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1.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 23-28, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970168

ABSTRACT

In the past decades,a dramatic development of navigation technology in orthopaedic surgery has been witnessed. By assisting the localization of surgical region,verification of target bony structure,preoperative planning of fixation,intraoperative identification of planned entry point and direction of instruments or even automated insertion of implants,its ability and potential to reduce operation time,intraoperative radiation,surgical trauma,and improve accuracy has been proved. However,in contrast to the widespread use of navigation technology in arthroplasty,orthopaedic tumor,and spine surgery,its application in orthopaedic trauma is relatively less. In this manuscript,the main purpose is to introduce the technical principles of navigation devices,outline the current clinical application of navigation systems in orthopaedic trauma,analyze the current challenges confronting its further application in clinical practice and its prospect in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Orthopedics , Surgery, Computer-Assisted/methods , Orthopedic Procedures/methods , Operative Time
2.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 70-77, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971275

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the characteristics of severe periodontitis with various number of tooth loss during 4-year natural progression, and to analyze the factors related to higher rate of tooth loss.@*METHODS@#A total of 217 patients aged 15 to 44 years with severe periodontitis were included, who participated in a 4-year natural progression research. Data obtained from questionnaire survey, clinical examination and radiographic measurement. Tooth loss during 4-year natural progression was evaluated. The baseline periodontal disease related and caries related factors were calculated, including number of teeth with bone loss > 50%, number of missing molars, number of teeth with widened periodontal ligament space (WPDL), number of teeth with periapical lesions and etc. Characteristics of populations with various number of tooth loss and the related factors that affected higher rate of tooth loss were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#In 4 years of natural progression, 103 teeth were lost, and annual tooth loss per person was 0.12±0.38. Nine patients lost 3 or more teeth. Thirty-four patients lost 1 or 2 teeth, and 174 patients were absent of tooth loss. Molars were mostly frequent to lose, and canines presented a minimum loss. The number of teeth with WPDL, with periapical lesions, with intrabony defects, with probing depth (PD)≥7 mm, with PD≥5 mm, with clinical attachment loss≥5 mm, with bone loss > 50% and with bone loss > 65% were positively correlated to number of tooth loss. Results from orderly multivariate Logistic regression showd that the number of teeth with bone loss > 50% OR=1.550), baseline number of molars lost (OR=1.774), number of teeth with WPDL (1 to 2: OR=1.415; ≥3: OR=13.105), number of teeth with periapical lesions (1 to 2: OR=4.393; ≥3: OR=9.526) and number of teeth with caries/residual roots (OR=3.028) were significant risk factors related to higher likelihood of tooth loss and multiple tooth loss.@*CONCLUSION@#In 4 years of natural progression, the number of teeth with bone loss > 50%, baseline number of missing molars, number of teeth with WPDL, baseline number of teeth with periapical lesions and number of teeth with caries/residual roots were significantly related to higher risk of tooth loss and multiple tooth loss among Chinese young and middle-aged patients with severe periodontitis in rural areas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth Loss/etiology , Periodontitis/complications , Tooth , Periodontal Diseases , Molar
3.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 1068-1075, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993541

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the clinical outcome and complications associated with utilizing sagittal plane stable vertebra-1 (SSV-1) as the distal instrumented vertebra (LIV) in posterior fusion of thoracic kyphosis with Scheuermann's Disease kyphosis (STK).Methods:A longitudinal study on patients with STK who underwent posterior correction and fusion surgery from January 2018 to June 2021 were conducted. All participants had a follow-up duration over two years. Patients were divided into two groups according to the segment of LIV: the SSV group, where LIV was located in SSV; and the SSV-1 group, where LIV was located in the vertebral body above SSV. The radiographic parameters, including global kyphosis (GK), lumbar lordosis (LL), and sagittal plane (SVA), LIV offset distance (LIV translation), pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt (PT) and sacral slope (SS), were compared between the two groups. The SRS-22 scale was used to evaluate health-related quality of life at pre-operation and last follow-up, and the incidence of postoperative distal junctional kyphosis (DJK) was also recorded. Analytical techniques, such as Analysis of Variance and Mann-Whitney tests, were employed to compare inter-group differences.Results:A total of 57 patients were included in the study, 36 in the SSV group and 21 in the SSV-1 group. The average age for patients were 16.1±2.3 years (range 13-20 years), and the average follow-up time was 32.8±6.8 months (range 24-53 months). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of gender, age, follow-up time, surgical time, intraoperative bleeding volume, and fusion level. Before surgery, the LIV deviation distance in the SSV group was significantly lower than that in the SSV-1 group (-7.9±11.0 mm vs. 31.5±11.5 mm, t=7.64, P<0.001). In the SSV group, the preoperative GK was 79.3°±10.5°, and the last follow-up GK was 44.4°±8.5°, which was significantly improved compared to preoperative value ( t=28.28, P<0.001); in the SSV-1 group, the preoperative GK was 81.1°±10.6°, and the value at 1-week post-operative was 44.9°±7.8°, which was significantly improved compared to pre-operative value ( t=22.23, P<0.001). At the last follow-up, it was 45.1°±8.7°, with a correction rate of 44.3%±8.5%. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of GK, LL, SVA, PI, PT and SS at pre-operative, 1-week post-operative and last follow-up ( P>0.05). All patients had no intraoperative complications of nerve injury. During the follow-up period, one patient (1/21, 4.8%) developed DJK without complications such as proximal kyphosis, pseudarthrosis, or failed internal fixation. At the last follow-up, the functional score of SRS-22 in SSV-1 group improved from preoperative (3.5±0.54) to postoperative (4.1±0.62), with an average improvement rate of 19.2%±3.2%, and the difference was statistically significant ( t=3.74, P=0.001). These results indicating that the surgical treatment was effective in relieving the symptoms of the patients. Conclusion:Selecting SSV-1 as LIV in corrective surgeries for STK appears to produce commendable clinical results with minimal implant-associated complications over a two-year observation period.

