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2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835000

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To analyze differences in clinical outcomes of arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction between remnant-preserving and non-preserving methods. @*Methods@#International electronical databases PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane central database from January 1966 to December 2017 were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies that compared differences of clinical outcomes of ACL reconstruction with and without remnant preservation. A metaanalysis of these studies was performed to compare clinical outcomes. Subgroup analyses were conducted to evaluate the role of methodological quality in primary meta-analysis estimates. @*Results@#Five RCTsand six observational studies were included in this meta-analysis and subgroup analysis. The remnant-preserving method in arthroscopic ACL reconstruction showed a statistically significant difference compared to the non-preserving method regarding arthrometric evaluation (side-to-side difference). Lachman test, Lysholm scores, and IKDC subjective scores showed statistically minor difference in meta-analysis, but showed no significant difference in subgroup analysis. Remained parameters including pivot shift test, IKDC grades, incidence of cyclops lesion showed no statistically differences in meta-analysis or subgroup analysis. @*Conclusions@#This meta-analysis with subgroup analysis showed that arthroscopic remnant-preserving ACL reconstruction provided statistically significant but limited clinical relevance in terms of arthrometric evaluation. @*Results@#of Lachman test, Lysholm scores, and IKDC subjective scores demonstrated statistically minor differences.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834476

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate pathologic discrepancies between colposcopy-directed biopsy (CDB) of the cervix and loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) in women with cytologic high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs).@*METHODS@#We retrospectively identified 297 patients who underwent both CDB and LEEP for HSILs in cervical cytology between 2015 and 2018, and compared their pathologic results. Considering the LEEP to be the gold standard, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of CDB for identifying cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades 2 and 3, adenocarcinoma in situ, and cancer (HSIL+). We also performed age subgroup analyses.@*RESULTS@#Among the study population, 90.9% (270/297) had pathologic HSIL+ using the LEEP. The diagnostic performance of CDB for identifying HSIL+ was as follows: sensitivity, 87.8%; specificity, 59.3%; balanced accuracy, 73.6%; positive predictive value, 95.6%; and negative predictive value, 32.7%. Thirty-three false negative cases of CDB included CIN2,3 (n=29) and cervical cancer (n=4). The pathologic HSIL+ rate in patients with HSIL− by CDB was 67.3% (33/49). CDB exhibited a significant difference in the diagnosis of HSIL+ compared to LEEP in all patients (p<0.001). In age subgroup analyses, age groups <35 years and 35–50 years showed good agreement with the entire data set (p=0.496 and p=0.406, respectively), while age group ≥50 years did not (p=0.036).@*CONCLUSION@#A significant pathologic discrepancy was observed between CDB and LEEP results in women with cytologic HSILs. The diagnostic inaccuracy of CDB increased in those ≥50 years of age.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834447

ABSTRACT

Based on emerging data and current knowledge regarding high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing as a primary screening for cervical cancer, the Korean Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology support the following scientific facts:• Compared to cytology, hrHPV screening has higher sensitivity and detects more cases of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.• Qualified hrHPV testing can be considered as an alternative primary screening for cervical cancer to the current cytology method.• The starting age of primary hrHPV screening should not be before 25 years because of possible overtreatment in this age, which has a high human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence but rarely progresses to cancer. The screening interval should be no sooner than every 3 years and no longer than every 5 years.• Before the introduction of hrHPV screening in Korea, research into comparative effectiveness of primary hrHPV screening for cervical cancer should be conducted to determine the appropriate HPV assay, starting age, and screening interval.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834024

ABSTRACT

Background@#In this study, we used an ex-vivo model to investigate the recovery pattern of both the train-of-four (TOF) ratio and first twitch tension of TOF (T1), and determined their relationship during recovery from rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade at various concentrations of sugammadex. @*Methods@#Tissue specimens of the phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm were obtained from 60 adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Each specimen was immersed in an organ bath filled with Krebs buffer solution and stimulated with the TOF pattern using indirect supramaximal stimulation at 20-second intervals. After a 30-minute stabilization period, rocuronium loading and booster doses were serially administered at 10-minute intervals in each sample until > 95% depression of T1 was confirmed. Specimens were randomly allocated to either the control group (washout) or to one of five sugammadex concentration groups (0.75, 1, 2, 4, or 8 times equimolar doses of rocuronium to produce >95% T1 depressions; SGX0.75, SGX1, SGX2, SGX4, and SGX8, respectively). Recovery from neuromuscular blockade was monitored using T1 and the TOF ratio simultaneously until the recovery of T1 to > 95% and the TOF ratio to > 0.9. @*Results@#Statistically significant intergroup differences were observed between the recovery patterns of T1 and the TOF ratio (TOFR, p<0.050), except between SGX2 and SGX4 groups. TOFR/T1 values were maintained at nearly 1 in the control, SGX0.75, and SGX1 groups; however, they were exponentially decayed in the SGX2, SGX4, and SGX8 groups. @*Conclusions@#Recovery of the TOF ratio may be influenced by the sugammadex dose, and a TOF ratio of 1.0 may be achieved before full T1 recovery if administration of sugammadex exceeds that of rocuronium.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811411

