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1.
Intestinal Research ; : 481-492, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000605

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Immunocompromised patients with acute colonic diverticulitis are at high risk for complications and failure of non-surgical treatment. However, evidence on the comparative outcomes of immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients with diverticulitis is lacking. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the outcomes of medical treatment in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients with diverticulitis. @*Methods@#A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Studies comparing the clinical outcomes of immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients with diverticulitis were included. @*Results@#A total of 10 studies with 1,946,461 subjects were included in the quantitative synthesis. The risk of emergency surgery and postoperative mortality after emergency surgery was significantly higher in immunocompromised patients than in immunocompetent patients with diverticulitis (risk ratio [RR], 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31–2.38 and RR, 3.05; 95% CI, 1.70–5.45, respectively). Overall risk of complications associated with diverticulitis was non-significantly higher in immunocompromised than in immunocompetent patients (RR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.95–1.63). Overall mortality irrespective of surgery was significantly higher in immunocompromised than in immunocompetent patients with diverticulitis (RR, 3.65; 95% CI, 1.73–7.69). By contrast, postoperative mortality after elective surgery was not significantly different between immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients with diverticulitis. In subgroup analysis, the risk of emergency surgery and recurrence was significantly higher in immunocompromised patients with complicated diverticulitis, whereas no significant difference was shown in mild disease. @*Conclusions@#Immunocompromised patients with diverticulitis should be given the best medical treatment with multidisciplinary approach because they had increased risks of surgery, postoperative morbidity, and mortality than immunocompetent patients.

2.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 672-682, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003062

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Some management strategies for acute colonic diverticulitis remain controversial in Korean real-world practice because their clinical features differ from those in the West. This study aimed to investigate the opinions of Korean physicians regarding the diagnosis and treatment of acute diverticulitis. @*Methods@#A web-based survey was conducted among gastroenterologists specializing on treating lower gastrointestinal disorders. The questionnaires concerned overall management strategies for colonic diverticulitis, including diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. @*Results@#In total, 209 gastroenterologists responded to the survey. Less than one-fourth of the respondents (23.6%) answered that left-sided colonic diverticulitis is more likely to be complicated than right-sided colonic diverticulitis. Most respondents agreed that immunocompromised patients with diverticulitis have worse clinical outcomes than immunocompetent patients (71.3%). Computed tomography was the most preferred tool for diagnosing diverticulitis (93.9%). Approximately 89% of the respondents answered that they believed antibiotic treatment is necessary to treat acute uncomplicated diverticulitis. Most respondents (92.6%) agreed that emergency surgery is not required for diverticulitis with an abscess or microperforation without panperitonitis. Further, 94.7% of the respondents agreed that colon cancer screening is necessary in patients aged ≥ 50 years with diverticulitis after they have recovered from acute illness. Many respondents (71.4%) agreed that surgery for recurrent diverticulitis should be individualized. @*Conclusions@#Opinions regarding management strategies for colonic diverticulitis among Korean gastroenterologists were well agreed upon in some areas but did not agree well in other areas. Evidence-based guidelines that meet the practical needs of the Korean population should be developed.

3.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 30-34, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002936

ABSTRACT

Phlebosclerotic colitis is a rare form of intestinal ischemia. It is caused by calcified peripheral mesenteric veins and a thickened colonic wall. These characteristic findings can be identified on CT and colonoscopy. A 37-year-old female with a history of long-term herbal medicine use presented with acute lower abdominal pain and vomiting of sudden onset. Colonoscopic findings showed dark-blue discolored edematous mucosa and multiple ulcers from the ascending colon to the sigmoid colon. Abdominal CT findings showed diffuse thickening of the colonic wall and calcifications of the peripheral mesenteric veins from the ascending colon to the sigmoid colon. Based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed with phlebosclerotic colitis. We report this rare case of phlebosclerotic colitis in a healthy young female patient with a history of long-term herbal medicine use and include a review of the relevant literature.