4.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 720-729, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993496

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the clinical outcomes and complications of second sacral alar-iliac (S 2AI) technique utilized in degenerative spinal deformity patients, and to analyze the potential risk factors for postoperative sagittal imbalance. Methods:From January 2014 to October 2020, a consecutive cohort of 39 degenerative spinal deformity patients who were treated with S 2AI were retrospectively reviewed, including 4 males and 35 females, aged 63.1±6.7 years (range, 43-73 years). All of the patients had a minimum of 2-year follow-up. According to the sagittal vertical axis (SVA) at the final follow-up, patients were divided into 2 groups. Sagittal balance group (SVA≤50 mm) and sagittal imbalance group (SVA>50 mm). Radiographic parameters including the Cobb's angle, coronal balance distance (CBD), thoracic kyphosis (TK), lumbar lordosis (LL), SVA, pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt (PT) and sacral slope (SS) were measured in the standing radiographs before and after operation and at the latest follow up. Comparison was made between the two groups and the differences with statistical significance were analyzed with binary logistic regression analysis. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded. The Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) score were employed to evaluate the quality of life. Results:The average follow-up period was 30.3±9.1 months (range, 43-73 months). Eighteen patients (46%) were identified with sagittal imbalance at the last follow-up. Compared with the patients in the sagittal balance group, the preoperative SVA was significantly larger (83.1±56.2 mm vs. 48.1±51.1 mm, t=2.04, P=0.049) and the postoperative TK was significantly greater (27.8°±9.6° vs. 18.9°±13.4°, t=2.36, P=0.024) for patients in the sagittal imbalance group. Scores of pain domain (3.2±0.5 vs. 3.7±0.6) and self-image domain (3.4±0.8 vs. 3.8±0.6) in sagittal imbalance group were significantly lower than those of sagittal balance group ( P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that larger preoperative SVA ( OR=1.02, P=0.028) and greater postoperative TK ( OR=1.09, P=0.022) were independent risk factors for the occurrence of sagittal imbalance during the follow-up periods. Conclusion:S 2AI screw fixation can achieve satisfying coronal deformity correction and great sagittal reconstruction after surgery in patients with degenerative spinal deformity. However, sagittal imbalance may still occur during the follow-up periods. Larger preoperative SVA and greater postoperative TK are independent risk factors for the occurrence of sagittal imbalance.

5.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 373-380, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993452

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the prevalence and distribution of ossification of ligamentum flavum (OLF) at the segments adjacent to the apex in patients with degenerative kyphosis.Methods:All of 74 patients with degenerative kyphosis from January 2018 to December 2021 were retrospective reviewed. All patients were taken anteroposterior and lateral radiographs, CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the entire spine. Global kyphosis, the morphology of kyphosis and the occurrence of OLF at three segments adjacent to the kyphosis apex were recorded.Results:Of the 74 patients, 54 patients (73%) developed OLF in three segments adjacent to the kyphotic apex. The mean age of the 54 patients was 61.4±6.8 years, and the mean global kyphosis was 49.5°±21.2°. Among other 20 patients without OLF, the mean age was 56.1±7.5 years, and the mean kyphosis angle was 52.1°±19.1°. There was a statistically significant difference in ages ( t=2.92, P=0.005), but no statistically significant difference was observed regarding global kyphosis ( t=0.48, P=0.634). In these 74 patients, 9 patients had angular kyphosis, of which 8 (89%) developed OLF; of the 65 patients without angular kyphosis, 46 patients (71%) developed OLF. There was no significant difference between them (χ 2=1.32, P=0.251). Among the 54 patients diagnosed with OLF, 5 patients (9%) suffered ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) and 20 patients (37%) suffered dural ossification; 43 patients (80%) developed OLF at proximal segments of apex, 6 patient (11%) developed OLF at distal segments of apex, and 5 patients (9%) developed OLF both at proximal and distal segments of apex. Thirty-two patients (59%) developed OLF at the first segment adjacent to the kyphotic apex, 27 patients (50%) developed OLF at the second segment, and 15 patients (28%) developed OLF at the third segment. Conclusion:Among patients with degenerative kyphosis, about 73% may development OLF within three segments adjacent to the kyphotic apex, and it mostly occurred within two segments adjacent to the apex proximally.

