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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 298-312, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016639

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a serious impact on global public health and the economy. SARS-CoV-2 infiltrates host cells via its surface spike protein, which binds to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 on the host cell membrane. As a result, small molecules targeting spike protein have emerged as a hotspot in anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug research. Activity screening is an important step in seeking small molecule drugs. Therefore, this article aims to review the biological activity evaluation methods of small molecule inhibitors targeting SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, with the goal of laying the foundation for the discovery of new anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 543-553, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016618

ABSTRACT

Currently, clinically used drugs for the treatment of gout inflammation, such as colchicine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and glucocorticoids, can only relieve the pain of joint inflammation and have severe hepatorenal toxicity and multiple organ adverse reactions. The NOD-like receptor thermal protein domain associated protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a key complex that induces the onset of gout inflammation and has become a crucial target in the development of anti-gout drugs. This article reviews the research progress of anti-gout small molecules targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome and their bioactivity evaluation methods in the past five years, in order to provide information for the development of specific drugs for the treatment of gout inflammation.

3.
International Eye Science ; (12): 580-584, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012825

ABSTRACT

The global prevalence of myopia is increasing year by year, leading to many ocular health issues and social problems. In recent years, it has been confirmed that peripheral defocus is closely related to the occurrence and development of myopia. Alteration of the state of peripheral defocus can significantly influence the progression of myopia and emmetropization, but the exact mechanisms are still unclear. At present, there is no method that can completely control myopia. Nowadays, the main controlling methods, including orthokeratology lens, peripheral defocus lens and multi-focal soft lens, have been confirmed to be closely related to peripheral defocus. In this paper, we will review and summarize the development and effect of these peripheral defocus relating control methods. In addition, the researches on the related mechanisms of peripheral retinal defocus and myopia prevention and control at home and abroad are reviewed, as well as the potential mechanisms of peripheral defocus, with a view to further improving the controlling effects of existing methods, developing new prevention and control methods and reducing the incidence and progression of myopia.

4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 226-238, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008091

ABSTRACT

TCP family as plant specific transcription factor, plays an important role in different aspects of plant development. In order to screen TCP family members in tobacco, the homologous sequences of tobacco and Arabidopsis TCP family were identified by genome-wide homologous alignment. The physicochemical properties, phylogenetic relationships and cis-acting elements were analyzed by bioinformatics. The homologous genes of AtTCP3/AtTCP4 were screened, and RT-qPCR was used to detect the changes of gene expression upon 20% PEG6000 treatment. The results show that tobacco contains 63 TCP family members. Their amino acid sequence length ranged from 89 aa to 596 aa, and their protein hydropathicity grand average of hydropathicity (GRAVY) ranged from -1.147 to 0.125. The isoelectric point (pI) ranges from 4.42 to 9.94, the number of introns is 0 to 3, and the subcellular location is all located in the nucleus. The results of conserved domain and phylogenetic relationship analysis showed that the tobacco TCP family can be divided into PCF, CIN and CYC/TB1 subfamilies, and each subfamily has a stable sequence. The results of cis-acting elements in gene promoter region showed that TCP family genes contain low docile acting elements (LTR) and a variety of stress and metabolic regulation related elements (MYB, MYC). Analysis of gene expression patterns showed that AtTCP3/AtTCP4 homologous genes (NtTCP6, NtTCP28, NtTCP30, NtTCP33, NtTCP42, NtTCP57, NtTCP63) accounted for 20% PEG6000 treatment significantly up-regulated/down-regulated expression, and NtTCP30 and NtTCP57 genes were selected as candidate genes in response to drought. The results of this study analyzed the TCP family in the tobacco genome and provided candidate genes for the study of drought-resistance gene function and variety breeding in tobacco.


Subject(s)
Nicotiana/genetics , Phylogeny , Plant Breeding , Amino Acid Sequence , Arabidopsis , Polyethylene Glycols
5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 43-60, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005438

ABSTRACT

Influenza virus causes serious threat to human life and health. Due to the inherent high variability of influenza virus, clinically resistant mutant strains of currently approved anti-influenza virus drugs have emerged. Therefore, it is urgent to develop antiviral drugs with new targets or mechanisms of action. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is directly responsible for viral RNA transcription and replication, and plays key roles in the viral life cycle, which is considered an important target of anti-influenza drug design. From the point of view of medicinal chemistry, this review summarizes current advances in diverse small-molecule inhibitors targeting influenza virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, hoping to provide valuable reference for development of novel antiviral drugs.

