TLs) are linked to poor clinical response and outcomes. Maintenance of optimal therapeutic IFX concentrations is important for sustaining response and achieving good clinical outcomes. Measurement of serum IFX TLs is helpful for determining a further proper therapeutic plan. However, adequate therapeutic IFX TLs in pediatric IBD is uncertain. We aimed to identify the cutoff values for IFX TLs associated with laboratory response to IFX maintenance therapy. METHODS: Patients with pediatric IBD who had received IFX infusions between December 2008 and March 2015 at Samsung Medical Center were retrospectively investigated. We analyzed 239 blood samples that were collected from 103 pediatric patients. We measured IFX TLs at induction (6 and 14 weeks) and during maintenance therapy (>22 weeks, 8 weeks interval) by fluid-phase radioimmunoassays. RESULTS: A significant association was found between the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and IFX TLs during maintenance (correlation coefficient, −0.11; p=0.0005). A cutoff value of 18 mm/hr for ESR was used to define higher levels. Receiver operating characteristic analysis identified optimal cutoff values: IFX TL >1.58 μg/mL (sensitivity 82% and specificity 73%). CONCLUSIONS: Cutoff values are considered a prerequisite for further investigating the clinical usefulness of measurements of IFX in patients maintained with IFX treatment.


Subject(s)
Blood Sedimentation , Drug Monitoring , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Infliximab , Radioimmunoassay , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719604

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Abernethy malformation is a rare condition, which was first described in 1793 as a congenital extrahepatic porto-systemic shunt (CEPS) directing splanchnic blood flow into the inferior vena cava. Eighty cases have been published so far that reported CEPS, while in Korea, very few cases have been reported. Through this study, we present 6 cases of patients diagnosed with CEPS at Samsung Medical Center and compare these with other such cases published in France and China. METHODS: We reviewed clinical, laboratory, and imaging data of 6 children with CEPS in our pediatric clinic between 2004 and 2017. RESULTS: A total of 6 children with CEPS was included in this study, namely, one with type 1a, two with type 1b, and three with type 2 CEPS. The most common presenting symptom was gastrointestinal bleeding (50.0%). Therapeutic interventions included shunting vessel ligation (16.7%) in type 2 CEPS and liver transplantation (16.7%) in type 2 CEPS patient with suddenly developed hepatic encephalopathy. CONCLUSION: There is no consensus guideline for the optimal management of patients with CEPS. Large-sample studies regarding CEPS are needed to evaluate the characteristics of patients with CEPS and determine the treatment guideline for CEPS.


Subject(s)
Child , China , Consensus , France , Hemorrhage , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Humans , Korea , Ligation , Liver Transplantation , Vena Cava, Inferior
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