6.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 366-372, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993451

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the imaging features and surgical strategies of late-onset spinal deformity after myelomeningocele (MMC) repair.Methods:A total of 23 patients with late-onset spinal deformity after MMC repair from January 2006 to December 2019 were retrospectively analyzed, including 16 males and 7 females, aged 15.4±5.9 years (range, 6-28 years). All patients underwent MMC resection and repair in infancy (0-4 years). The complications of MMC, imaging characteristics of spinal deformity (Cobb angle of scoliosis, coronal balance, regional kyphosis), surgical methods, clinical outcomes and incidence of complications were analyzed. The Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) score and Oswestry disability index (ODI) were used to evaluate the quality of life.Results:All patients were followed up for 2.4±0.8 years (range, 1-4 years). Among 23 patients, MMC occurred in the upper thoracic segment in 3 cases, thoracic segment in 1 case, thoracolumbar segment in 13 cases, and lumbosacral segment in 6 cases. 16 patients had scoliosis or kyphosis with the apex of the spine in the same segment as the MMC lesion. Among 13 patients with MMC located in thoracolumbar segment, 12 patients had scoliosis and 9 patients had kyphosis. Among 6 patients with MMC located in lumbosacral segment, 3 patients had pelvic tilt. Vertebral deformities included widening of pedicle space in 21 cases, enlargement of spinal canal in 19 cases, absence of spinous process in 17 cases, malsegmentation in 17 cases, and hemivertebra deformity in 9 cases. Intramedullary lesions included split cord in 6 cases and tethered cord in 9 cases. The overall implant density was 57.2%±17% (range, 16.6%-100%). At the last follow-up, the Cobb angle of scoliosis was 40.9°±19.1°, which was significantly smaller than 71.5°±28.2° before operation ( P<0.001). The local kyphosis angle was 26.7°±12.9°, which was significantly lower than that before operation (40.4°±21.5°), the difference was statistically significant ( P<0.001).The coronal balance was 16.1±13.6 mm, which was smaller than that before operation 28.5± 23.7 mm, the difference was statistically significant ( P<0.001). The total score of SRS-22 was 18.7±0.7, which was higher than that before operation 17.7±0.9, and the difference was statistically significant ( t=-9.74, P<0.001); ODI was 25.5%±6.2% after operation, which was significantly lower than that before operation (44.8%±10.1%), the difference was statistically significant ( t=13.66, P<0.001). Dural rupture occurred in 4 patients, including postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage in 2 cases; postoperative pleural effusion in 1 patient; and screw malposition in 2 patients. Three patients had broken rods and one had deep infection at final follow-up. Conclusion:About 70% of MMC patients who underwent resection and repair in early childhood developed late-onset spinal deformity in adulthood with the lesion at the parietal vertebrae. Posterior correction can obtain satisfactory clinical results. If the posterior element of the apical vertebral body is hypoplastic, the implant density can be increased by anterior vertebral screw, lamina hook fixation, and S 2 sacroiliac screw.

7.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 359-365, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993450

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the radiographic improvements after Halo-gravity traction in severe kyphoscoliosis patientswith type III spinal cord on preoperative apex MRI, and to assess the clinical outcomes and surgical safety of Halo-gravity traction in this cohort.Methods:A total of 47 severe thoracic kyphoscoliosis patients with type III spinal cord on preoperative apex MRI who underwent preoperative Halo-gravity traction followed by one-stage posterior spinal fusion from February 2019 to June 2021 in the Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. There were 18 males and 29 females with an average age of 22.5±12.8 years (range, 9-60 years). The average duration of traction was 7.4±3.9 weeks (range, 4-16 weeks). Radiographic parameters were measured including the coronal Cobb angle, distance between C 7 plumb line and center sacral vertical line (C 7PL-CSVL), sagittalglobal kyphosis (GK) and sagittal vertical axis (SVA) atpre-traction, post-traction and post-operation, respectively. The traction correction rate was measured as "traction degree before traction-traction degree after traction)/traction degree before traction" and the surgical correction rate was represented as "traction degree before traction-postoperative degree)/ traction degree before traction". The Frankel scoring system was used for the evaluation of neurological status at pre-traction, post-traction and post-operation. Results:All of 47 patients underwent the Halo-gravity traction and posterior spinal correction surgery. The C 7PL-CSVL was 35.7±16.9 mm at initial visit. At post-operation, C 7PL-CSVL was improved to 22.0±13.7 mm ( t=13.75, P<0.001), and the improvement rate was 39.9%±15.5%. The GK was 110.9°±22.1° at initial visit, which was improved to 84.1°±19.9° ( t=8.84, P<0.001) after Halo-gravity traction with an average correction of 23.7%±8.9%. At post-operation, GK was improved to 65.3°±19.3° ( t=10.63, P<0.001), and the improvement rate were 40.1%±20.7%. The SVA was 43.8±19.5 mm at initial visit. At post-operation, SVA was improved to 21.1±14.9 mm ( t=10.32, P<0.001), and the improvement rate were 53.1%±27.0%. A total of 14 patients showed neurological deficits of lower limbs at pre-traction, of which 8 patients had significant neurological improvement after Halo gravity traction; 3 patients had significant neurological improvement after surgery, and the remaining 3 patients had no significant neurological improvement during treatment. No new neurological deficits were observed after Halo-gravity traction or surgery. Conclusion:For severe kyphoscoliosis patients with type III spinal cord on preoperative apex MRI, the Halo-gravity traction could effectively correct the deformity, improve neurological function, enhance the tolerance of spinal cord to surgery and reduce the risk of intraoperative iatrogenic neurological deficit.

8.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 299-308, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992602

ABSTRACT

The acute combination fractures of the atlas and axis in adults have a higher rate of neurological injury and early death compared with atlas or axial fractures alone. Currently, the diagnosis and treatment choices of acute combination fractures of the atlas and axis in adults are controversial because of the lack of standards for implementation. Non-operative treatments have a high incidence of bone nonunion and complications, while surgeries may easily lead to the injury of the vertebral artery, spinal cord and nerve root. At present, there are no evidence-based Chinese guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute combination fractures of the atlas and axis in adults. To provide orthopedic surgeons with the most up-to-date and effective information in treating acute combination fractures of the atlas and axis in adults, the Spinal Trauma Group of Orthopedic Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association organized experts in the field of spinal trauma to develop the Evidence-based guideline for clinical diagnosis and treatment of acute combination fractures of the atlas and axis in adults ( version 2023) by referring to the "Management of acute combination fractures of the atlas and axis in adults" published by American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS)/Congress of Neurological Surgeons (CNS) in 2013 and the relevant Chinese and English literatures. Ten recommendations were made concerning the radiological diagnosis, stability judgment, treatment rules, treatment options and complications based on medical evidence, aiming to provide a reference for the diagnosis and treatment of acute combination fractures of the atlas and axis in adults.

