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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924911

ABSTRACT

Background@#Exercise is recommended for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients to prevent cardiovascular disease. However, the effects of physical activity (PA) for reducing the risk of heart failure (HF) has yet to be elucidated. We aimed to assess the effect of changes in patterns of PA on incident HF, especially in newly diagnosed diabetic patients. @*Methods@#We examined health examination data and claims records of 294,528 participants from the Korean National Health Insurance Service who underwent health examinations between 2009 and 2012 and were newly diagnosed with T2DM. Participants were classified into the four groups according to changes in PA between before and after the diagnosis of T2DM: continuously inactive, inactive to active, active to inactive, and continuously active. The development of HF was analyzed until 2017. @*Results@#As compared with those who were continuously inactive, those who became physically active after diagnosis showed a reduced risk for HF (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 0.93). Those who were continuously active had the lowest risk for HF (aHR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.96). As compared with those who were inactive, those who exercised regularly, either performing vigorous or moderate PA, had a lower HF risk (aHR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.91). @*Conclusion@#Among individuals with newly diagnosed T2DM, the risk of HF was reduced in those with higher levels of PA after diagnosis was made. Our results suggest either increasing or maintaining the frequency of PA after the diagnosis of T2DM may lower the risk of HF.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890388

ABSTRACT

Background@#Previous studies have suggested that depression in patients with diabetes is associated with worse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in patients with diabetes with comorbid depression. @*Methods@#We examined the general health check-up data and claim database of the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) of 2,668,615 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus who had examinations between 2009 and 2012. As NHIS database has been established since 2002, those who had been diagnosed with depression or CVD since 2002 were excluded. The 2,228,443 participants were classified into three groups according to the claim history of depression; normal group (n=2,166,979), transient depression group (one episode of depression, n=42,124) and persistent depression group (at least two episodes of depression, n=19,340). The development of CVD and mortality were analyzed from 2009 to 2017. @*Results@#Those with depression showed a significantly increased risk for stroke (transient depression group: hazard ratio [HR], 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15 to 1.26) (persistent depression group: HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.46 to 1.63). Those with depression had an increased risk for myocardial infarction (transient depression group: HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.31) (persistent depression group: HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.29 to 1.49). The persistent depression group had an increased risk for all-cause mortality (HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.60 to 1.72). @*Conclusion@#Coexisting depression in patients with diabetes has a deleterious effect on the development of CVD and mortality. We suggest that more attention should be given to patients with diabetes who present with depressive symptoms.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890351

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of smoking on risk of diabetes among those quitting smoking. @*Methods@#We analyzed clinical data from a total of 5,198,792 individuals age 20 years or older who received health care check-up arranged by the national insurance program of Korea between 2009 and 2016 using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Cumulative smoking was estimated by pack-years. Smokers were classified into four categories according to the amount of smoking: light smokers (0.025 to 5 smoking pack-years), medium smokers (5 to 14 smoking pack-years), heavy smokers (14 to 26 smoking pack-years), and extreme smokers (more than 26 smoking pack-years). @*Results@#During the study period, 164,335 individuals (3.2% of the total population) developed diabetes. Compared to sustained smokers, the risk of diabetes was significantly reduced in both quitters (hazard ratio [HR], 0.858; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.838 to 0.878) and nonsmokers (HR, 0.616; 95% CI, 0.606 to 0.625) after adjustment for multiple risk factors. The risk of diabetes gradually increased with amount of smoking in both quitters and current smokers. The risk of diabetes in heavy (HR, 1.119; 95% CI, 1.057 to 1.185) and extreme smokers (HR, 1.348; 95% CI, 1.275 to 1.425) among quitters was much higher compared to light smokers among current smokers. @*Conclusion@#Smoking cessation was effective in reducing the risk of diabetes regardless of weight change. However, there was a potential dose-dependent association between smoking amount and the development of diabetes. Diabetes risk still remained in heavy and extreme smokers even after smoking cessation.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894275