ABSTRACT

Based on emerging data and current knowledge regarding high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing as a primary screening for cervical cancer, the Korean Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology support the following scientific facts: • Compared to cytology, hrHPV screening has higher sensitivity and detects more cases of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. • Qualified hrHPV testing can be considered as an alternative primary screening for cervical cancer to the current cytology method. • The starting age of primary hrHPV screening should not be before 25 years because of possible overtreatment in this age, which has a high human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence but rarely progresses to cancer. The screening interval should be no sooner than every 3 years and no longer than every 5 years. • Before the introduction of hrHPV screening in Korea, research into comparative effectiveness of primary hrHPV screening for cervical cancer should be conducted to determine the appropriate HPV assay, starting age, and screening interval.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811219

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate pathologic discrepancies between colposcopy-directed biopsy (CDB) of the cervix and loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) in women with cytologic high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs).METHODS: We retrospectively identified 297 patients who underwent both CDB and LEEP for HSILs in cervical cytology between 2015 and 2018, and compared their pathologic results. Considering the LEEP to be the gold standard, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of CDB for identifying cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades 2 and 3, adenocarcinoma in situ, and cancer (HSIL+). We also performed age subgroup analyses.RESULTS: Among the study population, 90.9% (270/297) had pathologic HSIL+ using the LEEP. The diagnostic performance of CDB for identifying HSIL+ was as follows: sensitivity, 87.8%; specificity, 59.3%; balanced accuracy, 73.6%; positive predictive value, 95.6%; and negative predictive value, 32.7%. Thirty-three false negative cases of CDB included CIN2,3 (n=29) and cervical cancer (n=4). The pathologic HSIL+ rate in patients with HSIL− by CDB was 67.3% (33/49). CDB exhibited a significant difference in the diagnosis of HSIL+ compared to LEEP in all patients (p<0.001). In age subgroup analyses, age groups <35 years and 35–50 years showed good agreement with the entire data set (p=0.496 and p=0.406, respectively), while age group ≥50 years did not (p=0.036).CONCLUSION: A significant pathologic discrepancy was observed between CDB and LEEP results in women with cytologic HSILs. The diagnostic inaccuracy of CDB increased in those ≥50 years of age.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma in Situ , Biopsy , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia , Cervix Uteri , Colposcopy , Conization , Dataset , Diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Papanicolaou Test , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions of the Cervix , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740195

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the survival outcomes of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy in women with uterine-confined endometrial cancer with uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) or clear cell carcinoma (CCC). METHODS: Medical records of 80 women who underwent surgical staging for endometrial cancer were retrospectively reviewed. Stage I UPSC and CCC were pathologically confirmed after surgery. Survival outcomes were compared between the adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy groups. RESULTS: Fifty-four (67.5%) and 26 (32.5%) women had UPSC and CCC, respectively. Adjuvant therapy was administered to 59/80 (73.8%) women (25 radiotherapy and 34 chemotherapy). High preoperative serum cancer antigen-125 level (25.1±20.2 vs. 11.5±6.5 IU/mL, p 0.999) and overall survival (77.5% vs. 87.8%, p=0.373) rates were similar between the groups. Neither radiotherapy (hazard ratio [HR]=1.810; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.297–11.027; p=0.520) nor chemotherapy (HR=1.638; 95% CI=0.288–9.321; p=0.578) after surgery was independently associated with disease recurrence. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed similar survival outcomes for adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy in stage I UPSC and CCC of the endometrium. Further large study with analysis stratified by MI or LVSI is required.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell , Adenocarcinoma, Papillary , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Endometrial Neoplasms , Endometrium , Female , Humans , Medical Records , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759584