6.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1533-1543, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010620

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with the impairment of white matter (WM) tracts. The current study aimed to verify the utility of WM as the neuroimaging marker of AD with multisite diffusion tensor imaging datasets [321 patients with AD, 265 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 279 normal controls (NC)], a unified pipeline, and independent site cross-validation. Automated fiber quantification was used to extract diffusion profiles along tracts. Random-effects meta-analyses showed a reproducible degeneration pattern in which fractional anisotropy significantly decreased in the AD and MCI groups compared with NC. Machine learning models using tract-based features showed good generalizability among independent site cross-validation. The diffusion metrics of the altered regions and the AD probability predicted by the models were highly correlated with cognitive ability in the AD and MCI groups. We highlighted the reproducibility and generalizability of the degeneration pattern of WM tracts in AD.


Subject(s)
Humans , White Matter/diagnostic imaging , Diffusion Tensor Imaging/methods , Alzheimer Disease/complications , Reproducibility of Results , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Brain/diagnostic imaging
7.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2203-2217, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999143

ABSTRACT

To address the continuous emergence of drug-resistant strains of viruses and the outbreaks of novel virus infections, developing new antiviral drugs based on novel strategies has become an important and urgent research topic. In recent years, the rapidly developing multi-specific binding strategy has become a focus and been widely applied in antiviral. This review summarizes the recent progress of the multi-specific binding strategy in the antiviral field from the perspective of medicinal chemistry and discusses existing challenges as well as future opportunities for antiviral drug discovery.

8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3270-3284, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999071

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B virus infection is a serious threat to human life and health. The approved anti-HBV drugs including interferons and nucleos(t)ide analogues have serious adverse effect, rebound phenomena after drug withdrawal, and drug resistance. And the cccDNA cannot be completely eliminated by both of them, which is the reason why a complete cure for hepatitis B cannot be achieved. Therefore, developing anti-HBV drugs directly targeting protein or nucleic acid of HBV remains a current public health priority. Based on the analysis of representative literature from the last decade, this article reviews recent developments in small molecule inhibitors directly targeting HBV from a medicinal chemistry perspective.

9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3254-3269, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999070

ABSTRACT

Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, two important glycoproteins on the surface of influenza virus, play a considerable role in the entry and release stage of the viral life cycle, respectively. With in-depth investigation of influenza virus glycoproteins and the continuous innovation of drug discovery strategies, a new generation of glycoproteins inhibitors have been continuously discovered. From the point of view of medicinal chemistry, this review summarizes the current advances in seeking small-molecule inhibitors targeting influenza virus glycoproteins, hoping to provide valuable guidance for future development of novel antiviral drugs.

10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3116-3122, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999055

ABSTRACT

The polymorphism and thermostability of nirmatrelvir, the main antiviral component of the oral COVID-19 treatment drug, were studied. Four polymorphs of nirmatrelvir were prepared by recrystallization methods. Among them, Form 1 and nirmatrelvir methyl tert-butyl ether solvate (Form 2) had been reported in the literature, while nirmatrelvir isobutyl acetate solvate (NMTW-IBAC) and nirmatrelvir ethyl acetate solvate (NMTW-EA) are two new solvates. The crystal structures were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The thermostability of polymorphism and crystalline transformation were also investigated by combining Hirshfeld surface analysis and interaction energy analysis. The results showed that nirmatrelvir Form 1 belongs orthorhombic crystal system with the space group P212121 and one nirmatrelvir molecule included in the asymmetric unit, which has the same crystal structure as nirmatrelvir Form 4 reported in the literature. Owing to its larger thermal expansion, the differences in crystallographic parameters obtained at different temperatures were found between Form 1 and Form 4. Three solvates of nirmatrelvir belonged to the iso-structural with monoclinic crystal system and the space group P21, in which the asymmetric unit contains one nirmatrelvir molecule and one solvent molecule. The thermal analysis results showed that nirmatrelvir Form 1 was a solvent-free crystal form with the best thermal stability and the strongest intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Among the three solvates, NMTW-EA has the worst thermal stability and the weakest hydrogen bonding interaction between the nirmatrelvir molecule and the solvent molecule. The energy framework of nirmatrelvir solvates showed that the closer the arrangement between solvent and nirmatrelvir molecules, the greater the total interaction energy between solvent and nirmatrelvir molecules. The phase transition studies of the three solvates showed that NMTW-IBAC and NMTW-EA were transformed into amorphous after desolvation, respectively, while Form 2 undergoes oiling during desolvation. The research provides theoretical guidance for the analysis, identification and quality control of nirmatrelvir polymorphs.