ABSTRACT

Background@#Cutaneous warts tend to recur despite of various treatment modalities. However, previous studies provided few data on their reinfection rate. @*Objective@#In this study, we investigated the reinfection rate along with the incidence and prevalence rates of cutaneous warts. @*Methods@#We conducted a nationwide, cross-sectional population-based study using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database from January 2006 through December 2016. Patients who visited outpatient clinics with an International Classification of Disease-10 code of viral warts (B07) were included. The reinfection rate was calculated as a percentage of patients with an initial visit in 2010 and subsequent visits for cutaneous warts with at least a six-month interval from last visit until 2016. @*Results@#From 2006 to 2016, the overall incidence and prevalence rates of cutaneous warts increased from 2.99 to 7.69 per 1,000 population and from 3.45 to 10.94 per 1,000 population, respectively. The overall reinfection rate of cutaneous warts was 30.9%. The reinfection rate of males and females was 31.6% and 30.0%, respectively. Children under ten years old had the highest reinfection rate (34.3%). @*Conclusion@#These results demonstrate that the reinfection rate of cutaneous warts is the highest in male children under ten years old. Therefore, these patients should be monitored closely after treatment.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901979

ABSTRACT

Background@#Cutaneous warts tend to recur despite of various treatment modalities. However, previous studies provided few data on their reinfection rate. @*Objective@#In this study, we investigated the reinfection rate along with the incidence and prevalence rates of cutaneous warts. @*Methods@#We conducted a nationwide, cross-sectional population-based study using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database from January 2006 through December 2016. Patients who visited outpatient clinics with an International Classification of Disease-10 code of viral warts (B07) were included. The reinfection rate was calculated as a percentage of patients with an initial visit in 2010 and subsequent visits for cutaneous warts with at least a six-month interval from last visit until 2016. @*Results@#From 2006 to 2016, the overall incidence and prevalence rates of cutaneous warts increased from 2.99 to 7.69 per 1,000 population and from 3.45 to 10.94 per 1,000 population, respectively. The overall reinfection rate of cutaneous warts was 30.9%. The reinfection rate of males and females was 31.6% and 30.0%, respectively. Children under ten years old had the highest reinfection rate (34.3%). @*Conclusion@#These results demonstrate that the reinfection rate of cutaneous warts is the highest in male children under ten years old. Therefore, these patients should be monitored closely after treatment.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898092

ABSTRACT

Background@#Previous studies have suggested that depression in patients with diabetes is associated with worse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in patients with diabetes with comorbid depression. @*Methods@#We examined the general health check-up data and claim database of the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) of 2,668,615 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus who had examinations between 2009 and 2012. As NHIS database has been established since 2002, those who had been diagnosed with depression or CVD since 2002 were excluded. The 2,228,443 participants were classified into three groups according to the claim history of depression; normal group (n=2,166,979), transient depression group (one episode of depression, n=42,124) and persistent depression group (at least two episodes of depression, n=19,340). The development of CVD and mortality were analyzed from 2009 to 2017. @*Results@#Those with depression showed a significantly increased risk for stroke (transient depression group: hazard ratio [HR], 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15 to 1.26) (persistent depression group: HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.46 to 1.63). Those with depression had an increased risk for myocardial infarction (transient depression group: HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.31) (persistent depression group: HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.29 to 1.49). The persistent depression group had an increased risk for all-cause mortality (HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.60 to 1.72). @*Conclusion@#Coexisting depression in patients with diabetes has a deleterious effect on the development of CVD and mortality. We suggest that more attention should be given to patients with diabetes who present with depressive symptoms.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898055

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of smoking on risk of diabetes among those quitting smoking. @*Methods@#We analyzed clinical data from a total of 5,198,792 individuals age 20 years or older who received health care check-up arranged by the national insurance program of Korea between 2009 and 2016 using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Cumulative smoking was estimated by pack-years. Smokers were classified into four categories according to the amount of smoking: light smokers (0.025 to 5 smoking pack-years), medium smokers (5 to 14 smoking pack-years), heavy smokers (14 to 26 smoking pack-years), and extreme smokers (more than 26 smoking pack-years). @*Results@#During the study period, 164,335 individuals (3.2% of the total population) developed diabetes. Compared to sustained smokers, the risk of diabetes was significantly reduced in both quitters (hazard ratio [HR], 0.858; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.838 to 0.878) and nonsmokers (HR, 0.616; 95% CI, 0.606 to 0.625) after adjustment for multiple risk factors. The risk of diabetes gradually increased with amount of smoking in both quitters and current smokers. The risk of diabetes in heavy (HR, 1.119; 95% CI, 1.057 to 1.185) and extreme smokers (HR, 1.348; 95% CI, 1.275 to 1.425) among quitters was much higher compared to light smokers among current smokers. @*Conclusion@#Smoking cessation was effective in reducing the risk of diabetes regardless of weight change. However, there was a potential dose-dependent association between smoking amount and the development of diabetes. Diabetes risk still remained in heavy and extreme smokers even after smoking cessation.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914272