ABSTRACT

We developed a new blood management protocol that allows patients to not undergo transfusion during major orthopaedic surgery. Here, we report the safety of or our protocol. The preoperative pharmacological protocol consisted of the administration of 40 µg of recombinant erythropoietin subcutaneously and 100 mg of iron supplements intravenously. During the operation, reinfusion of drainage blood using a cell saver and plasma expander was used. The cell saver device passed the collected blood through a filter, which washed the blood, removing the hemolyzed cells and other impurities. Intravenous tranexamic acid 1 g is given just before the operation, except high-risk patients for venous thromboembolism. Postoperatively, recombinant erythropoietin and iron supplements were administered in the same manner with the preoperative protocol and continued until a hemoglobin level reached 10 g/dL.


Subject(s)
Drainage , Erythropoietin , Humans , Iron , Orthopedics , Plasma , Tranexamic Acid , Venous Thromboembolism
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759547

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The facilitator effects of steroids on neuromuscular transmission may cause resistance to neuromuscular blocking agents. Additionally, steroids may hinder sugammadex reversal of neuromuscular blockade, but these findings remain controversial. Therefore, we explored the effect of dexamethasone and hydrocortisone on rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade and their inhibitory effect on sugammadex. METHODS: We explored the effects of steroids, dexamethasone and hydrocortisone, in vitro using a phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm rat model. In the first phase, an effective dose of rocuronium was calculated, and in the second phase, following sugammadex administration, the recovery of the train-of-four (TOF) ratio and T1 was evaluated for 30 minutes, and the recovery index was calculated in dexamethasone 0, 0.5, 5, and 50 μg/ml, or hydrocortisone 0, 1, 10, or 100 μg/ml. RESULTS: No significant effect of steroids on the effective dose of rocuronium was observed. The TOF ratios at 30 minutes after sugammadex administration were decreased significantly only at high experimental concentrations of steroids: dexamethasone 50 μg/ml and hydrocortisone 100 μg/ml (P < 0.001 and P = 0.042, respectively). There were no statistical significances in other concentrations. No differences were observed in T1. Recovery index was significantly different only in 100 μg/ml of hydrocortisone (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Acute exposure to steroids did not resist the neuromuscular blockade caused by rocuronium. And inhibition of sugammadex reversal on rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade is unlikely at typical clinical doses of dexamethasone and also hydrocortisone. Conclusively, we can expect proper effects of rocuronium and sugammadex when dexamethasone or hydrocortisone is used during general anesthesia.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Animals , Dexamethasone , Hydrocortisone , In Vitro Techniques , Models, Animal , Neuromuscular Blockade , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents , Neuromuscular Monitoring , Rats , Steroids
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760645

ABSTRACT

The long-term survival of heavily pretreated patients with primary peritoneal cancer (PPC) is uncommon. Here, we report on a patient with PPC refractory to multiple lines of intravenous chemotherapy, namely, a combined regimen of paclitaxel and carboplatin, and single regimens of topotecan, docetaxel, cisplatin, and gemcitabine. However, after intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy with paclitaxel-cisplatin, the patient's condition improved, and she has been progression-free for more than 4 years. Interestingly, before the IP chemotherapy, the recurrences were limited to the peritoneal cavity. These results suggest that IP recurrence might be a predictor of a good response to IP chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Carboplatin , Cisplatin , Drug Therapy , Humans , Infusions, Parenteral , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Ovarian Neoplasms , Paclitaxel , Peritoneal Cavity , Peritoneal Neoplasms , Recurrence , Topotecan
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764538

ABSTRACT

On the basis of emerging data and the current understanding of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for radical hysterectomy (RH) in women with cervical cancer, the Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Korean Society of Gynecologic Endoscopy and Minimally Invasive Surgery support the following recommendations: • According to the recently published phase III Laparoscopic Approach to Cervical Cancer (LACC) trial—a prospective randomized clinical trial—disease-free survival and overall survival rates of MIS RH are significantly lower than those of open RH. • Gynecologic oncologists should be aware of the emerging data on MIS RH for early-stage cervical cancer. • The results of the LACC trial, together with institutional data, should be discussed with patients before choosing MIS RH. • MIS RH should be performed for optimal candidates according to the current practice guidelines by gynecologic oncologists who are skilled at performing MIS.


