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1.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 792-799, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878087

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Norepinephrine infusion decreases hypotension after spinal anesthesia during cesarean section. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of norepinephrine infusion and ephedrine bolus against post-spinal hypotension in parturients.@*METHODS@#In this double-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial, parturients scheduled for elective cesarean section were randomly allocated to receive norepinephrine infusion (0.05 μg·kg-1·min-1) just before spinal anesthesia continuing for 30 min or ephedrine bolus (0.15 mg/kg) just before spinal anesthesia. A rescue bolus (5 μg norepinephrine for the norepinephrine group, and 5 mg ephedrine for the ephedrine group) was administered whenever hypotension occurred. Our primary outcome was the incidence of hypotension within 30 min of spinal anesthesia administration. Secondary outcomes included maternal and neonatal outcomes 30 min after spinal block, and neonatal cerebral oxygenation 10 min after birth.@*RESULTS@#In total, 190 patients were enrolled; of these patients, 177 were included in the final analysis. Fewer patients suffered hypotension in the norepinephrine group than in the ephedrine group (29.5% vs. 44.9%, odds ratio [OR]: 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.28-0.95, P = 0.034). Moreover, the tachycardia frequency was lower in the norepinephrine group than in the ephedrine group (OR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.11-0.44, P < 0.001), and patients suffered less nausea and vomiting (OR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.11-0.70, P = 0.004). There was no difference in Apgar scores and umbilical arterial blood gas analysis between the two groups. However, neonatal cerebral regional saturations were significantly higher after birth in the norepinephrine group than in the ephedrine group (mean difference: 2.0%, 95% CI: 0.55%-3.45%, P = 0.008).@*CONCLUSION@#In patients undergoing elective cesarean section with spinal anesthesia, norepinephrine infusion compared to ephedrine bolus resulted in less hypotension and tachycardia, and exhibited potential neonatal benefits.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02542748; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT02542748.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Hypotension/prevention & control , Infant, Newborn , Phenylephrine , Pregnancy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828363

ABSTRACT

In order to observe the anti-tumor effect of cinobufotalin on H22 liver cancer mice and to explore its regulatory mechanism, 50 Kunming mice were subcutaneously inoculated with H22 intraperitoneal passage cells under the armpit to establish H22 hepatocellular carcinoma model. They were then randomly divided into model group, cinobufotalin low dose group, cinobufotalin high dose group, cisplatin group and cisplatin+cinobufotalin group, which received 0.01% ethanol solution, 1 mg·kg~(-1) cinobufotalin, 5 mg·kg~(-1) cinobufotalin, 5 mg·kg~(-1) cisplatin, 5 mg·kg~(-1)cisplatin + 5 mg·kg~(-1) cinobufotalin respectively for 10 days. The general condition of mice during the intervention was observed, and the inhibition rate, tumor mass, thymus index, histopathological changes of the tumors, apoptotic rate of the tumors, the expressions of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3 K), protein kinase B(Akt), apoptosis related gene(Fas), Fas ligand(FasL) mRNA and protein phosphorylated Akt(pAkt) protein in the tumors of each group were compared. The results showed that during the modeling period, the mice showed a decline in food intake, dark fur, poor mental status, and gradually worsened over time. The mental status of mice in each intervention group was improved gradually, especially in the cisplatin+cinobufotalin group. As compared with the model group, the tumor mass of each intervention group was lower(P<0.05). As compared with the cinobufotalin low dose group, the tumor mass was lower and inhibition rate was higher in the cinobufotalin high dose group, cisplatin group and cisplatin+cinobufotalin group(P<0.05). As compared with the cinobufotalin high dose group and the cisplatin group, the tumor mass was lower and the inhibition rate was higher in cisplatin+cinobufotalin group(P<0.05). As compared with the model group, the thymus index was higher in cinobufotalin high dose group and cisplatin + cinobufotalin group, while was lower in cisplatin group(P<0.05). As compared with the cinobufotalin low dose group, the thymus index was higher in the cinobufotalin high dose group and lower in the cisplatin group(P<0.05). As compared with the cinobufotalin high dose group, the thymus index was lower in cisplatin group(P<0.05). As compared with cisplatin group, the thymus index was higher in cisplatin+cinobufotalin group(P<0.05). Pathological staining showed that a large number of heterogeneous cells and mitotic phenomena were observed in the model group. Cell fragments and neutrophils were observed in the tumor tissues of the intervention groups, showing diffuse necrosis, and the diffuse necrosis was more obvious in the cisplatin+cinobufotalin group. As compared with the model group, the apoptotic rate of the tumors and the relative expressions of Fas mRNA and protein were higher in the intervention groups, while the relative expressions of PI3 K, FasL mRNA and protein and the relative expression of pAkt protein were lower in the intervention groups(P<0.05). As compared with the cinobufotalin low dose group, the apoptotic rate of the tumors and relative expression of Fas and protein were higher in the cinobufotalin high dose group, cisplatin group and cisplatin+cinobufotalin group, while the relative expressions of PI3 K, FasL mRNA and protein and pAkt protein were lower(P<0.05). As compared with the cinobufotalin high dose group and the cisplatin group, apoptotic rate of the tumors and the relative expression of Fas mRNA and protein were higher in the cisplatin+cinobufotalin group, while the relative expressions of PI3 K, FasL mRNA and protein and pAkt protein were lower in the cisplatin+cinobufotalin group(P<0.05). In summary, cinobufotalin has significant anti-tumor effect on H22 liver cancer mice, and can enhance the immune function of mice and synergistically enhance the effect of chemotherapy. Its mechanism may be associated with regulating PI3 K/Akt/Fas/FasL signaling pathway related genes and protein expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Bufanolides , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Cisplatin , Fas Ligand Protein , Liver Neoplasms , Mice
3.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 45-52, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777211