ABSTRACT

Background@#Patients with diabetes have a higher risk of requiring repeated percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) than non-diabetic patients. We aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of anti-diabetic drugs on the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. @*Methods@#We analyzed the general health check-up dataset and claims data of the Korean National Health Insurance Service of 199,714 participants (age ≥30 years) who underwent PCIs between 2010 and 2013. Those who underwent additional PCI within 1 year of their first PCI (n=3,325) and those who died within 1 year (n=1,312) were excluded. Patients were classified according to their prescription records for glucose-lowering agents. The primary endpoint was the incidence rate of coronary revascularization. @*Results@#A total of 35,348 patients were included in the study. Metformin significantly decreased the risk of requiring repeat PCI in all patients (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.77). In obese patients with body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2, patients treated with thiazolidinedione (TZD) exhibited a decreased risk of requiring repeat revascularization than those who were not treated with TZD (aHR, 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.63 to 0.95). Patients treated with metformin showed a decreased risk of requiring revascularization regardless of their BMI. Insulin, meglitinide, and alpha-glucosidase inhibitor were associated with increased risk of repeated PCI. @*Conclusion@#The risk of requiring repeat revascularization was lower in diabetic patients treated with metformin and in obese patients treated with TZD. These results suggest that physicians should choose appropriate glucose-lowering agents for the secondary prevention of coronary artery disease.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890425

ABSTRACT

Background@#Evidence regarding the association between variabilities in obesity measures and health outcomes is limited. We aimed to examine the association between variabilities in obesity measures and cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality. @*Methods@#We identified 4,244,460 individuals who underwent health examination conducted by the Korean National Health Insurance Service during 2012, with ≥3 anthropometric measurements between 2009 and 2012. Variabilities in body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC) were assessed using four indices including variability independent of the mean (VIM). We performed multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. @*Results@#During follow-up of 4.4 years, 16,095, 18,957, and 30,200 cases of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and all-cause mortality were recorded. Compared to individuals with the lowest quartiles, incrementally higher risks of study outcomes and those of stroke and all-cause mortality were observed among individuals in higher quartiles of VIM for BW and VIM for WC, respectively. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals comparing the highest versus lowest quartile groups of VIM for BW were 1.17 (1.12 to 1.22) for MI, 1.20 (1.16 to 1.25) for stroke, and 1.66 (1.60 to 1.71) for all-cause mortality; 1.07 (1.03 to 1.12) for stroke and 1.29 (1.25 to 1.33) for all-cause mortality regarding VIM for WC. These associations were similar with respect to the other indices for variability. @*Conclusion@#This study revealed positive associations between variabilities in BW and WC and cardiovascular outcomes and allcause mortality. Our findings suggest that variabilities in obesity measures are associated with adverse health outcomes in the general population.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832436

ABSTRACT

Background@#People with disabilities are at risk of secondary conditions such as diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and risk of type 2 diabetes in South Korea, especially among people with all types of disabilities. @*Methods@#We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service, with two disabilityfree controls matched for each participant with disabilities by age and sex. Information regarding the type, severity and grade of disabilities was obtained based on the National Disability Registry. Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes was defined according to the following criteria: presence of International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification codes E11, E12, E13, or E14 and claims for at least one oral anti-diabetic agent or insulin at baseline, or fasting glucose level ≥126 mg/dL. @*Results@#We included 1,297,806 participants with disabilities and 2,943,719 control. Out of 4,241,525 participants, 841,990 (19.9%) were diagnosed with diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes was higher in the disability group compared with individuals without disabilities (23.1% vs. 18.4%). The odds of having diabetes was higher in the disability group compared with the control group (adjusted odds ratio, 1.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.33 to 1.34). The results showed higher prevalence of diabetes in the mildly disabled group (23.2%) than in the severely disabled group (22.7%). @*Conclusion@#The prevalence and risk of diabetes were higher in people with disabilities compared with the general population. Physicians and public health authorities should focus on people with disabilities for proper diabetes management.