Subject(s)
Endoscopy , Female , Gynecology , Humans , Hysterectomy , Laparoscopy , Laparotomy , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Obstetrics , Prospective Studies , Survival Rate , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785363

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) and neuromuscular monitoring in anesthetic management are integral for endotracheal intubation, better visualization of the surgical field, and prevention of residual neuromuscular blockade and pulmonary complications. Sugammadex is a drug that reduces risk of residual neuromuscular blockade, with more rapid recovery compared to anticholinesterase. The purpose of this study was to investigate current usage status of NMBAs and antagonist with neuromuscular monitoring, among anesthesiologists in Korea.METHODS: Anesthesiologists working in Korea were invited to participate in an online survey via email January 2–February 28, 2018. The questionnaire consisted of 45 items, including preferred NMBAs, antagonists, neuromuscular monitoring, and complications related to the use sugammadex. A total of 174 responses were analyzed.RESULTS: Rocuronium was a commonly used NMBA for endotracheal intubation (98%) of hospitals, and maintenance of anesthesia (83.3%) in of hospitals. Sugammadex, pyridostigmine, and neostigmine were used in 89.1%, 87.9%, and 45.4% of hospitals. Neuromuscular monitoring was employed in 79.3% of hospitals; however only 39.7% of hospitals used neuromuscular monitoring before antagonist administration. Usual dosage range of sugammadex was 2.1–4 mg/kg in 35.1% of hospitals, within 2 mg/kg in 34.5% of hospitals, and 1 vial regardless of body weight in 22.4% of hospitals. Sugammadex-related complications were encountered by 14.9% of respondents.CONCLUSIONS: This survey indicates several minor problems associated with the use of antagonists and neuromuscular monitoring. However, most anesthesiologists appear to have appropriate information regarding the usage of NMBAs and sugammadex.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Body Weight , Delayed Emergence from Anesthesia , Electronic Mail , Intubation, Intratracheal , Korea , Neostigmine , Neuromuscular Blockade , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents , Neuromuscular Monitoring , Pyridostigmine Bromide , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719713

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop Korean versions of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network/Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (NCCN-FACT) Ovarian Symptom Index-18 (NFOSI-18) and FACT/Gynecologic Oncology Group (FACT-GOG) Neurotoxicity 4-item (NTX-4), evaluating their reliability and reproducibility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In converting NFOSI-18 and NTX-4, the following steps were performed: forward translation, backward translation, expert review, pretest of preliminary format, and finalization of Korean versions (K-NFOSI-18 and K-NTX-4). Patients were enrolled from six institutions where each had completed chemotherapy for ovarian, tubal, or peritoneal cancer at least 1 month earlier. In addition to demographics obtained by questionnaire, all subjects were assessed via K-NFOSI-18, K-NTX-4, and a Korean version of the EuroQoL-5 Dimension. Internal structural validity and reliability were evaluated using item internal consistency, item discriminant validity, and Cronbach's α. To evaluate test-retest reliability, K-NFOSI-18 and K-NTX-4 were readministered after 7-21 days, and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated. RESULTS: Of the 250 women enrolled during the 3-month recruitment period, 13 withdrew or did not respond, leaving 237 (94.8%) for the analyses. Mean patient age was 54.3±10.8 years. Re-testing was performed in 190 patients (80.2%). The total K-NFOSI-18 and K-NTX-4 scores were 49 (range, 20 to 72) and 9 (range, 0 to 16), respectively, with high reliability (Cronbach's α=0.84 and 0.89, respectively) and reproducibility (ICC=0.77 and 0.84, respectively) achieved in retesting. CONCLUSION: Both NFOSI-18 and NTX-4 were successfully developed in Korean with minimal modification. Each Korean version showed high internal consistency and reproducibility.


Subject(s)
Demography , Drug Therapy , Fallopian Tubes , Female , Humans , Ovarian Neoplasms , Reproducibility of Results
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716668

ABSTRACT

Based on the current understanding of a preventive effect of bilateral salpingectomy on ovarian/fallopian/peritoneal cancers, the Korean Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Endocrinology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Maternal Fetal Medicine, and Korean Society for Reproductive Medicine support the following recommendations:• Women scheduled for hysterectomy for benign gynecologic disease should be informed that bilateral salpingectomy reduces the risk of ovarian/fallopian/peritoneal cancer, and they should be counseled regarding this procedure at the time of hysterectomy.• Although salpingectomy is generally considered as a safe procedure in terms of preserving ovarian reserve, there is a lack of evidences representing its long-term outcomes. Therefore, patients should be informed about the minimal potential of this procedure for decreasing ovarian reserve.• Prophylactic salpingectomy during vaginal hysterectomy is favorable in terms of prevention of ovarian/fallopian/peritoneal cancer, although operation-related complications minimally increase with this procedure, compared to the complications associated with vaginal hysterectomy alone. Conversion to open or laparoscopic approach from vaginal approach to perform prophylactic salpingectomy is not recommended.• Women who desire permanent sterilization at the time of cesarean delivery could be counseled for prophylactic salpingectomy before surgery on an individual basis.