11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2979-2994, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999040

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) represents a significant global public health challenge. Despite the availability of several approved drugs for hepatitis B treatment, the persistence of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) renders HBV eradication elusive, thereby leading to disease relapse after drug withdrawal. This paper reviews the regulatory mechanisms of cccDNA formation, transcription and replication, and summarizes the research progress of related small molecule regulators from the perspective of medicinal chemistry.

12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2581-2600, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999009

ABSTRACT

As a common protease with high similarity among coronavirus species, the main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for the catalytic hydrolysis of viral precursor proteins into functional proteins, which is essential for coronavirus replication and is one of the ideal targets for the development of broad-spectrum antiviral drugs. This paper reviews the main protease inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2, including their molecular structures, potencies and drug-like profiles, binding modes and structure-activity relationships, etc.

13.
Chinese Journal of Digestive Endoscopy ; (12): 189-195, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995373

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate artificial intelligence constructed by deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) for the site identification in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.Methods:A total of 21 310 images of esophagogastroduodenoscopy from the Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from January 2019 to June 2021 were collected. A total of 19 191 images of them were used to construct site identification model, and the remaining 2 119 images were used for verification. The performance differences of two models constructed by DCCN in the identification of 30 sites of the upper digestive tract were compared. One model was the traditional ResNetV2 model constructed by Inception-ResNetV2 (ResNetV2), the other was a hybrid neural network RESENet model constructed by Inception-ResNetV2 and Squeeze-Excitation Networks (RESENet). The main indices were the accuracy, the sensitivity, the specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV).Results:The accuracy, the sensitivity, the specificity, PPV and NPV of ResNetV2 model in the identification of 30 sites of the upper digestive tract were 94.62%-99.10%, 30.61%-100.00%, 96.07%-99.56%, 42.26%-86.44% and 97.13%-99.75%, respectively. The corresponding values of RESENet model were 98.08%-99.95%, 92.86%-100.00%, 98.51%-100.00%, 74.51%-100.00% and 98.85%-100.00%, respectively. The mean accuracy, mean sensitivity, mean specificity, mean PPV and mean NPV of ResNetV2 model were 97.60%, 75.58%, 98.75%, 63.44% and 98.76%, respectively. The corresponding values of RESENet model were 99.34% ( P<0.001), 99.57% ( P<0.001), 99.66% ( P<0.001), 90.20% ( P<0.001) and 99.66% ( P<0.001). Conclusion:Compared with the traditional ResNetV2 model, the artificial intelligence-assisted site identification model constructed by RESENNet, a hybrid neural network, shows significantly improved performance. This model can be used to monitor the integrity of the esophagogastroduodenoscopic procedures and is expected to become an important assistant for standardizing and improving quality of the procedures, as well as an significant tool for quality control of esophagogastroduodenoscopy.

14.
Chinese Journal of General Surgery ; (12): 429-434, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-994588

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the clinical characteristics of superior mesenteric artery ischemic diseases.Methods:The clinical and followup data of 141 hospitalized patients with ischemic disease of superior mesenteric artery in the Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University from 1999 to 2021 were reviewed.Results:There were 99 males (70.2%) and 42 females (29.8%). The average age of the patients was (63.75±13.16) years; 127 patients (90.1%) complained abdominal pain.The number of all-cause deaths in the perioperative period was 27 (19.1%). ROC curve analysis showed that the optimal cutoff value of the age with predictive value was 64.5 years. The results of multivariate COX regression analysis showed that age ≥65 years old ( HR=3.855, 95% CI: 1.739-8.545), neutrophil count ( HR=1.072, 95% CI: 1.018-1.130), heart failure ( HR=2.863, 95% CI: 1.332-6.154), creatinine ( HR=1.009, 95% CI: 1.003-1.015), D-Dimer ( HR=1.112, 95% CI: 1.025-1.205) was an independent risk factor for all-cause death from superior mesenteric artery ischemic disease. Long-term survival rate of SMAD group was significantly higher than that of other SMAID; By comparing the clinical characteristics of different SMAID, neutrophil count, neutrophil ratio, D-dimer of SMAE group and SMAT group were significantly higher than that of SMAD group and ASSMA group. Conclusions:SMAID usually occurs in elderly men over 65 years old, with abdominal pain as the main symptom and often accompanied by hypertension. Risk factors included age, increased WBC count and D-dimer; The neutrophil count, neutrophil ratio, D-dimer in SMAE and SMAT group were significantly higher than that of SMAD and ASSMA group.