11.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832334

ABSTRACT

Background@#Recent studies suggest an association between diabetes and increased risk of heart failure (HF). However, the associations among obesity status, glycemic status, and risk of HF are not known. In this study, we analyzed whether the risk of HF increases in participants according to baseline glycemic status and whether this increased risk is associated with obesity status. @*Methods@#We analyzed the risk of HF according to baseline glycemic status (normoglycemia, impaired fasting glucose [IFG], and diabetes) in 9,720,220 Koreans who underwent Korean National Health Screening in 2009 without HF at baseline with a median follow-up period of 6.3 years. The participants were divided into five and six groups according to baseline body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, respectively. @*Results@#Participants with IFG and those with diabetes showed a 1.08- and 1.86-fold increased risk of HF, respectively, compared to normoglycemic participants. Compared to the normal weight group (BMI, 18.5 to 22.9 kg/m2 ), the underweight group (BMI <18.5 kg/m2 ) showed a 1.7-fold increased risk of HF, and those with BMI ≥30 kg/m2 showed a 1.1-fold increased risk of HF, suggesting a J-shaped association with BMI. When similar analyses were performed for different glycemic statuses, the J-shaped association between BMI and HF risk was consistently observed in both groups with and without diabetes. @*Conclusion@#Participants with IFG and diabetes showed a significantly increased HF risk compared to normoglycemic participants. This increased risk of HF was mostly prominent in underweight and class II obese participants than in participants with normal weight.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898129

ABSTRACT

Background@#Evidence regarding the association between variabilities in obesity measures and health outcomes is limited. We aimed to examine the association between variabilities in obesity measures and cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality. @*Methods@#We identified 4,244,460 individuals who underwent health examination conducted by the Korean National Health Insurance Service during 2012, with ≥3 anthropometric measurements between 2009 and 2012. Variabilities in body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC) were assessed using four indices including variability independent of the mean (VIM). We performed multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. @*Results@#During follow-up of 4.4 years, 16,095, 18,957, and 30,200 cases of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and all-cause mortality were recorded. Compared to individuals with the lowest quartiles, incrementally higher risks of study outcomes and those of stroke and all-cause mortality were observed among individuals in higher quartiles of VIM for BW and VIM for WC, respectively. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals comparing the highest versus lowest quartile groups of VIM for BW were 1.17 (1.12 to 1.22) for MI, 1.20 (1.16 to 1.25) for stroke, and 1.66 (1.60 to 1.71) for all-cause mortality; 1.07 (1.03 to 1.12) for stroke and 1.29 (1.25 to 1.33) for all-cause mortality regarding VIM for WC. These associations were similar with respect to the other indices for variability. @*Conclusion@#This study revealed positive associations between variabilities in BW and WC and cardiovascular outcomes and allcause mortality. Our findings suggest that variabilities in obesity measures are associated with adverse health outcomes in the general population.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811143

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of dementia. We aimed to comprehensively analyze the incidence and risk factors for dementia and young-onset dementia (YOD) in diabetic patients in Korea using the National Health Insurance Service data.METHODS: Between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2012, a total of 1,917,702 participants with diabetes were included and followed until the date of dementia diagnosis or until December 31, 2015. We evaluated the incidence and risk factors for all dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) by Cox proportional hazards analyses. We also compared the impact of risk factors on the occurrence of YOD and late-onset dementia (LOD).RESULTS: During an average of 5.1 years of follow-up, the incidence of all types of dementia, AD, or VaD was 9.5, 6.8, and 1.3/1,000 person-years, respectively, in participants with diabetes. YOD comprised 4.8% of all dementia occurrence, and the ratio of AD/VaD was 2.1 for YOD compared with 5.5 for LOD. Current smokers and subjects with lower income, plasma glucose levels, body mass index (BMI), and subjects with hypertension, dyslipidemia, vascular complications, depression, and insulin treatment developed dementia more frequently. Vascular risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, and previous cardiovascular diseases were more strongly associated with the development of VaD than AD. Low BMI and a history of stroke or depression had a stronger influence on the development of YOD than LOD.CONCLUSION: The optimal management of modifiable risk factors may be important for preventing dementia in subjects with diabetes mellitus.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Blood Glucose , Body Mass Index , Cardiovascular Diseases , Dementia , Dementia, Vascular , Depression , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diagnosis , Dyslipidemias , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypertension , Incidence , Insulin , Korea , National Health Programs , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Stroke
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785721