ABSTRACT

The human visual system efficiently extracts local elements from cluttered backgrounds and integrates these elements into meaningful contour perception. This process is a critical step before object recognition, in which contours often play an important role in defining the shapes and borders of the to-be-recognized objects. However, the neural mechanism of the contour integration is still under debate. The investigation of the neural mechanism underlying contour integration could deepen our understanding of perceptual grouping in the human visual system and advance the development of the algorithms for image grouping and segmentation in computer vision. Here, we review two theoretical frameworks that were proposed over the past decades. The first framework is based on hardwired horizontal connection in primary visual cortex, while the second one emphasizes the role of recurrent connections within intra- and inter-areas. At the end of review, we also raise the unsolved issues that need to be addressed in future studies.


Subject(s)
Form Perception , Humans , Models, Neurological , Pattern Recognition, Visual , Visual Cortex , Physiology , Visual Perception
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776622

ABSTRACT

As a major active component extracted from traditional Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, triptolide exhibits multiple pharmacological effects. Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved intracellular catabolic process involved in cytoplasmic materials degradation. Autophagic dysfunction contributes to the pathologies of many human diseases, which makes it a promising therapeutic target. Recent studies have shown that triptolide exerts neuroprotection, anti-tumor activities, organ toxicity, and podocyte protection by modulating autophagy. This article highlights the current information on triptolide-modulated autophagy, analyzes the possible pathways involved, and describes the crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis modulated by triptolide, in hope of providing implications for the roles of autophagy in pharmacological effects of triptolide and expanding its novel usage as an autophagy modulator.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Diterpenes , Pharmacology , Epoxy Compounds , Pharmacology , Humans , Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Neuroprotective Agents , Pharmacology , Phenanthrenes , Pharmacology , Podocytes
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-798357