9.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 204-213, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992589

ABSTRACT

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) combined with spinal fractures with thoracic and lumbar fracture as the most common type shows characteristics of unstable fracture, high incidence of nerve injury, high mortality and high disability rate. The diagnosis may be missed because it is mostly caused by low-energy injury, when spinal rigidity and osteoporosis have a great impact on the accuracy of imaging examination. At the same time, the treatment choices are controversial, with no relevant specifications. Non-operative treatments can easily lead to bone nonunion, pseudoarthrosis and delayed nerve injury, while surgeries may be failed due to internal fixation failure. At present, there are no evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of AS combined with thoracic and lumbar fracture. In this context, the Spinal Trauma Academic Group of Orthopedics Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association organized experts to formulate the Clinical guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of adult ankylosing spondylitis combined with thoracolumbar fracture ( version 2023) by following the principles of evidence-based medicine and systematically review related literatures. Ten recommendations on the diagnosis, imaging evaluation, classification and treatment of AS combined with thoracic and lumbar fracture were put forward, aiming to standardize the clinical diagnosis and treatment of such disorder.

10.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 244-248, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936141

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects and mechanisms of equol and its enantiomers on urethane-induced lung cancer in mice.@*METHODS@#A total of 120 5-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into 8 groups: lung cancer tumor control group (CG), genistein control group (GCG), low dose racemic equol group (LEG), high dose racemic equol group (HEG), low dose R-equol group (LRE), high dose R-equol group (HRE), low dose S-equol group (LSE) and high dose S-equol group (HSE). Urethane was injected subcutaneously twice a week for 4 weeks to induce lung cancer and then the mice were fed for 4 months. The body weight and food intake of each group were measured and recorded weekly. After the mice were sacrificed, the blood, livers and lungs of the mice were collected. The incidence of lung cancer in each group was recorded. The concentration of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxydeoxygunosine (8-OHdG) were detected by the corresponding kits. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) in the livers. Between-group differences in body weight and food intake of the mice were compared using repeated measures ANOVA, and ANOVA for the differences between non-repeated measurements, with post hoc analysis using Tukey's method if there were between-group differences. Comparisons of categorical data were performed by chi-square test, and if there were differences between the groups, the Bonferroni method was used for pairwise comparison.@*RESULTS@#A total of 49 in the 120 mice developed lung cancer. The overall incidence of lung cancer was 40.8%. Compared with the control group, the incidence of lung cancers in each experimental group was lower, and the difference was statistically significant. The incidence of lung cancer in the high-dose experimental group was significantly lower than that in the low-dose experimental group. However, the incidence of lung cancer was similar in the three equol groups and the genistein group at the same dose. Compared with the control group, the high-dose experimental group had higher serum SOD concentration, lower MDA and 8-OHdG concentrations, and the differences were statistically significant. Western blotting analysis showed that the expression levels of Nrf2 protein in the experimental groups were higher than those in the control group except the low-dose racemic equol group, and the Nrf2 protein expression level in the high-dose equol groups was higher than that in the low-dose equol groups.@*CONCLUSION@#Racemic equol and its enantiomers mayinhibit lung carcinogenesis through antioxidant effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Body Weight , Equol , Genistein , Lung Neoplasms/prevention & control , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Superoxide Dismutase , Urethane/toxicity
11.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 1273-1282, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-957122

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the value of relative lumbar lordosis (RLL) and lumbar distribution index (LDI) in predicting the occurrence of adjacent segment disease (ASDis) after lumbar fusion surgery.Methods:This study retrospectively reviewed 163 consecutive patients (58 males and 105 females) who had undergone lumbar fusion and had been followed over 2 years,with an average age of 58.7 years; among them, 74, 71, and 18 patients had undergone fusion of one-level, two-level, and three-level, respectively. They were divided into the non-ASDis group and ASDis group based on the presence of ASDis or not. Pre- and post-operative spinopelvic parameters were measured on the upright lateral radiographs. RLL was calculated as measured lumbar lordosis (LL) minus ideal LL, and LDI was calculated as the ratio of postoperative low lumbar lordosis (LLL) to LL. Each parameter was stratified into 1 "aligned" subgroup and 3 "disproportioned" subgroups in accordance with values. Cochran-Armitage test of trend andlogistic analysis were performed to investigate the association between these two parameters and the occurrence of ASDis.Results:The average follow-up duration after initial surgery was 46±14 months (range, 25 to 134 months). Twenty-four (14.7%) patients were diagnosed as ASDis. The age ( t=3.13, P=0.002) and the proportion of 2-level and 3-level fusion (χ 2=10.27, P=0.006) in the ASDis group were significantly higher than those in the non-ASDis group ( P<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between groups with respect to other general data. The ratios of moderate and severe hypolordosis of RLL were significantly higher in the ASDis group than that in the non-ASDis group (χ 2=16.92, P<0.001). There was also a significant linear trend with higher degree of hypolordosis being associated with higher rates of ASDis. However, distribution of four statuses of LDI did not differ statistically between groups. After controlling the confounders, the logistic regression analysis revealed that age, odd ratio ( OR)=1.07, 95% CI: (1.01, 1.13), P=0.018), moderate[ OR=4.34, 95% CI: (1.03, 18.41), P=0.046] and severe hypolordosis [ OR=11.64, 95% CI: (1.30, 104.49), P=0.028] were significantly associated with the occurrence of ASDis. Conclusion:A significant association between postoperative RLL and occurrence of ASDis after lumbar fusion surgery were detected. Setting surgical goals according to RLL may help reduce the ASDis rate. However, LDI is not identified to be predictive factors of the occurrence of ASDis.