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Metabolically healthy obese (MHO) is regarded as a transient concept. We examined the effect of the dynamic change of metabolic health status on the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) both in obese and normal weight individuals.METHODS: We analyzed 3,479,514 metabolically healthy subjects aged over 20 years from the Korean National Health Screening Program, who underwent health examination between 2009 and 2010, with a follow-up after 4 years. The relative risk for T2DM incidence until the December 2017 was compared among the four groups: stable metabolically healthy normal weight (MHNW), unstable MHNW, stable MHO, and unstable MHO.RESULTS: During the 4 years, 11.1% of subjects in the MHNW group, and 31.5% in the MHO group converted to a metabolically unhealthy phenotype. In the multivariate adjusted model, the unstable MHO group showed the highest risk of T2DM (hazard ratio [HR], 4.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.58 to 4.77). The unstable MHNW group had a higher risk of T2DM than stable MHO group ([HR, 3.23; 95% CI, 3.16 to 3.30] vs. [HR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.76 to 1.85]). The stable MHO group showed a higher risk of T2DM than the stable MHNW group. The influence of the transition into a metabolically unhealthy phenotype on T2DM incidence was greater in subjects with aged <65 years, women, and those with weight gain.CONCLUSION: Metabolically healthy phenotype was transient both in normal weight and obese individuals. Maintaining metabolic health was critical for the prevention of T2DM, irrespective of their baseline body mass index.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Incidence , Mass Screening , Obesity , Phenotype , Weight Gain
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Short stature and leg length are associated with risk of diabetes and obesity. However, it remains unclear whether this association is observed in Asians. We evaluated the association between short stature and increased risk for diabetes using the Korean National Health Screening (KNHS) dataset.METHODS: We assessed diabetes development in 2015 in 21,122,422 non-diabetic Koreans (mean age 43 years) enrolled in KNHS from 2009 to 2012 using International Classification of Diseases 10th (ICD-10) code and anti-diabetic medication prescription. Risk was measured in age- and sex-dependent quintile groups of baseline height (20 to 39, 40 to 59, ≥60 years).RESULTS: During median 5.6-year follow-up, 532,918 cases (2.5%) of diabetes occurred. The hazard ratio (HR) for diabetes development gradually increased from the 5th (reference) to 1st quintile group of baseline height after adjustment for confounding factors (1.000, 1.076 [1.067 to 1.085], 1.097 [1.088 to 1.107], 1.141 [1.132 to 1.151], 1.234 [1.224 to 1.244]), with similar results in analysis by sex. The HR per 5 cm height increase was lower than 1.00 only in those with fasting blood glucose (FBG) below 100 mg/dL (0.979 [0.975 to 0.983]), and in lean individuals (body mass index [BMI] 18.5 to 23 kg/m²: 0.993 [0.988 to 0.998]; BMI <18.5 kg/m²: 0.918 [0.9 to 0.935]).CONCLUSION: Height was inversely associated with diabetes risk in this nationwide study of Korean adults. This association did not differ by sex, and was significant in lean individuals and those with normal FBG levels.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asians , Blood Glucose , Body Height , Dataset , Diabetes Mellitus , Fasting , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , International Classification of Diseases , Leg , Mass Screening , Obesity , Prescriptions , Public Health
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739801

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Waist circumference (WC) is a well-known obesity index that predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD). We studied the relationship between baseline WC and development of incident myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic stroke (IS) using a nationwide population-based cohort, and evaluated if its predictability is better than body mass index (BMI). METHODS: Our study included 21,749,261 Koreans over 20 years of age who underwent the Korean National Health Screening between 2009 and 2012. The occurrence of MI or IS was investigated until the end of 2015 using National Health Insurance Service data. RESULTS: A total of 127,289 and 181,637 subjects were newly diagnosed with MI and IS. The incidence rate and hazard ratio of MI and IS increased linearly as the WC level increased, regardless of adjustment for BMI. When the analyses were performed according to 11 groups of WC, the lowest risk of MI was found in subjects with WC of 70 to 74.9 and 65 to 69.9 cm in male and female, and the lowest risk of IS in subjects with WC of 65 to 69.9 and 60 to 64.9 cm in male and female, respectively. WC showed a better ability to predict CVD than BMI with smaller Akaike information criterion. The optimal WC cutoffs were 84/78 cm for male/female for predicting MI, and 85/78 cm for male/female for predicting IS. CONCLUSION: WC had a significant linear relationship with the risk of MI and IS and the risk began to increase from a WC that was lower than expected.


