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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 365-371, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927130

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the therapeutic effects and safety of oral spironolactone (SPRL) in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). @*Materials and Methods@#The medical records and imaging data of patients diagnosed with CSC and treated with SPRL were retrospectively reviewed. Central macular thickness (CMT), subretinal fluid (SRF) height, subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT), and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at baseline, at 1, 3, and 6 months, and at the last visit after the treatment were analyzed. @*Results@#In total, 103 patients with 107 eyes were included. The mean age of the patients was 51.5±9.3 years, and 77 (72.0%) were male. The mean follow-up duration was 48.6±40.2 weeks. The mean duration of oral SPRL therapy was 15.5±13.4 weeks. CMT, SRF height, and SFCT improved significantly at 1, 3, and 6 months after SPRL therapy and at the last follow-up. BCVA, however, showed no significant change at any time point. The rate of complete resolution of SRF at 1 month was higher in those with chronic CSC than in those with acute CSC (21.1% vs. 6.0%, respectively). Recurrence occurred in 14 (13.1%) eyes after the complete resolution of SRF. Older age (p=0.001), a greater number of previous intravitreal bevacizumab injections (p=0.006), and poor initial visual acuity (p=0.048) were associated with recurrence. No permanent adverse effects were observed. @*Conclusion@#Oral SPRL showed therapeutic benefits in patients with CSC in terms of SRF resolution, but relatively frequent recurrence was observed, especially in older patients.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925898

ABSTRACT

Background@#The urinary levels of volatile organic compound (VOC) metabolites provide individual exposure levels compared to data obtained by measuring these compounds in ambient air. We aimed to investigate the association between personal urinary concentrations of VOC metabolites and symptoms of atopic dermatitis in schoolchildren. @*Methods@#Nine urinary VOC metabolites were analyzed from urine samples of 149 children. Diagnosis of atopic dermatitis was determined using standardized questionnaires. Pediatricians visited the schools and rated the severity of symptoms using the SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) in all children. @*Results@#Forty-five children (30.2%) had atopic dermatitis based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) results and 35 children (23.8%) had symptoms of atopic dermatitis with positive SCORAD index values (defined as SCORAD ≥ 5). Children with benzylmercapturic acid detected in personal urines were associated with presence of atopic dermatitis and positive SCORAD index values. Children in the highest quartile of mandelic acid concentration were associated with presence of atopic dermatitis and positive SCORAD results. @*Conclusion@#Personal exposure to VOCs, as indicated by urinary levels of VOC metabolites, was associated with presence of atopic dermatitis and the SCORAD index value.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925517

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Pancreatic enzyme reflux into the biliary tract is associated with chronic inflammation and increased cellular proliferation in the biliary epithelium, leading to biliary carcinoma. We evaluated the relationship between high bile juice amylase levels and biliary microflora in patients with malignant gallbladder lesions. @*Methods@#In this retrospective study, 25 gallbladder specimens were obtained from patients with gallbladder cancer to evaluate amylase levels and perform bacterial culture. The samples were divided into high and low amylase groups and culture-positive and negative groups for analysis. Bile juice amylase 3 times higher than the normal serum amylase level (36–128 IU/L) was considered high. @*Results@#The number of positive cultures was higher in the high amylase group than in the low amylase group, but the difference was insignificant. There were no differences in other clinicopathological factors. Sixteen patients showed positive culture results; Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. were the most common gram-negative bacteria, whereas Enterococcus and Streptococcus spp. were the most common gram-positive bacteria. Age and bile juice amylase levels were significantly higher in the culture-positive group than in the culture-negative group. The incidence of bacterial resistance to cephalosporins was 6.25%–35.29%, and this incidence was particularly high for lower-generation cephalosporins. @*Conclusion@#Bacteria in gallbladder were identified more frequently when the amylase level was high. High amylase levels in the gallbladder can be associated with caused chronic bacterial infections with occult pancreaticobiliary reflux, potentially triggering gallbladder cancer