4.
Kosin Medical Journal ; : 98-106, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002480

ABSTRACT

The gut microbiota comprises a collection of microorganisms residing in the human digestive system, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. These microbes have critical roles in food breakdown, immune system regulation, and the production of essential nutrients. Several lower gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and colorectal cancer, have been associated with dysbiosis, which refers to an imbalance in the gut microbiota. Additionally, the gut microbiome and its microbial compounds affect disease development and the host’s immune response. Alterations in the gut-brain axis microbiome are also implicated in lower GI diseases. Therefore, microbiome-based therapies that regulate the gut microbiota (e.g., fecal microbiota transplantation and probiotics) are essential for the prevention and treatment of these diseases. This review aims to highlight the significance of gut microbiota and microbiome-based therapies in managing lower GI diseases.

5.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 186-194, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968751

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The optimal treatment for acute malignant obstruction of the proximal colon (MOPC, proximal to the splenic flexure) remains challenging. Emergency resection, the traditional modality for MOPC, has shown significantly high mortality and morbidity rates, according to recent studies. This study aimed to investigate the clinical outcomes of stent vs stoma as a bridge to curative surgery for MOPC. @*Methods@#This retrospective cohort study included 72 patients who underwent endoscopic placement of a self-expanding metallic stent (SEMS) or loop ileostomy for MOPC at six referral centers between January 2011 and July 2021. Clinical and pathological characteristics, procedure-related complications, and long-term mortality rates after curative surgery were analyzed. @*Results@#During a mean follow-up period of 32 months, 30 patients (41.7%) underwent ileostomy preferentially for more proximal cancer, complete obstruction, and advanced tumor stage compared to the SEMS group. No difference was found in procedure-related complications, but five deaths were observed after ileostomy. Survival analysis for 5-year mortality after curative surgery showed no significant difference between the bridge modalities (log-rank p = 0.253). @*Conclusions@#In this study, SEMS as a bridge to surgery showed relatively safe results in terms of post-procedural mortality. However, these results should be considered when performing ileostomy in patients with more advanced malignant obstruction.

6.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 265-269, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939076

ABSTRACT

Gastric malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are extremely rare spindle cell sarcomas that arise within the peripheral nerves of the gastrointestinal tract. MPNST can present as a mass that may or may not be accompanied by obstruction or bleeding.Type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder with an incidence of 1 in 2,500-3,000. Plexiform neurofibromas in Type 1 NF can undergo a malignant transformation to MPNSTs. Approximately half of the incidence of MPNST is associated with the NF-1 gene. MPNST behaves aggressively, and radical excisional surgery is important for treatment. Recurrence and metastasis are significant, even after a radical excision. Despite multidisciplinary treatment, the five-year survival rate is only 30-50%. This paper reports the case of a 47-year-old man with Type 1 NF who presented with hemorrhage of a gastric subepithelial lesion. He underwent surgery under the suspicion of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor, but it was diagnosed as MPNST after confirming the histopathological appearance and immunohistochemical profiles. In addition, the large mass invaded the spleen and diaphragm. Radical surgery was performed, and additional chemotherapy was administered. This paper reports the experience of a patient with NF 1 with advanced MPNST discovered due to a subepithelial lesion.

7.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 177-181, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926960

ABSTRACT

Malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare neoplasms originating from the gastrointestinal tract that rarely occur in patients below 40 years of age. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reports of satellite and metastatic nodules in GIST.We present a case of a young patient with a huge malignant gastric GIST accompanied by spontaneous bleeding and satellite and metastatic nodules, successfully treated surgically, without preoperative chemotherapy administration. A 28-year-old man was admitted to Haeundae Paik Hospital with melena. A huge bulging gastric mass with ulceration and bleeding was observed on endoscopy. A subepithelial lesion on the stomach body, abutting the pancreatic body and tail, with regional lymph node enlargement was confirmed by EUS and CT. Radical total gastrectomy was performed, the invasion surrounding the pancreatic tail and spleen were surgically dissected, and enlarged lymph nodes around the celiac trunk and the common hepatic artery were removed. The pathology results showed a malignant GIST with two satellite nodules and a metastatic tumor nodule at the left paracardial lymph node site. After complete resection of the malignant GIST, adjuvant chemotherapy with imatinib was initiated. Follow-up CT and endoscopy performed 6 months after surgery confirmed no recurrence of the disease.