12.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 1139-1147, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-957107

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate reversal of vertebral wedging and to evaluate the contribution of adding satellite rods to correction maintenance in patients with adolescent Scheuermann kyphosis (SK) after posterior-only instrumented correction.Methods:A retrospective cohort study with SK was performed. From January 2009 to December 2018, a total of 26 SK patients (21 males and 5 females) who received posterior instrumented correction surgery at the age of 13–16 years were included. The mean age was 14.5±0.9 years. Risser sign was level 1 in 5 patients, level 2 in 10 patients and level 3 in 11 patients. Patients receiving placement with a standard 2-RC construct were composed in the 2-RC group, and those with enhanced instrumentation with satellite rods adding to 2-RC via duet screws were assigned to the S-RC group. The anterior vertebral body height (AVBH), posterior vertebral body height (PVBH), global kyphosis (GK), disc wedging angle (DWA), vertebral wedging angle (VWA) and Scoliosis Research Society questionnaires-22 (SRS-22) were collected preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, and at the latest follow-up. Further, these outcomes were compared between the two groups.Results:The average follow-up durations for the S-RC and 2-RC groups were 3.1±1.0 and 2.9±1.1 years ( t=0.04, P=0.837), respectively. Remarkable postoperative correction of GK was observed in S-RC group and 2-RC group without significant difference (51.1%±5.1% vs. 46.7%±5.8%, t=1.74, P=0.099). The correction loss of S-RC group was significantly less than that at 2-RC group during follow-up (0.6°±0.3° vs. 1.8°±0.8°, t=-6.52, P<0.001). The ratio between AVBH and PVBH of deformed vertebrae notably increased in S-RC group and 2-RC group from post-operation to the latest follow-up ( P<0.05). Compared with the 2-RC group, the S-RC group had significantly greater increase in AVBH/PVBH ratio during follow-up (32.6%±8.5% vs. 22.5%±13.4%, t=2.31, P=0.030). The two groups had similar preoperative and postoperative SRS-22 questionnaire scores for all domains ( P>0.05). Conclusion:The AVBH of deformed vertebrae could be increased after posterior correction in SK patients. Compared with the traditional two-rod construct, satellite rods construction could be more effective which could achieve greater vertebral remodeling and less correction loss.

13.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 1130-1138, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-957106

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the clinical and imaging outcomes of Lenke 5 idiopathic scoliosis posterior selective fusion with "Last Touching Vertebra-1" as the lower instrumented vertebra (LIV).Methods:A total of 103 patients with Lenke 5 idiopathic scoliosis who underwent posterior selective fusion orthopedic surgery from April 2009 to March 2020 were analyzed retrospectively. The LIV was the last touching vertebra (LTV) in 45 cases (LTV group) and the LTV-1 in 58 cases (LTV-1 group). The follow-up duration was more than 2 years. SRS- 22 questionnaire was used to evaluate the clinical effects at 2 years after operation. The anterior and lateral radiographs of the whole spine were measured preoperatively, postoperatively and at 2 years after operation to obtain all the following imaging parameters, including scoliosis Cobb angle, apical vertebral translation (AVT), coronal balance, LIV tilt, LIV lower intervertebral disc angle, LIV translation, LIV lower vertebral translation, LTV/LIV rotation degree, lumbar lordosis angle, pelvic incidence angle, sagittal balance. The complications were summarized and were analyzed for investigating potential risk factors.Results:At 2 years after operation, the correction rates of main Cobb in LTV group and the LTV-1 group were 60.2%±11.1% and 55.3%±14.1%, respectively. The coronal balance was 3.5±9.8 mm and 4.9±10.6 mm respectively. The sagittal balance was -15.5±18.1 mm and -19.6±22.6 mm respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups ( t=2.305, P=0.085; t=-0.695, P=0.489; t=0.992, P=0.324). The incidence of proximal junction kyphosis in the two groups was 2.2% (1/45) and 8.6% (5/58), respectively. The incidence of significant loss of main Cobb correction and distal adding-on was 13.3% (6/45) and 25.9% (15/58) respectively without significant difference (χ 2=1.891, P=0.169; χ 2=2.451, P=0.117). Compared with non-complication patients (39 cases), 19 patients with complications in LTV-1 group had a greater degree of coronal balance to the convex side (23.9±9.5 mm vs. 14.6±11.5 mm, t=3.06, P=0.003), a greater LIV tilt (29.2°±3.7° vs. 25.3°± 5.3°, t=2.85, P=0.006), and a greater degree of LTV rotation (1.0(1, 1) vs. 0.6(0, 1), Z=-2.97, P=0.003). Logistic regression analysis showed that large preoperative LIV tilt and large preoperative coronal balance were the risk factors of complications during follow-up. Conclusion:The selection of LTV and LTV-1 as LIV in patients with Lenke 5 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis could obtain satisfied coronal, sagittal balance and low incidence of mechanical related complications during follow-up. For patients with preoperative coronal balance >17.0 mm or LIV tilt >25.3°, the risk of mechanical related complications might be higher than that when "LTV-1" was selected as LIV.