4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918132

ABSTRACT

In severe acute pancreatitis, accompanied by local complications such as acute peripancreatic fluid collection, pancreatic pseudocyst, acute necrotic collection and walled-off necrosis, the mortality rate is as high as 12-25%. In many cases, interventional procedure or surgical treatment are required at an appropriate time. Conservative treatment is considered for acute peripancreatic fluid collection. Endoscopic drainage could be considered preferentially for the treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts with clinical symptoms or complications. In the case of necrotizing pancreatitis, conservative treatment is preferred, but therapeutic intervention should be considered if infectious pancreatic necrosis with clinical deterioration is suspected. For therapeutic intervention, it is recommended to proceed with a step-up approach in which drainage is first performed and, if necessary, necrosectomy is performed. The optimal timing of intervention is considered 4 weeks after the onset of pancreatitis when necrosis become walled-off, but early drainage within 4 weeks can be considered depending on the patient's condition. This guideline provides an overview of current treatment strategies for local complications of acute pancreatitis.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903715

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Real-world, clinical practice data are lacking about sofosbuvir/ ribavirin (SOF/RBV) treatment of Korean patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 2 (HCV GT2) infection. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of SOF/RBV in Korean patients with HCV GT2 infection and clinical factors predicting sustained virological response 12 weeks (SVR12) after the end of SOF/RBV treatment. @*Methods@#A total of 181 patients with HCV GT2 with/without cirrhosis were treated with SOF/RBV for 16/12 weeks. Rapid virological response (RVR) was defined as non-detectable HCV RNA at 4 weeks. @*Results@#The RVR rate was 80.7% (146/181), the end of treatment response rate was 97.8% (177/181) and the SVR12 rate was 92.8% (168/181). Of eight patients with relapse, four did not achieve RVR. Three patients had a history of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Multivariable analysis showed that RVR (p = 0.015) and no previous history of HCC (p = 0.007) were associated with SVR12. Factors significantly contributing to RVR included cirrhosis, creatinine concentration, and pre-treatment HCV RNA level. SVR12 rate was significantly higher in RVR (+) than RVR (–) patients (95.2% vs. 82.9%, p = 0.011) and also significantly higher in patients without than with a history of HCC (94.1% vs. 72.7%, p = 0.008). During treatment, 80/181 patients (44.2%) experienced mild to moderate adverse events, with 32 (17.7%) requiring RBV dose reductions due to anemia. @*Conclusions@#SOF/RBV treatment was effective and tolerable in HCV GT2 patients. RVR and no previous history of HCC were positive predictors of SVR12.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873542

ABSTRACT

@#Objective    To investigate the safety and feasibility of laryngeal mask general anesthesia as a replacement of tracheal intubation general anesthesia in the "three-port" thoracoscopic thymectomy via subxiphoid and subcostal arch for thymoma patients without myasthenia. Methods    From January 2018 to June 2019, clinical data of patients with thymoma who underwent the novel "three-port" operation in our institution were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups according to the anesthesia methods, including a tracheal intubation general anesthesia group and a laryngeal mask general anesthesia group. There were 70 patients in the tracheal intubation general anesthesia group, including 42 males and 28 females, with an average age of 45.83±15.89 years. There were 39 patients in the laryngeal mask general anesthesia group, including 26 males and 13 females, with an average age of 43.31±15.64 years. The clinical data of the two groups were compared. Results    The baseline characteristics of the patients in the two groups were well balanced (P>0.05). No massive bleeding, conversion to thoracotomy, postoperative myasthenia or death occurred in those patients. No patient with laryngeal mask anesthesia had a conversion to tracheal intubation anesthesia during the operation. There was no significant difference in the operation time, intraoperative bleeding, intraoperative maximum partial pressure of CO2, lowest partial pressure of oxygen and anesthesia effect score between the two groups (P>0.05). There was also no statistical difference in postoperative aspiration, gastrointestinal discomfort, length of hospital stay, pain score and patient satisfaction degree between the two groups (P>0.05). However, the anesthesia time before operation and the time of awake after anesthesia in the laryngeal mask anesthesia group were significantly shorter than those in the tracheal intubation general anesthesia group (P<0.05), and the incidence of transient arrhythmia, laryngeal discomfort and hoarseness in the laryngeal mask general anesthesia group was significantly lower than that in the tracheal intubation general anesthesia group (P<0.05). Conclusion    The "three-port" thoracoscopic thymectomy via subxiphoid and subcostal arch under laryngeal mask general anesthesia is safe and feasible in the treatment of thymoma without myasthenia, and can be recommended routinely.