Subject(s)
Endocrinology , Fallopian Tubes , Female , Genital Diseases, Female , Gynecology , Humans , Hysterectomy , Hysterectomy, Vaginal , Obstetrics , Ovarian Neoplasms , Ovarian Reserve , Prophylactic Surgical Procedures , Reproductive Medicine , Salpingectomy , Sterilization
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718415

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several types of receptors are found at neuromuscular presynaptic membranes. Presynaptic inhibitory A1 and facilitatory A2A receptors mediate different modulatory functions on acetylcholine release. This study investigated whether adenosine A1 receptor agonist contributes to the first twitch tension (T1) of train-of-four (TOF) stimulation depression and TOF fade during rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade, and sugammadex-induced recovery. METHODS: Phrenic nerve-diaphragm tissues were obtained from 30 adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Each tissue specimen was randomly allocated to either control group or 2-chloroadenosine (CADO, 10 μM) group. One hour of reaction time was allowed before initiating main experimental data collection. Loading and boost doses of rocuronium were sequentially administered until > 95% depression of the T1 was achieved. After confirming that there was no T1 twitch tension response, 15 min of resting time was allowed, after which sugammadex was administered. Recovery profiles (T1, TOF ratio [TOFR], and recovery index) were collected for 1 h and compared between groups. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences on amount of rocuronium (actually used during experiment), TOFR changes during concentration-response of rocuronium (P = 0.04), and recovery profiles (P < 0.01) of CADO group comparing with the control group. However, at the initial phase of this experiment, dose-response of rocuronium in each group demonstrated no statistically significant differences (P = 0.12). CONCLUSIONS: The adenosine A1 receptor agonist (CADO) influenced the TOFR and the recovery profile. After activating adenosine receptor, sugammadex-induced recovery from rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block was delayed.


Subject(s)
2-Chloroadenosine , Acetylcholine , Adenosine , Adult , Data Collection , Depression , Humans , Membranes , Neuromuscular Blockade , Neuromuscular Junction , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reaction Time , Receptor, Adenosine A1 , Receptors, Purinergic P1
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718347

ABSTRACT

The name of society was published incorrectly.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717578

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Perioperative magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is used for analgesic, anti-arrhythmic, and obstetric purposes. The effects of MgSO4 on the neuromuscular blockade (NMB) induced by rocuronium, and the sugammadex reversal thereof, have not been clearly quantified. We investigated the effect of various MgSO4 concentrations on the NMB by rocuronium, and sugammadex reversal, in isolated left phrenic nerve hemi-diaphragm (PNHD) preparations from the rat. METHODS: Rat PNHD preparations were randomly allocated to one of four groups varying in terms of MgSO4 concentration (1, 2, 3, and 4 mM, each n = 10, in Krebs solution). The train-of-four (TOF) and twitch height responses were recorded mechanomyographically. The preparations were treated with incrementally increasing doses of rocuronium and each group’s effective concentration (EC)50, EC90, and EC95 of rocuronium were calculated via nonlinear regression. Then, sugammadex was administered in doses equimolar to rocuronium. The recovery index, time to T1 height > 95% of control, and the time to a TOF ratio > 0.9 after sugammadex administration were measured. RESULTS: The EC50, EC90, and EC95 of rocuronium fell significantly as the magnesium level increased. The EC50, EC90, and EC95 of rocuronium did not differ between the 3 and 4 mM groups. The recovery index, time to T1 height > 95% of control, and time to a TOF ratio > 0.9 after sugammadex administration did not differ among the four groups. CONCLUSIONS: Increases in the magnesium concentration in rat PNHD preparations proportionally enhanced the NMB induced by rocuronium but did not affect reversal by equimolar amounts of sugammadex.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Animals , Magnesium Sulfate , Magnesium , Neuromuscular Blockade , Phrenic Nerve , Rats
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