15.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma ; (12): 617-623, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992757

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of 3D printed patients-specific guide plates in assisting Ilizarov bone transport in the treatment of tibial bone defects.Methods:A retrospective study was conducted to analyze the clinical data of 24 patients with tibial bone defects who had been admitted to Institute of Trauma Orthopedics, The 80th Army Group Hospital of PLA from January 2018 to March 2022. There were 9 males and 15 females with an age of (49.8±6.5) years, and 4 upper tibial defects, 5 middle tibial defects, and 15 lower tibial defects. According to the methods of repairing bone defects, the patients were divided into 2 groups: a 3D printing group of 10 cases where a 3D printed patient-specific guide plate was used to assist Ilizarov bone transport in the treatment of tibial bone defects, and a traditional group of 14 cases where Ilizarov bone transport was performed in a traditional manner. The 2 groups were compared in terms of operation time, frequency of intraoperative fluoroscopy, axial angulation of the tibia at postoperation and the last follow-up, external fixation time (EFT) and external fixation index (EFI). At the last follow-up, healing of bone defects was evaluated according to the criteria of The Association for the Study and Application of the Method of Ilizarov (ASAMI), functional outcomes were evaluated according to the Paley criteria, and needle infection was recorded according to the Paley classification for complications.Results:There was no statistically significant difference in the preoperative general data between the 2 groups, indicating comparability ( P>0.05). All patients were followed up for (11.3±2.0) months on average after operation. The 3D printing group had significantly shorter operation time [(19.9±2.6) min] and significantly lower frequency of intraoperative fluoroscopy [(3.0±0.8) times] than the traditional group [(38.1±2.2) min and (8.9±1.3) times] (P<0.05), and had significantly better axial angulation of the tibia at postoperation and the last follow-up than the traditional group ( P<0.05). There was no significant difference in EFT or EFI between the 2 groups ( P>0.05), and the last follow-up revealed no significant difference either in bone healing, functional outcomes, or needle infection between the 2 groups ( P>0.05). Conclusion:In the treatment of tibial bone defects, compared with conventional Ilizarov bone transport, the Ilizarov bone transport assisted by a 3D printed patient-specific guide plate demonstrates advantages of shorter operation time, lower intraoperative fluoroscopy, and higher reduction accuracy.

16.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 481-493, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992625

ABSTRACT

Chronic refractory wound (CRW) is one of the most challengeable issues in clinic due to complex pathogenesis, long course of disease and poor prognosis. Experts need to conduct systematic summary for the diagnosis and treatment of CRW due to complex pathogenesis and poor prognosis, and standard guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of CRW should be created. The Guideline forthe diagnosis and treatment of chronic refractory wounds in orthopedic trauma patients ( version 2023) was created by the expert group organized by the Chinese Association of Orthopedic Surgeons, Chinese Orthopedic Association, Chinese Society of Traumatology, and Trauma Orthopedics and Multiple Traumatology Group of Emergency Resuscitation Committee of Chinese Medical Doctor Association after the clinical problems were chosen based on demand-driven principles and principles of evidence-based medicine. The guideline systematically elaborated CRW from aspects of the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, postoperative management, complication prevention and comorbidity management, and rehabilitation and health education, and 9 recommendations were finally proposed to provide a reliable clinical reference for the diagnosis and treatment of CRW.

17.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 299-308, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992602

ABSTRACT

The acute combination fractures of the atlas and axis in adults have a higher rate of neurological injury and early death compared with atlas or axial fractures alone. Currently, the diagnosis and treatment choices of acute combination fractures of the atlas and axis in adults are controversial because of the lack of standards for implementation. Non-operative treatments have a high incidence of bone nonunion and complications, while surgeries may easily lead to the injury of the vertebral artery, spinal cord and nerve root. At present, there are no evidence-based Chinese guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute combination fractures of the atlas and axis in adults. To provide orthopedic surgeons with the most up-to-date and effective information in treating acute combination fractures of the atlas and axis in adults, the Spinal Trauma Group of Orthopedic Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association organized experts in the field of spinal trauma to develop the Evidence-based guideline for clinical diagnosis and treatment of acute combination fractures of the atlas and axis in adults ( version 2023) by referring to the "Management of acute combination fractures of the atlas and axis in adults" published by American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS)/Congress of Neurological Surgeons (CNS) in 2013 and the relevant Chinese and English literatures. Ten recommendations were made concerning the radiological diagnosis, stability judgment, treatment rules, treatment options and complications based on medical evidence, aiming to provide a reference for the diagnosis and treatment of acute combination fractures of the atlas and axis in adults.