7.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 563-2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886785

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) on the expression of interleukin (IL)-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in mice with ischemia-reperfusion acute kidney injury (IR-AKI). Methods All mice were randomly divided into the sham operation group (control group), ischemia-reperfusion injury group (IRI group) and BMSC treatment group (BMSC group), with 6 mice in each group, respectively. The renal function and pathological changes of mice were detected. The cell apoptosis of renal tissues of mice was determined. The expression levels of serum IL-10 and TNF-α of mice were quantitatively measured. The mouse BMSC was randomly divided into the control and hypoxia-reoxygenation groups (IRI group), and the expression levels of IL-10 and TNF-α in cell supernatant were determined. Results The renal structure of mice was normal in the control group, severe damage was observed in the IRI group, and mild damage occurred in the BMSC group. Compared with the control group, the renal tissue injury scores were significantly higher in the IRI and BMSC groups (both P < 0.05). Compared with the IRI group, the renal tissue injury score was significantly lower in the BMSC group (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the levels of serum creatinine (Scr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were remarkably up-regulated in the IRI group, and the level of BUN was significantly up-regulated in the BMSC group (all P < 0.05). Compared with the IRI group, the levels of Scr and BUN were significantly down-regulated in the BMSC group (both P < 0.05). In the IRI group, the quantity of apoptotic cells in the renal tissues was considerably higher than those in the BMSC and control groups, and the quantity of apoptotic cells in the BMSC group was significantly higher than that in the control group (all P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the levels of serum IL-10 and TNF-α were significantly up-regulated in the IRI group, whereas the level of serum TNF-α was significantly down-regulated and the level of serum IL-10 was significantly up-regulated in the BMSC group (all P < 0.05). Compared with the IRI group, the levels of serum IL-10 and TNF-α were significantly down-regulated in the BMSC group (both P < 0.05). The levels of IL-10 and TNF-α in the cell supernatant did not significantly differ between the IRI and control groups (P=0.080、0.627). Conclusions BMSC infusion may reduce the incidence of renal IRI and inflammation, probably via the mechanism of down-regulating TNF-α expression rather than up-regulating IL-10 expression.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897943

ABSTRACT

Background@#The advancement of computer information technology would maximize its potential in operating rooms with touchless input devices. A picture archiving and communication system (PACS) was compared with a touchless input device (LMC-GW), relaying to another person to control a mouse through verbal guidance, and directly controlling a mouse. @*Methods@#Participants (n = 34; mean age, 29.6 years) were prospectively enrolled and given nine scenarios to compare the three methods. Each scenario consisted of eight tasks, which required 6 essential functions of PACS. Time elapsed and measurement values were recorded for objective evaluation, while subjective evaluation was conducted with a questionnaire. @*Results@#In all 8 tasks, manipulation using the mouse took significantly less time than the other methods (all p < 0.05). Study selection, panning, zooming, scrolling, distance measuring, and leg length measurement took significantly less time when LMC-GW was used compared to relaying to another person (all p < 0.01), whereas there were no significant differences in time required for measuring the angles and windowing. Although the touchless input device provided higher accessibility and lower contamination risk, it was more difficult to handle than the other input methods (all p < 0.01). @*Conclusions@#The touchless input device provided superior or equal performance to the method of verbal instruction in the environment of operating room. Surgeons agreed that the device would be helpful for manipulating PACS in operating rooms with less contamination risk and disturbance of workflow. The touchless input device can be an alternative option for direct manipulation of a mouse in operation rooms in the future.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896011