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the effect of Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu Tang on angiogenesis of osteoarthritis with Yang deficiency and cold coagulation.Method: Totally 60 female SD rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, celecoxib group (20.82 mg·kg-1) and low, medium, high-dose Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu Tang groups (3.24, 6.48, 12.96 g·kg-1). All groups, except for control group, were involved in duplicating the osteoarthritis(OA) model through frozen and knee fixation, as well as 42-day cold environmental stimulation. After modeling, all drug-group rats were respectively administrated with corresponding drugs for 28 days, once a day. Meanwhile, control group and model group were given equivalent distilled water by gavage. 24 hours after the last gavage, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF),prostaglandin E2(PGE2) and transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1) in serum were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) method, VEGF expressions in cartilage and synovial with immunohistochemical method, and interleukin-17(IL-17) and VEGF levels in synovial with Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction(Real-time PCR).Result: Compared with normal group, the expression of VEGF in serum, cartilage and synovial were significantly increased (P2 and TGF-β1 expressions, IL-17 level were increased significantly (P2, TGF-β1 and IL-17 level were decreased significantly (PPPConclusion: Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu Tang has an effect in suppressing angiogenesis of knee and alleviate cartilage lesion by regulating VEGF and its upstream cytokines PGE2 and TGF-β1.

6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1654-1660, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350447

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>The classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been challenged by lack of effective and reliable biomarkers due to inter-subject variability. This article presents a classification method for AD based on kernel density estimation (KDE) of local features.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>First, a large number of local features were extracted from stable image blobs to represent various anatomical patterns for potential effective biomarkers. Based on distinctive descriptors and locations, the local features were robustly clustered to identify correspondences of the same underlying patterns. Then, the KDE was used to estimate distribution parameters of the correspondences by weighting contributions according to their distances. Thus, biomarkers could be reliably quantified by reducing the effects of further away correspondences which were more likely noises from inter-subject variability. Finally, the Bayes classifier was applied on the distribution parameters for the classification of AD.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Experiments were performed on different divisions of a publicly available database to investigate the accuracy and the effects of age and AD severity. Our method achieved an equal error classification rate of 0.85 for subject aged 60 - 80 years exhibiting mild AD and outperformed a recent local feature-based work regardless of both effects.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>We proposed a volumetric brain MRI classification method for neurodegenerative disease based on statistics of local features using KDE. The method may be potentially useful for the computer-aided diagnosis in clinical settings.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alzheimer Disease , Classification , Pathology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methods , Middle Aged
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-231647

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effect of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels on T cell activation and apoptosis of synovial cells in collagen induced arthritis (CIA) rats, and to explore the mechanism of Fengshining Capsule (FSN) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sixty rats were randomly divided into the normal control group, the CIA model group, the Tripterygium Poly-glycoside Tablet (TPT) group, the low dose FSN group (at the daily dose of 0.33 g/kg), the middle dose FSN group (at the daily dose of 0.66 g/kg), and the high dose FSN group (at the daily dose of 1.32 g/kg), 10 in each group. T lymphocyte subsets were detected by flow cytometry. The content of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) in plasma of rats were detected by ELISA. Its expression of hydroxyl radicals was detected by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 protein expressions were measured by Western blot.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the CIA model group, the levels of ROS were elevated in each dose FSN group (P < 0.01). The level of CD4+ / CD8 was significantly reduced in the middle dose FSN group (P < 0.01). The content of IFN-gamma was obviously lowered in each dose FSN group (P < 0.01), while that of IL-4 was obviously elevated in the high dose FSN group (P < 0.01). Meanwhile, the expression of Caspase-9 and Caspase-3 significantly increased in each dose FSN group (P < 0.05). Besides, the average gray scale of Caspase-9 was significantly higher in the low and middle FSN groups than in the TPT group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The mechanism of FSN for regulating the immune hyperfunction and inhibiting the proliferation of synovial cells in CIA rats might be associated with up-regulating in vivo ROS levels.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Metabolism , Caspase 3 , Metabolism , Caspase 9 , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Interferon-gamma , Blood , Interleukin-4 , Blood , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reactive Oxygen Species , Metabolism , Synovial Membrane , Cell Biology , Pathology , T-Lymphocytes , Metabolism
8.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 418-422, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-269143