18.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 204-213, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992589

ABSTRACT

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) combined with spinal fractures with thoracic and lumbar fracture as the most common type shows characteristics of unstable fracture, high incidence of nerve injury, high mortality and high disability rate. The diagnosis may be missed because it is mostly caused by low-energy injury, when spinal rigidity and osteoporosis have a great impact on the accuracy of imaging examination. At the same time, the treatment choices are controversial, with no relevant specifications. Non-operative treatments can easily lead to bone nonunion, pseudoarthrosis and delayed nerve injury, while surgeries may be failed due to internal fixation failure. At present, there are no evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of AS combined with thoracic and lumbar fracture. In this context, the Spinal Trauma Academic Group of Orthopedics Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association organized experts to formulate the Clinical guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of adult ankylosing spondylitis combined with thoracolumbar fracture ( version 2023) by following the principles of evidence-based medicine and systematically review related literatures. Ten recommendations on the diagnosis, imaging evaluation, classification and treatment of AS combined with thoracic and lumbar fracture were put forward, aiming to standardize the clinical diagnosis and treatment of such disorder.

19.
Chinese Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology ; (6): 526-526, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992208

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To clarify whether the thera-peutic effect of escitalopram on depression patients is cor-related with traditional Chinese medicine syndrome types,and to provide a basis for more accurate drug applica-tion.METHODS A total of 235 depression patients were recruited and classified according to traditional Chinese medicine syndrome differentiation into 5 types:liver and qi stagnation(45),liver stagnation and fire transformation(43),liver qi stagnation and spleen deficiency(79),heart and spleen deficiency(20),and liver and kidney deficiency(38).All patients were treated with escitalopram(10 mg·d-1)for eight weeks.The Montgomery Depression Rating Scale(MADRS)and the 17 Hamilton Depression Rating Scale(HAMD-17)were used to score before treatment and 2,4,and 8 weeks after treatment,respectively.RESULTS Compared with before treatment,the MADRS and HAMD-17 scores and remission rates of each syn-drome type significantly improved with increasing medica-tion duration.The MADRS score relief rate of liver and kidney deficiency type was the most significant(69.3%),significantly higher than the other four syndrome types(47.5%-52.6%,P<0.05);The remission rate of HAMD-17 score was significantly higher than that of heart and spleen deficiency(50.7%vs.28.5%,P<0.05).The remis-sion rate of HAMD-17 score in liver and qi stagnation type(52.2%)was significantly higher than that in liver stagnation and spleen deficiency type(37.0%,P<0.01)and heart spleen deficiency type(28.5%,P<0.05).CON-CLUSION Escitalopram may have a more significant therapeutic effect on patients with liver and kidney defi-ciency and liver stagnation depression.This study pro-vides a new approach for the more effective and accu-rate application of traditional Chinese medicine syndrome differentiation in the selection of clinical antidepressants.

20.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 735-742, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001269

ABSTRACT

Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is associated with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST), which is a rare cerebrovascular disorder in children. Systemic anticoagulation with heparin is the standard therapy for CVST, and mechanical thrombectomy (MT) has been described as a salvage treatment for adult anticoagulant refractory CVST, However, it has never been reported in children. We describe a case of MT for refractory CVST in a child with NS. A 13-year-old boy with newly diagnosed NS presented to an emergency department with acute headache. A head computed tomography showed acute thrombus in the superior sagittal sinus, straight sinus and transverse sinus. The child was started on heparin therapy, but clinically deteriorated and became unresponsive. In view of the rapid deterioration of the condition after anticoagulation treatment, the patient received intravascular treatment. Several endovascular technologies, such as stent retriever and large bore suction catheter have been adopted. After endovascular treatment, the patient’s neurological condition was improved within 24 hours, and magnetic resonance venography of the head demonstrated that the CVST was reduced. The child recovered with normal neurological function at discharge. This case highlights the importance of considering MT for refractory CVST, and we suggest that MT may be considered for refractory CVST with NS in children.

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