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Real-world, clinical practice data are lacking about sofosbuvir/ ribavirin (SOF/RBV) treatment of Korean patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 2 (HCV GT2) infection. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of SOF/RBV in Korean patients with HCV GT2 infection and clinical factors predicting sustained virological response 12 weeks (SVR12) after the end of SOF/RBV treatment. @*Methods@#A total of 181 patients with HCV GT2 with/without cirrhosis were treated with SOF/RBV for 16/12 weeks. Rapid virological response (RVR) was defined as non-detectable HCV RNA at 4 weeks. @*Results@#The RVR rate was 80.7% (146/181), the end of treatment response rate was 97.8% (177/181) and the SVR12 rate was 92.8% (168/181). Of eight patients with relapse, four did not achieve RVR. Three patients had a history of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Multivariable analysis showed that RVR (p = 0.015) and no previous history of HCC (p = 0.007) were associated with SVR12. Factors significantly contributing to RVR included cirrhosis, creatinine concentration, and pre-treatment HCV RNA level. SVR12 rate was significantly higher in RVR (+) than RVR (–) patients (95.2% vs. 82.9%, p = 0.011) and also significantly higher in patients without than with a history of HCC (94.1% vs. 72.7%, p = 0.008). During treatment, 80/181 patients (44.2%) experienced mild to moderate adverse events, with 32 (17.7%) requiring RBV dose reductions due to anemia. @*Conclusions@#SOF/RBV treatment was effective and tolerable in HCV GT2 patients. RVR and no previous history of HCC were positive predictors of SVR12.

10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893363

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of intravitreal dexamethasone implant in non-infectious uveitis (divided into anterior, intermediate, posterior, and panuveitis types). @*Methods@#The medical records of patients who received intravitreal dexamethasone implants between June 2013 and January 2018 at a tertiary referral hospital were analyzed retrospectively. @*Results@#A total of 38 eyes of 36 patients were included. All patients were diagnosed with non-infectious uveitis and received intravitreal dexamethasone implants. The mean age was 55.6 years, and 18 (50.0%) patients were male. In total, 6 (15.8%) eyes were diagnosed with anterior uveitis, 5 (13.2%) with intermediate uveitis, 16 (42.1%) with posterior uveitis, and 11 (28.9%) with panuveitis. Patients with all types of uveitis showed significant improvement in clinical outcomes after intravitreal dexamethasone implant. Three eyes showed increased intraocular pressure, while four showed cataract progression and thus received cataract extraction after injection. Seventeen (44.7%) eyes relapsed an average of 1.18 ± 0.39 times and received additional treatments. @*Conclusions@#Non-infectious uveitis patients showed significant improvement in clinical outcomes after intravitreal dexamethasone implant injection. However, care is required during injection due to the risk of recurrence, as well as side effects such as increased intraocular pressure and cataract progression.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893083

ABSTRACT

Pediatric ankle fractures are defined as damage to the metaphysis, epiphyseal plate, and epiphysis of the distal tibia and fibula. Although the injury mechanism could be similar, the fracture patterns and treatment of pediatric ankle fractures are different from those of adults. In children, growth plate injuries are more common with a force that would cause sprains in adults because the ligaments are stronger than the growth plate cartilage in children. In the adolescent period, unique fractures, called “transitional fractures”, occur while the physis is closed. For a diagnosis, plain images of the anteroposterior, lateral, and mortise views are essential. Stress radiographs, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging can be used for suspected ligament injuries. The treatment goal is to restore the articular congruity, normal bony alignment, and preserve the epiphyseal plate to ensure normal growth. Pediatric ankle fractures frequently lead to premature physeal arrest, angular deformities, malunion, and posttraumatic arthritis even after anatomic reduction. Treating surgeons should follow-up children for a sufficient time and explain to the caregiver the possible complications before treatment.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890239