8.
Intestinal Research ; : 171-183, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925133

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel coronavirus, is threatening global health worldwide with unprecedented contagiousness and severity. The best strategy to overcome COVID-19 is a vaccine. Various vaccines are currently being developed, and mass vaccination is in progress. Despite the very encouraging clinical trial results of these vaccines, there is insufficient information on the safety and efficacy of vaccines for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients facing various issues. After reviewing current evidence and international guidelines, the Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases developed an expert consensus statement on COVID-19 vaccination issues for Korean IBD patients. This expert consensus statement emphasizes that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccination be strongly recommended for IBD patients, and it is safe for IBD patients receiving immunomodulatory therapy.

9.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 84-87, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875406

ABSTRACT

Colorectal perineuriomas are benign mucosal-based mesenchymal tumors composed of perineurial cells and show serrated or hyperplastic crypts in epithelium on histopathological evaluation. Most perineuriomas are usually presented as sessile polyps and often as subepithelial tumors. In this case, colonoscopy revealed a rectal subepithelial tumor (measuring approximately 7 mm) with yellowish-colored normal mucosa. A rectal neuroendocrine tumor was suspected, and cap-assisted endoscopic mucosal resection was performed. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed bland spindle cells showing immunopositivity for CD34.The patient was finally diagnosed with rectal perineurioma

10.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 37-47, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903571

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that requires lifetime management. Many studies have attempted to establish questionnaires and/or parameters to assess the quality of care for IBD patients. However, no study to date has investigated patients using the Q-methodology, which is subjective and has been studied systematically, to identify and categorize their opinions and subjective thinking about their disease and treatment. We have therefore aimed here to conduct a preliminary study of the Q-methodology to investigate the subjective thinking of IBD patients in Korea. @*Methods@#Q-methodology, a method of analyzing the subjectivity of questionnaire items, was examined in this study. Inputs from 50 IBD patients were classified into 34 normalized statements using a 9-point scale with a normal distribution. The collected data were analyzed using the QUANL PC program. @*Results@#Using the Q-methodology, IBD patients were classified into type I, II, III, and IV treatment needs: medical staff-dependent, relationship-oriented, information-driven, and social awareness, respectively. @*Conclusions@#The subjective needs of IBD patients and their thoughts about the treatment can be classified into four types. Our findings suggest that we can establish a systematic strategy for personalized care according to patient type.

11.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 105-116, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903562

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has reduced the ability to prevent or control chronic disease due to the concerns about safety in accessing health care. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic condition requiring long- term sustained treatment, which is difficult in the current panedemic situation. The Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases (KASID) has developed an expert consensus statement on the clinical practice management of adult inflammatory bowel disease during the COVID-19 pandemic. This expert consensus statement is based on guidelines and clinical reports from several countries around the world. It provides recommendations to deal with the risk of COVID-19 and medication use in IBD patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and emphasizes the importance of right treatment approach to avoid worsening of the disease condition in IBD patients.

12.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 117-128, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903561

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel coronavirus, is threatening global health worldwide with unprecedented contagiousness and severity. The best strategy to overcome COVID-19 is a vaccine. Various vaccines are currently being developed, and mass vaccination is in progress. Despite the very encouraging clinical trial results of these vaccines, there is insufficient information on the safety and efficacy of vaccines for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients facing various issues. After reviewing current evidence and international guidelines, the Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases (KASID) developed an expert consensus statement on COVID-19 vaccination issues for Korean IBD patients. This expert consensus statement emphasizes that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination be strongly recommended for IBD patients, and it is safe for IBD patients receiving immunomodulatory therapy.