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the relationship between adipokines and metabolic syndrome (MS),and the predictive value of adipokines on diagnosis of MS.Methods According to the IDF consensus worldwide definition on MS in 2005,we divided the subjects into 4 groups:115 in MS0 (with none of MS component) ; 118 in MS1 (with one MS component) ; 77 in MS2 (with two MS components) and 104 in MS3 (with none of MS component).Serum levels of leptin,visfatin adiponectin and resistin were measured in these groups,using the enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method.Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP-4) was assessed by radioimmtmoassay (RIA).Result ( 1 ) Serum adiponectin level decreased while the serum level of leptin and RBP-4 increased in women with the number of MS components gathered.However,the level of visfatin obviously decreased only in the MS3 phase.The level of resistin showed no changes with MS components gathered.(2) Detection rates of the MS components such as high blood pressure,hyperglycemia,dyslipidemia,insulin resistance and obesity were significantly higher in the Q4 group with high level of leptin when compared to the Q1 group with lower level (odd ratio:Q4/Q1 is 1.3,1.8,1.6,5.2,3.0respectively).(3) The higher level of serum RBP-4 was not only associated with greater risk for impaired glucose regulation (odd ratio:Q4/Q1=2.6),but also significantly with the risks for hyperglycemia ( odd ratio:Q4/Q 1 =1.6 ) dyslipidemia ( odd ratio:Q4/Q 1 =1.9 ),obesity ( odd ratio:Q4/Q 1 =1.5 ) and MS (odd ratio:Q4/Q 1 =2.7).In the Q4 group with higher levels of RBP-4,the positive rates of MS reached 50%.(4) The detection rates of MS components such as dyslipidemia,obesity,hyperglycemia,and insulin resistance were significantly higher in the Q1 group with the lowest level of adiponeptin when compared to the Q4 group with the highest level.Conclusion The levels of adipokines,serum adiponectin,leptin and RBP-4 showed significant associations with MS.Our findings suggested that these adipokines might serve as the key factors that participating in MS and could be used as markers for early prediction of MS as well as the new targets for therapy.

9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1686-1689, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-324909

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Smoking is related with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Retinol-binding protein-4 is a new adipocytokine associated with insulin resistance. We investigated the serum levels of a series of adipocytokines including retinol-binding protein-4 in smokers and non-smokers to explore the possible roles of adipocytokines on smoking induced insulin resistance.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 136 healthy male subjects (92 smokers and 44 non-smokers) with normal glucose tolerance were enrolled in the study. Adipocytokines including retinol-binding protein-4, visfatin, leptin, resistin, adiponectin were measured for the comparison between the two groups. Serum lipid profile, glucose, true insulin and proinsulin levels were measured as well in both groups. Food intake spectrum was also investigated.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Both groups had similar profile of food consumption; visfatin, leptin, resistin and adiponectin, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, as well as blood pressure and body mass index, were similar in both groups. Triglycerides, retinol-binding protein-4 and homeostatic model assessment index for insulin resistance were higher in smoker group ((2.58 ± 2.53) vs. (1.60 ± 0.94) mmol/L, (26.05 ± 8.50) vs. (21.83 ± 8.40) µg/ml, and 2.25 ± 2.08 vs. 1.58 ± 1.15, respectively).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Smoking may have effect on insulin sensitivity, which is correlated with retinol-binding protein-4.</p>


Subject(s)
Adiponectin , Blood , Adult , Alanine Transaminase , Blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Blood , Cholesterol, HDL , Blood , Cholesterol, LDL , Blood , Humans , Leptin , Blood , Male , Middle Aged , Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase , Blood , Resistin , Blood , Retinol-Binding Proteins , Metabolism , Smoking , Blood , Triglycerides , Blood
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-301498