14.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 1122-1129, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-957105

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the feasibility and effects of modified sequential correction technique combined 3-columns osteotomy for severe kyphoscoliosis.Methods:A retrospective analysis was performed on 18 patients (7 males and 11 females) with severe kyphosis who received modified sequential correction technique combined 3-columns osteotomy in our hospital from June 2019 to April 2020. Preoperative, postoperative and final follow-up clinical and imaging outcomes were evaluated.Results:In this cohort, the average fixed segment was 11.2±3.8. The average operative duration was 401.9±68.9 min and the average intraoperative blood loss was 2 418.8±736.9 ml. The Cobb angle was improved significantly from 65.0°±16.4° pre-operatively to 41.6°±14.1° post-operatively. At final follow-up, it was 41.4°±14.3°, which was not significantly different from that after operation. Global kyphosis (GK) was 65.5°±20.8° pre-operatively and 28.1°±13.8° post-operatively with correction rate of 57.8%±17.8%. However, GK was 29.3°±14 .2° at postoperative 1 year , which was not significantly different from that after operation. There was no significant difference in C 7PL-CSVL ( F=0.449 , P=0.642) or SVA ( F=3.519, P=0.058) among the three time points. There was no alter of SEP and MEP observed during operation. Four patients had temporary lower limb numbness after operation, while the symptoms disappeared at 6 months after operation. There was no instrumental failure during the follow-up. Conclusion:Patients with severe kyphoscoliosis can obtain satisfied local correction by undergoing modified sequential correction technique combined 3-columns osteotomy without significant loss of correction at 1 year after operation. It can effectively avoid instability and dislocation of the osteotomy site and massive bleeding during the operation. As a simplified surgical procedure, it can reduce the difficulty of rod loading without prolonged operation duration. Further, this technique can ensure lower incidence of neurological complications and rod failure.

15.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 715-721, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932884

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the correlations between cosmetic and radiographic parameters in patients with congenital scoliosis (CS) with vertebral segmentation failureand the clinical implication of cosmetic parameters.Methods:A total of 27 CS patients were retrospectively reviewed. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the entire spine was taken. Simultaneously, photos were taken from the back in natural standing position and standing forward bending position. Seven cosmetic parameters were measured on the photographs: shoulder area index 1 (SAI1), shoulder area index 2 (SAI2), lumbar area index (LAI), shoulder angle (α 1), axilla angle (α 2), right and left waist angle difference (RLWAD) and hump index. Also, seven radiographic parameterswere measured on the radiographs: radiographic shoulder height difference (RSHD), T 1 tilt, first rib angle (FRA), clavicle angle (CA), clavicle-rib cage intersection (CRCI), clavicle chest cage angle difference (CCAD) and Cobb's angle. The correlation between cosmetic parameters and radiographic parameters was analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient. Results:Of the 27 patients, 4 were males and 23 were females, with a mean of age 14.0±2.6 years (range 11-18 years). The apical vertebra ranged from T 5 to T 11. LAI was significantly correlatedwith CCAD, but correlation coefficient was only -0.44. The range of correlation coefficientsbetween SAI1 and all radiographic parameters was -0.17 to 0.53, and the range of correlation coefficients between SAI2 and all radiographic parameters was -0.16 to 0.53. However, all correlation coefficients were less than 0.56. Conclusion:Radiographic parameters cannot reflect cosmetic appearances of CS patients with vertebral segmentation failures accurately. More attention should be paid to cosmetic parameters in the evaluation of patients' appearances.

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Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 696-705, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932882

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the risk factors of long-term shoulder imbalance in patients presented postoperative shoulder imbalance who underwent single segment hemivertebra resection, and the role of postoperative trunk shift in shoulder imbalance.Methods:All of 30 patients who presented shoulder imbalance after hemivertebrae resection and short fusion from July 2006 to December 2018 were reviewed in this study, including 16 males and 14 females, aged 4.53±2.05 years (range, 2-8 years). Among them, 10 cases were thoracic hemivertebra, 12 thoracolumbar hemivertebra and 8 lumbar hemivertebra. According to the vertical height difference at the highest point of soft tissue shadows on both shoulders in the final follow-up upright posteroanterior radiograph, which was shoulder imbalance (SI), they were divided into two groups: Group B (balance, shoulder imbalance less than 10 mm) and Group IB (imbalance, shoulder imbalance more than 10 mm). Several radiographic parameters were measured preoperatively, 3 months after surgery and at the final follow-up, such as SI, distance between C 7 plumbline and center sacral vertical line (C 7PL-CSVL), Cobb angle of main curve, cobb angle of proximal curve (CAPC), Cobb angle of distal curve (CADC), upper instrumented vertebra offset (UO), lower instrumented vertebra offset (LO), upper instrumented vertebra slope (US), lower instrumented vertebra slope (LS), T1 tilt and sagittal vertical axis (SVA). Results:The mean follow-up period was 54.3±33.7 months (range, 24-132 months). A mean of 3.1 segments were fused. 7 cases (70%) of thoracic, 6 cases (50%) of thoracolumbar and 3 cases of lumbar hemivertebrae (37.5%) with shoulder imbalance at 3 months after surgery remained imbalanced at the last follow-up. Thirteen cases presented coronal imbalance postoperative (C 7PL-CSVL>2 cm), among 6 cases whose trunk shafted to the side of the higher shoulder postoperatively, 5 cases presented aggravated SI at final follow-up, and among 7 cases whose trunk shafted to the side of the lower shoulder postoperatively, 6 cases presented aggravated SI at final follow-up, while the difference had statistical significance ( P=0.029). The static analysis indicated that postoperative and long-term C 7PL-CSVL, long-term lowest instrumented vertebra and long-term T 1 tilt were risk factors of shoulder imbalance at final follow-up. Conclusion:A proportion of congenital scoliosis patients who presented shoulder imbalance after hemivertebra resection plus short fusion are less likely to achieve shoulder balance at the final follow-up. Long-term shoulder imbalance is often presented in the patients whose trunk shafted to the side of the higher shoulder postoperatively.