13.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 179-189, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903555

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Steatohepatitis related to metabolic syndrome is a chronic liver disease prevalent in patients not only with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis but also with alcoholic liver disease and chronic viral hepatitis. On the other hand, there is limited data on the effects of hepatotonic agents in these patients. Therefore, this study evaluated the efficacy of a combined hepatotonic agent in this population. @*Methods@#Thirty-three adults with chronic hepatitis and one or more components of metabolic syndrome were assigned randomly to receive biphenyl dimethyl dicarboxylate/ursodeoxycholic acid or a placebo for 24 weeks. The primary outcome was the normalization of ALT (≤40 U/L). The secondary outcomes were the change in controlled attenuation parameter, transient elastography, and Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire score. @*Results@#The 33 patients were assigned randomly to two groups. Eight (50%) of 16 patients who received the intervention drug showed the normalization of ALT, whereas only one (6%) of 17 patients in the placebo group did so. In contrast, the change in controlled attenuation, transient elastography, and Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire were similar in the two groups. ALT was changed significantly during the four assessment periods, and this change was affected by the group. The interaction between the group and time was also significant. AST was changed significantly during the same period. This change was not affected by the group. @*Conclusions@#Biphenyl dimethyl dicarboxylate/ursodeoxycholic acid combination reduced ALT in chronic liver disease related to metabolic syndrome. On the other hand, there is no evidence that this leads to improved hepatic steatosis and fibrosis within 6 months.

14.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 37-47, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895867

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that requires lifetime management. Many studies have attempted to establish questionnaires and/or parameters to assess the quality of care for IBD patients. However, no study to date has investigated patients using the Q-methodology, which is subjective and has been studied systematically, to identify and categorize their opinions and subjective thinking about their disease and treatment. We have therefore aimed here to conduct a preliminary study of the Q-methodology to investigate the subjective thinking of IBD patients in Korea. @*Methods@#Q-methodology, a method of analyzing the subjectivity of questionnaire items, was examined in this study. Inputs from 50 IBD patients were classified into 34 normalized statements using a 9-point scale with a normal distribution. The collected data were analyzed using the QUANL PC program. @*Results@#Using the Q-methodology, IBD patients were classified into type I, II, III, and IV treatment needs: medical staff-dependent, relationship-oriented, information-driven, and social awareness, respectively. @*Conclusions@#The subjective needs of IBD patients and their thoughts about the treatment can be classified into four types. Our findings suggest that we can establish a systematic strategy for personalized care according to patient type.

15.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 105-116, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895858

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has reduced the ability to prevent or control chronic disease due to the concerns about safety in accessing health care. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic condition requiring long- term sustained treatment, which is difficult in the current panedemic situation. The Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases (KASID) has developed an expert consensus statement on the clinical practice management of adult inflammatory bowel disease during the COVID-19 pandemic. This expert consensus statement is based on guidelines and clinical reports from several countries around the world. It provides recommendations to deal with the risk of COVID-19 and medication use in IBD patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and emphasizes the importance of right treatment approach to avoid worsening of the disease condition in IBD patients.

16.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 117-128, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895857

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel coronavirus, is threatening global health worldwide with unprecedented contagiousness and severity. The best strategy to overcome COVID-19 is a vaccine. Various vaccines are currently being developed, and mass vaccination is in progress. Despite the very encouraging clinical trial results of these vaccines, there is insufficient information on the safety and efficacy of vaccines for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients facing various issues. After reviewing current evidence and international guidelines, the Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases (KASID) developed an expert consensus statement on COVID-19 vaccination issues for Korean IBD patients. This expert consensus statement emphasizes that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination be strongly recommended for IBD patients, and it is safe for IBD patients receiving immunomodulatory therapy.