Subject(s)
Adult , Body Mass Index , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Mass Screening , Myocardial Infarction , National Health Programs , Obesity , Observational Study , Stroke , Waist Circumference
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739799

ABSTRACT

We investigated associations between breastfeeding duration and number of children breastfed and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and glycemic control among parous women. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data for 9,960 parous women from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010 to 2013). Having ever breastfed was inversely associated with prevalent T2DM (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42 to 0.87). All ranges of total and average breastfeeding duration showed inverse associations with T2DM. Even short periods of breastfeeding were inversely associated with T2DM (adjusted OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.99 for a total breastfeeding duration ≤12 months; adjusted OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.99 for an average breastfeeding duration per child ≤6 months). A longer duration of breastfeeding was associated with better glycemic control in parous women with T2DM (P trend=0.004 for total breastfeeding duration; P trend <0.001 for average breastfeeding duration per child). Breastfeeding may be associated with a lower risk of T2DM and good glycemic control in parous women with T2DM. Breastfeeding may be a feasible method to prevent T2DM and improve glycemic control.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Breast Feeding , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Female , Humans , Korea , Lactation , Methods , Odds Ratio
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717232

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding can result from various conditions, including ulcers, neoplasms and infectious enterocolitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of the fecal immunochemical transferrin test compared with the fecal Hb test in various clinical settings. METHODS: A total of 1,116 clinical stool specimens submitted for fecal occult blood testing were prospectively examined using both FIT Hb and FIT Tf kits (AlfresaPharma, Japan). To verify the specificity of the two tests, stool specimens from 265 health check-up examinees were also included. RESULTS: A review of medical records revealed that 396 patients had clinical conditions associated with GI bleeding. FIT Hb and FIT Tf results were positive in 156 (39.4%) and 137 (34.6%) cases, respectively, and an additional 194 (49.0%) cases tested positive with either FIT Hb or FIT Tf. The two tests showed a moderate strength of agreement (kappa value; 0.56). Colitis (n=71) was associated with the most GI bleedings, followed by acute gastroenteritis (n=29), GI ulcers (n=27) and GI cancers (n=15). While the first two groups had higher positive rates on FIT Tf, patients in the latter two groups had higher positive rates on FIT Hb. Notably, four of nine specimens from premature babies tested positive only on FIT Tf. The specificity of FIT Hb and FIT Tf was 100% and 99.6%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Concurrent use of FIT Hb and FIT Tf improved the detection rate of occult GI bleeding, especially in patients with infectious GI disease (such as colitis or gastroenteritis) and in premature babies.


Subject(s)
Colitis , Enterocolitis , Gastroenteritis , Hemorrhage , Humans , Medical Records , Occult Blood , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Transferrin , Ulcer
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713496

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the fetal/infant mortality risk associated with each additional week of expectant management to that associated with immediate delivery in women with multiple gestations. METHODS: This was a retrospective national cohort study of 94,170 multiple deliveries, 92,619 (98.4%) twin and 1,352 (1.44%) triplet pregnancies, between 32 0/7 and 42 6/7 weeks of gestation recorded in the Korean vital statistics database. We investigated the risks of stillbirth and infant death after birth in Korea according to the week of gestation in twin and triplet pregnancies. RESULTS: The risk of stillbirth significantly increased between 34 and 35 weeks of gestation and between 37 and 38 weeks of gestation in twin pregnancies and between 34 and 37 weeks of gestation in triplet pregnancies. The risk of infant death following delivery gradually decreased as pregnancies approached full term. Week-by-week differences were statistically significant between 33 and 34 weeks, with decreasing risks of infant death at advancing gestational ages in twin pregnancies. At 37 weeks of gestation, the relative risk of mortality was significantly higher with expectant management compared with immediate delivery (relative risk, 3.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.41–6.38). CONCLUSION: In twin pregnancies, delivery at 37 weeks of gestation can minimize the risks of stillbirth and infant death in uncomplicated cases, although individual maternal and fetal characteristics must be considered when determining the optimal timing of delivery. In multiple pregnancies, close fetal surveillance is needed after 34 weeks of gestation.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Delivery, Obstetric , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant Death , Infant , Korea , Mortality , Parturition , Pregnancy , Pregnancy, Multiple , Pregnancy, Triplet , Pregnancy, Twin , Retrospective Studies , Stillbirth , Twins , Vital Statistics
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