17.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 437-444, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932852

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate how pelvic incidence (PI) would change during the follow-up in degenerative scoliosis (DS) patients who underwent second sacralalar-iliac (S 2AI) fixation and identify the possible factors associated with the changes in PI. Methods:The DS patients who underwent long fusion to pelvis with S 2AI fixation with a minimum follow-up of two years between November 2014 to January 2017 were retrospectively reviewed in this study. The following sagittal radiographic parameters were measured, including pelvic incidence (PI), lumbar lordosis (LL), pelvic tilt (PT), PI minus LL (PI-LL), and sagittal vertical axis (SVA) at pre-operation, post-operation and 2-year follow-up. Patients were divided into two groups at immediate post-operation: PI decreased less than 5° or increased (Group PI stabilization); PI decreased larger than 5° (Group PI activity). Descriptive statistics were calculated for all patients in the form of mean value and standard deviation (SD). Comparisons of means between variables were performed using an unpaired Student's t test. Pearson correlation coefficienttest was performed to determine the correlations between all radiographic variables. Inter- and intra-observer reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The internal consistency of the measurements was characterized as excellent ( ICC≥0.9), good (0.7≤ ICC<0.9), acceptable (0.6< ICC≤0.7), poor (0.5≤ ICC<0.6), or unpredictable ( ICC<0.5). Results:There were no significant differences in terms of age, sex, radiographic measurements and scores of SRS-22 between twogroups preoperatively ( P>0.05). 80 DS patients with a mean age of 55.3±16.2 years were enrolled in this study with a mean follow-up period of 34.6±8.7 months. At post-operation, 39 patients (38.8%) were in group PI stabilization whose PI decreased from 45.7°±11.4° to 45.3°±11.2° with no significant difference; while the other 41 (61.2%) were in group PI activity whose PI significantly decreased from 51.6°±14.5° to 40.9°±14.0°. At the last follow-up, 24 patients (49%) in group PI activity had PI returned with an increase of larger than 5°; while the other 25 (51%) showed no increase with a mean ΔPI change of -4.2°. Subgroup comparison revealed that ΔPI, post-operation PI, post-operation PT and age were significantly different between the two subgroups. Pre-operation PI, post-operation PI, post-operation PT, post-operation PI-LL were significantly correlated with ΔPI at the last follow-up. Logistic regression analysis showed that post-operation PI was the associated factor ( OR=0.87, P=0.024). Conclusion:PI decreased in more than half of DS patients after spinal surgery using S 2AI screws, while returned among 48% of them during 2-year follow-up. Lower pre-operation PI, post-operation PI and PT were strongly associated with the return of PI.

18.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 426-436, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932851

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate whether pelvic fixation is needed in patients undergoing posterior lumbosacral hemivertebra (LSHV) resection and long fusion.Methods:All 32 adult spinal deformity patients with posterior hemivertebra (HV) resection and long segment fixation treated from April 2005 to August 2019 were analyzed retrospectively, including 12 males and 20 females with a mean age of 32.9±8.8 years. According to the state of coronal balance distance (CBD), there were 15 cases of type A (preoperative CBD≤ 30 mm), 1 case of type B (preoperative CBD>30 mm and C 7 plumb line offset to the concave side), and 16 cases of type C (preoperative CBD>30 mm and C 7 plumb line offset to the convex side). The clinical and imaging data before operation, immediately after operation and at the last follow-up were collected, and the short-term and long-term complications related to operation were recorded. The improvement of Cobb angle and coronal balance of primary curve and compensatory curve were evaluated on the whole spine frontal and lateral X-ray films, and the change of coronal balance type after operation was evaluated. According to the mode of distal internal fixation, the patients were divided into two groups: PF group (pelvic fixation): distal fixation to iliac or sacroiliac; NPF group (non-pelvic fixation): distal fixation to L 5 or S 1. Results:All 32 patients were followed up with an average time of 3.9±2.6 years (range 2-11 years). The Cobb angle of primary curve in PF and NPF groups were 42.6°±13.5° and 41.3°±10.9° respectively before operation, and corrected to 13.1°±5.4° and 17.7°±5.8° respectively after operation. It maintained at 13.4°±5.1°and 18.5°±6.7° in the two groups at the last follow-up, respectively ( FPF=32.58, FNPF=28.64, P<0.001). The correction rates were 69.3%±11.8% and 57.6%±10.3%, respectively ( t=2.14, P=0.012). The compensatory curves of in the two groups were corrected from 54.9°±14.8° and 46.8°±13.6° before operation to 17.3°±9.6° and 15.4°±8.4° after operation. It also maintained at 18.5°±8.8°and 17.6°±9.5° in the two groups at the last follow-up, respectively ( FPF=42.97, FNPF=38.56, P<0.001). The correction rates were 68.4%±16.7% and 67.2%±14.9%, respectively ( t=0.17, P=0.849) in the two groups. In PF group, the primary and compensatory curve were similar (69.3%±11.8% vs. 68.4%±16.7%, t=0.15, P=0.837), while the correction rate of compensatory curve in NPF group was significantly higher than that of the primary curve (67.2%±14.9% vs. 57.6%±10.3%, t=2.13, P=0.013). Coronal decompensation occurred in 12 patients (12/32, 37.5%). The CBD in PF and NPF groups was corrected from 33.3±11.2 mm and 28.8±8.1 mm preoperatively to 18.5±3.5 mm and 27.1±6.8 mm postoperatively, respectively, and it showed no significant change at the last follow-up ( FPF=41.61, P<0.001; FNPF=0.38, P=0.896). While the CBD in PF group was significantly better than that in NPF group ( t=3.23, P=0.002; t=2.94, P=0.008). The incidence of coronal decompensation in PF group was 0%, which was significantly lower than 50% (12/24) in NPF group (χ 2=6.40, P=0.014). In addition, 6 cases in PF group were type C coronal decompensation before operation, and the coronal balance was corrected to type A after surgery (100%). Among 10 patients with type C coronal decompensation in NFP, 4 (40%) patients returned to type A after operation, and the difference was statistically significant (6/6 vs. 4/10, χ 2=5.76, P=0.034). Conclusion:Coronal decompensation (12/32, 37.5%) is not rare in patients after posterior LSHV resection and long fusion. Attention should be paid to the match of the corrections between lumbosacral deformity and compensatory curve, which is of great significance in coronal balance reconstruction. Pelvic fixation is helpful to reduce the incidence of postoperative coronal decompensation, especially for the type C patients.