ABSTRACT

Background@#The advancement of computer information technology would maximize its potential in operating rooms with touchless input devices. A picture archiving and communication system (PACS) was compared with a touchless input device (LMC-GW), relaying to another person to control a mouse through verbal guidance, and directly controlling a mouse. @*Methods@#Participants (n = 34; mean age, 29.6 years) were prospectively enrolled and given nine scenarios to compare the three methods. Each scenario consisted of eight tasks, which required 6 essential functions of PACS. Time elapsed and measurement values were recorded for objective evaluation, while subjective evaluation was conducted with a questionnaire. @*Results@#In all 8 tasks, manipulation using the mouse took significantly less time than the other methods (all p < 0.05). Study selection, panning, zooming, scrolling, distance measuring, and leg length measurement took significantly less time when LMC-GW was used compared to relaying to another person (all p < 0.01), whereas there were no significant differences in time required for measuring the angles and windowing. Although the touchless input device provided higher accessibility and lower contamination risk, it was more difficult to handle than the other input methods (all p < 0.01). @*Conclusions@#The touchless input device provided superior or equal performance to the method of verbal instruction in the environment of operating room. Surgeons agreed that the device would be helpful for manipulating PACS in operating rooms with less contamination risk and disturbance of workflow. The touchless input device can be an alternative option for direct manipulation of a mouse in operation rooms in the future.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922400

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the consistency between nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in pathogen detection in children with pneumonia@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the data of pathogens detected in 533 children with pneumonia from February 2017 to March 2020. The paired McNemar's test was used to compare the difference in pathogen detection between NPA and BALF groups. The @*RESULTS@#NPA had a sensitivity of 28%, a specificity of 74%, a positive predictive value of 14%, and a negative predictive value of 91% in detecting bacteria, and a @*CONCLUSIONS@#There is poor consistency between NPA and BALF in the detection of bacteria and viruses, and clinicians should be cautious in diagnosing lower respiratory tract infection based on bacteria or viruses detected in NPA. There is moderate consistency between NPA and BALF in the detection of


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Child , Humans , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Respiratory Tract Infections , Retrospective Studies
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918944

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#There have been few multicenter studies on colonic polyps conducted by primary medical institutions. This study examined the detection rate of colonic polyps in primary health care institutions and the related factors while following the guidelines. @*Methods@#The medical records of 14,029 patients who underwent colonoscopy between January-June 2020 at 40 primary medical institutions in Korea were analyzed. High-risk adenoma was defined as advanced adenoma, carcinoma, or ≥3 adenomas. @*Results@#Most patients (71.2%) aged ≥50 years underwent re-colonoscopy within 5 years (51.3%) for diagnostic purposes (61.3%) in Korean primary medical institutions. The detection rates of colon polyps, adenoma, advanced adenoma, high-risk adenoma, and carcinoma was 59.9%, 38.9%, 5.9%, 11.4%, and 0.3% in all subjects and 59.8%, 37.5%, 8.5%, 12.9%, and 0.3% in average-risk patients, respectively. The incidences of adenoma in average-risk patients increased significantly with age (30s/40s/50s: 20.1%/29.4%/43% for adenoma, 4.4%/6.7%/10.3% for advanced adenoma, and 5.6%/9.5%/14.6% for high-risk adenoma; p<0.05). Before 50 years of age, high-risk adenoma was detected in 9.1% of patients in the first-time screening group, and the significant risk factors were being male and ≥40 years of age. The detection rate of high-risk adenoma in the normal index colonoscopy group within 5 years was 9.0%. The significant risk factors included older age, male sex, positive fecal occult blood test, stool form changes, and nonspecific symptoms (gas and indigestion). @*Conclusions@#More colonic adenoma studies targeting real-world clinical practice will be needed to revise the Korean guidelines for colorectal cancer screening and surveillance.