17.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 179-189, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895851

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Steatohepatitis related to metabolic syndrome is a chronic liver disease prevalent in patients not only with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis but also with alcoholic liver disease and chronic viral hepatitis. On the other hand, there is limited data on the effects of hepatotonic agents in these patients. Therefore, this study evaluated the efficacy of a combined hepatotonic agent in this population. @*Methods@#Thirty-three adults with chronic hepatitis and one or more components of metabolic syndrome were assigned randomly to receive biphenyl dimethyl dicarboxylate/ursodeoxycholic acid or a placebo for 24 weeks. The primary outcome was the normalization of ALT (≤40 U/L). The secondary outcomes were the change in controlled attenuation parameter, transient elastography, and Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire score. @*Results@#The 33 patients were assigned randomly to two groups. Eight (50%) of 16 patients who received the intervention drug showed the normalization of ALT, whereas only one (6%) of 17 patients in the placebo group did so. In contrast, the change in controlled attenuation, transient elastography, and Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire were similar in the two groups. ALT was changed significantly during the four assessment periods, and this change was affected by the group. The interaction between the group and time was also significant. AST was changed significantly during the same period. This change was not affected by the group. @*Conclusions@#Biphenyl dimethyl dicarboxylate/ursodeoxycholic acid combination reduced ALT in chronic liver disease related to metabolic syndrome. On the other hand, there is no evidence that this leads to improved hepatic steatosis and fibrosis within 6 months.

18.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 349-352, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918941

ABSTRACT

Natural killer (NK) cell enteropathy is not well understood. Although NK-cell enteropathy is typically benign, aggressive NK-cell lymphoma is an important differential diagnosis. This paper reports a rare case of NK-cell enteropathy of the stomach presenting with dyspepsia and weight loss. In this case, upper endoscopy revealed an ulcer-like lesion (approximately 7 mm) surrounded by erythema, edema, and mucosal hemorrhage. The biopsy revealed atypical lymphocyte cells expressing CD56 without an Epstein-Barr virus infection, which is consistent with NK-cell enteropathy. Follow-up endoscopy 2 months later revealed lesion regression with mild erythema. The patient was observed closely for 6 months, with no evidence of lymphoma.

19.
Journal of Minimally Invasive Surgery ; : 139-143, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836151

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Gastric subepithelial tumor (GST) is a disease entity that includes all gastric subepithelial lesions. The oncologically safe surgical technique is complete resection with adequate resection margins. Most of the studies about laparoscopic gastric wedge rsection (LGWR) in GST focus on oncologic curability or surgical effectiveness. However, studies on the factors associated with the operation time are rare. Therefore, this study was conducted to analyze and compare the factors associated with the operation time of LGWR. @*Methods@#From 2010 to 2019, 145 consecutive patients undergoing LGWR were reviewed retrospectively. Clinical characteristics of GST and operation time were analyzed and compared. @*Results@#A total of 145 patients was enrolled and reviewed. There were 59 males (40.7%) and 86 females (59.3%) with a mean age of 53.6 years and mean body mass index (BMI) of 23.9 kg/m 2 . Mean tumor size was 2.9 cm and mean operation time was 66.0 minutes. In statistically, the mean operation time showed significant association with tumor size, BMI, longitudinal tumor location and tumor location between lesser and greater curvature. In multivariate analysis, tumor size, BMI and longitudinal classification of tumor location are statistically significant. @*Conclusion@#A shorter operation time is expected when there is a small tumor, low BMI and mid portion of the stomach GST. Preoperative evaluation for tumor size and body weight is important. In patients with large GST, obesity and both end stomach GST, we think that pre-operative preparation for long operation time should be considered.

20.
Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine ; : 236-241, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835386

ABSTRACT

The authors report a case of a 78-year-old female with a history of gastric surgery 35 years ago. She was initially misdiagnosed as gastric cancer bleeding and underwent an emergency laparotomy under the diagnosis of jejunogastric intussusception (JGI), 23 hours after the onset of symptoms. We also reviewed 116 JGI case reports and analyzed clinical features and outcomes. Compared to the past, diagnosis of JGI is easier with diagnostic examinations such as an endoscopy, computed tomography, and the upper gastrointestinal series. And a good prognosis can be expected with proper fluid resuscitation and surgical reduction, even if the symptoms persist more than 48 hours.

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