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Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 403-412, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932849

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the radiographic risk factors related to the occurrence of distal adding-on (AO) in posteriorly treated Lenke modifier C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients with the apical vertebra of the lumbar curve (L-AV) selected as the lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV).Methods:Seventy-three Lenke modifier C AIS patients were analyzed with a minimum of 2-year follow-up after posterior spinal fusion surgery with L-AV selected as LIV. Patients were grouped according to the occurrence of distal AO. Radiographical parameters were measured as follows: Cobb angle, curve flexibility and AV translation of the thoracic curve and lumbar curve, L-AV rotation and tilt, coronal balance, Harrington stable zone on anteroposterior (AP) film and concave bending film, L-AV derotation and L-AV/AV+1 disc opening or closing on convex bending film, etc. The Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) score was used to evaluate clinical outcomes. Radiographic and clinical parameters were statistically analyzed between the two groups.Results:There were 23 patients in AO group and 50 patients in non-AO group. Preoperatively, the AO group had proximal L-AV, lower flexibility of the thoracic curve, coronal imbalance shifted to the convex side of the lumbar curve, lower Harrington stable zone on AP film and concave bending film, and less L-AV/AV+1 disc opening on convex bending film compared to non-AO group. The logistic regression revealed that the flexibility of the thoracic curve, coronal balance, Harrington stable zone on concave bending film, and L-AV/AV+1 disc opening or closing on convex bending film were significant predictors of distal AO. Specifically, the flexibility of the thoracic curve >40.0%, coronal balance< 19.6mm, and Harrington stable zone on concave bending film >77.8% might be optimal thresholds for selecting L-AV as LIV. At the final follow-up, AO group had larger lumbar curves and lower correction rates. No difference was found in the SRS-22 between the two groups.Conclusion:For Lenke modifier C AIS patients, LIV might be considered to stop at L-AV if there were good flexibility of the thoracic curves, coronal balance, L-AV/AV+1 disc opening on convex bending film, and large Harrington stable zone on concave bending film.

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Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 188-194, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932822

ABSTRACT

Sagittal translation(ST) was defined as any measurable sagittal displacement more than 5 mm between the posterior inferior edge of the cranial vertebral body and the posterior superior edge of the caudal body at the osteotomized vertebrae(OV). Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by enthesitis and heterotopic ossification affecting sacroiliac joints and vertebral column. In the late stage, the poor quality of life caused by inability to lie supine or look straight ahead were the chief reasons for spinal osteotomy. Intraoperative ST secondary to AS thoracolumbar kyphosis contributed to improvement of sagittal vertical axis (SVA) partly. However, severe ST leaded to a huge bony step in front of dura, which was prone to vascular injury, neurologic deficit and cerebrospinal fluid leakage, thus affecting surgical outcomes. Prior research indicated there were significant correlations between intraoperative ST and inappropriate maneuver, the degree of ankylosis, the kyphosis curve pattern and correction, early fracture of the anterior cortex of the OV, excessive or insufficient decancellation of the OV, mismatch between the center of correcting forces and the center of rotation, incorrect application of cantilever technique. The use of anti-ST appliances, intraoperative fluoroscopy and nerve monitoring could prevent the occurrence of ST effectively. For AS patients with ST, relevant measures or decompressive laminectomies could be taken on the basis of neurological function to prevent neurologic deficit. Due to the strong osteogenic ability in AS patients, favorable bony reconstruction and fusion could be available during follow-up after adopting corresponding treatment involving ST. A thorough understanding of mechanism and risk factors of sagittal translation was essentially instructional to spinal surgeons thereby the incidence of intraoperative ST and complications could be decreased.

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