15.
Singapore medical journal ; : 126-134, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877427

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#We aimed to assess the attitudes and learner needs of radiology residents and faculty radiologists regarding artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) in radiology.@*METHODS@#A web-based questionnaire, designed using SurveyMonkey, was sent out to residents and faculty radiologists in all three radiology residency programmes in Singapore. The questionnaire comprised four sections and aimed to evaluate respondents' current experience, attempts at self-learning, perceptions of career prospects and expectations of an AI/ML curriculum in their residency programme. Respondents' anonymity was ensured.@*RESULTS@#A total of 125 respondents (86 male, 39 female; 70 residents, 55 faculty radiologists) completed the questionnaire. The majority agreed that AI/ML will drastically change radiology practice (88.8%) and makes radiology more exciting (76.0%), and most would still choose to specialise in radiology if given a choice (80.0%). 64.8% viewed themselves as novices in their understanding of AI/ML, 76.0% planned to further advance their AI/ML knowledge and 67.2% were keen to get involved in an AI/ML research project. An overwhelming majority (84.8%) believed that AI/ML knowledge should be taught during residency, and most opined that this was as important as imaging physics and clinical skills/knowledge curricula (80.0% and 72.8%, respectively). More than half thought that their residency programme had not adequately implemented AI/ML teaching (59.2%). In subgroup analyses, male and tech-savvy respondents were more involved in AI/ML activities, leading to better technical understanding.@*CONCLUSION@#A growing optimism towards radiology undergoing technological transformation and AI/ML implementation has led to a strong demand for an AI/ML curriculum in residency education.

16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901067

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of intravitreal dexamethasone implant in non-infectious uveitis (divided into anterior, intermediate, posterior, and panuveitis types). @*Methods@#The medical records of patients who received intravitreal dexamethasone implants between June 2013 and January 2018 at a tertiary referral hospital were analyzed retrospectively. @*Results@#A total of 38 eyes of 36 patients were included. All patients were diagnosed with non-infectious uveitis and received intravitreal dexamethasone implants. The mean age was 55.6 years, and 18 (50.0%) patients were male. In total, 6 (15.8%) eyes were diagnosed with anterior uveitis, 5 (13.2%) with intermediate uveitis, 16 (42.1%) with posterior uveitis, and 11 (28.9%) with panuveitis. Patients with all types of uveitis showed significant improvement in clinical outcomes after intravitreal dexamethasone implant. Three eyes showed increased intraocular pressure, while four showed cataract progression and thus received cataract extraction after injection. Seventeen (44.7%) eyes relapsed an average of 1.18 ± 0.39 times and received additional treatments. @*Conclusions@#Non-infectious uveitis patients showed significant improvement in clinical outcomes after intravitreal dexamethasone implant injection. However, care is required during injection due to the risk of recurrence, as well as side effects such as increased intraocular pressure and cataract progression.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900787

ABSTRACT

Pediatric ankle fractures are defined as damage to the metaphysis, epiphyseal plate, and epiphysis of the distal tibia and fibula. Although the injury mechanism could be similar, the fracture patterns and treatment of pediatric ankle fractures are different from those of adults. In children, growth plate injuries are more common with a force that would cause sprains in adults because the ligaments are stronger than the growth plate cartilage in children. In the adolescent period, unique fractures, called “transitional fractures”, occur while the physis is closed. For a diagnosis, plain images of the anteroposterior, lateral, and mortise views are essential. Stress radiographs, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging can be used for suspected ligament injuries. The treatment goal is to restore the articular congruity, normal bony alignment, and preserve the epiphyseal plate to ensure normal growth. Pediatric ankle fractures frequently lead to premature physeal arrest, angular deformities, malunion, and posttraumatic arthritis even after anatomic reduction. Treating surgeons should follow-up children for a sufficient time and explain to the caregiver the possible complications before treatment.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915422

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study examined the relationship of infant feeding with anthropometric indices of children during their first six years of life relative to the Korean National Growth Charts (KNGC) and the World Health Organization Child Growth Standards (WHO-CGS). @*Methods@#The study population consisted of 547,669 Korean infants and children who were 6 months-old to 6 years-old (born in 2008–2009) and participated in the National Health Screening Program for Infants and Children. Data on height, weight, and type of feeding during the first 6 months (exclusively breastfed [BF] vs. mixed- or formula-fed [FF]) were analyzed. @*Results@#BF boys and girls were significantly shorter and lighter than FF counterparts from the age of 6 months to 4 years, but these differences were not significant after the age of 4 years. BF boys and girls only had significantly lower body mass index at the age of 2 years. Under the age of 2 years 6 months, and especially under the age of 1 year, BF boys and girls were significantly taller and heavier than the 50th percentile values of the 50th percentile value of the WHO-CGS. @*Conclusion@#In this study using large-scaled national data, Korean breastfed children are shorter and lighter by 3 years 6 months–4 years 6 months, but afterward, there is no significant difference from those who had mixed- or formula-feeding. Substantial disparities in the anthropometric indices of Korean infants under the age of 1 compared to KNCG and WHO-CGS were found, regardless of their infantile feeding types. Our results emphasize the importance of constructing a nationwide reference chart based on actual measurements of BF Korean infants.

19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 12-20, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875607

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a prognostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated the prognostic value of AFP levels in patients who achieved complete response (CR) to transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for HCC. @*Materials and Methods@#Between 2005 and 2018, 890 patients with HCC who achieved a CR to TACE were recruited. An AFP responder was defined as a patient who showed elevated levels of AFP (>10 ng/mL) during TACE, but showed normalization or a >50% reduction in AFP levels after achieving a CR. @*Results@#Among the recruited patients, 569 (63.9%) with naïve HCC and 321 (36.1%) with recurrent HCC after complete resection were treated. Before TACE, 305 (34.3%) patients had multiple tumors, 219 (24.6%) had a maximal tumor size >3 cm, and 22 (2.5%) had portal vein tumor thrombosis. The median AFP level after achieving a CR was 6.36 ng/mL. After a CR, 473 (53.1%) patients experienced recurrence, and 417 (46.9%) died [median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of 16.3 and 62.8 months, respectively]. High AFP levels at CR (>20 ng/mL) were independently associated with a shorter PFS [hazard ratio (HR)=1.403] and OS (HR=1.284), together with tumor multiplicity at TACE (HR=1.518 and 1.666, respectively). AFP non-responders at CR (76.2%, n=359 of 471) showed a shorter PFS (median 10.5 months vs. 15.5 months, HR=1.375) and OS (median 41.4 months vs. 61.8 months, HR=1.424) than AFP responders (all p=0.001). @*Conclusion@#High AFP levels and AFP non-responders were independently associated with poor outcomes after TACE. AFP holds clinical implications for detailed risk stratification upon achieving a CR after TACE.

20.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836794

ABSTRACT

Fenbendazole (FBZ) is a benzimidazole anthelmintic that has been widely used in treatments for gastrointestinal parasites including pinworms and roundworms in animals. Recently, some studies demonstrated that FBZ has anti-cancer effects related to disruption of microtubule polymerization. In this study, we investigated whether FBZ has anti-cancer activity in HL-60 cells, a human leukemia cell line, and assessed its relationship with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). FBZ treatment at 0.25–1 μM significantly decreased the metabolic activity of HL-60 cells. The mitochondrial membrane potential of FBZ-treated HL-60 cells decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. Apoptosis analysis using annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide staining demonstrated that 1 μM FBZ increased the percentages of cells in apoptosis and necrosis. In addition, Hoechst 33342 staining showed the presence of broken nuclei in HL-60 cells treated with 0.5 and 1 μM FBZ. To investigate the anti-cancer mechanism of FBZ, HL-60 cells were treated with FBZ in the absence or presence of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), an inhibitor of ROS production. NAC significantly recovered the decreased metabolic activity of HL-60 induced by 0.5 and 1 μM FBZ treatments. This study provides evidence that FBZ has anti-cancer activity in HL-60 cells provided, in part, via ROS production.

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