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of leptin on collagen systhesis in wounded rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Thirty male Wistar rats, weight (180 +/- 20)g, were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10) by weight: normal depilation group, wound control group and leptin treatment group and ten rats were included in each group. A full-thickness defect measuring 2 x 2.5 cm was made in the back of rats in wound control group and leptin treatment group. Each wound in rats of leptin treatment group was applied topically with 0.1 ml leptin solution (2.0 microg leptin), daily for 7 days and that of wound control group with equivalent saline solution. All rats were killed and then granulation tissues samples and skin were collected to examine the synthesis of collagen.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Hydroxyproline content in granulation tissues of in leptin treatment group (33.92 +/- 3.09) mg/g were significantly increased than those in control group (29.55 +/- 3.59 mg/g, P < 0.05). The mRNA expressions of collagen I and III were significantly enhanced in leptin treatment group (0.96 +/- 0.09, 0.09 +/- 0.06) than those in control group (0.80 +/- 0.03, 0.08 +/- 0.03). The levels of type I and III collagen were significantly increased in leptin treatment group than those in control group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Leptin applied topically can accelerate wound healing through enhancing gene expression of type I and III collagen and synthesis of collagen in wound tissue.</p>


Subject(s)
Administration, Cutaneous , Animals , Collagen Type I , Genetics , Metabolism , Collagen Type III , Genetics , Metabolism , Leptin , Therapeutic Uses , Male , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Wound Healing , Wounds and Injuries , Drug Therapy
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-344913

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of electroacupuncture preconditioning on the serum level of S100 calcium-binding protein beta (S100beta) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in patients undergoing craniocerebral tumor operation.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 32 patients, who would go through craniocerebral tumor resection under general anesthesia, were randomly assigned to two groups, 16 in each group. Patients in the electroacupuncture (EA) group received electroacupuncture on Fengfu acupoint (Du16) and Fengchi acupoint (GB20) for 30 min, 2 h before operation. The stimulus is 1-4 mA with a density wave frequency of 2/15 Hz. Patients in the control group received no pretreatment. Anesthesia was maintained with remifentanil at the dose of 4-8 mg/kg per hour, pumped intravenous drip of vecuronium at 1.0-2.0 microg/kg each hour, and discontinuous intravenous dripped with vecuronium bromide at 0.5-1 mg. The serum levels of S100beta and NSE were measured with ELISA before operation, before skin incision, after tumor removal, at the end of operation, and at 24 h after operation.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The serum level of S100beta and NSE did not change before skin incision. The serum level of NSE increased significantly and the level of S100beta increased insignificantly after the tumor resection. The serum levels of S100beta and NSE in the EA group and the control group were 1.16+/-0.28 microg/L vs 1.47+/- 0.33 microg/L, 24.7+/-13.3 microg/L vs 31.4+/-14.1 microg/L at the end of the operation, respectively. Twenty-four h after operation, the correspondence indices were 1.18+/-0.31 microg/L vs 1.55+/-0.26 microg/L, and 25.5+/-12.4 microg/L vs 32.4+/- 11.7 microg/L. The two indices at these two time points were significantly increased than those before operation, respectively (P<0.05). At the end of the operation and 24 h post-operation, the serum levels of S100beta and NSE in the EA group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Electroacupuncture Fengchi and Fengfu for 30 min before craniocerbral tumor operation could decrease the serum level of S100beta and NSE, thus may have potential protective effect on brain damage, which needs to be further studied.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Brain Neoplasms , Blood , General Surgery , Demography , Electroacupuncture , Female , Hemodynamics , Humans , Male , Nerve Growth Factors , Blood , Phosphopyruvate Hydratase , Blood , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit , S100 Proteins , Blood , Time Factors
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-339651

ABSTRACT

<p><b>AIM</b>To observe the effects of stress on Glu uptake and NMDAR of hippocampus synaptosome in rats with different zinc status.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Stress model was established by photoelectric stimulus. The behaviors of rats were tested in open-field case. 3H-L-Glu was taken as radioligand to detect the NMDAR binding. Glu uptake was determined with radioimmunoassay.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with CT rats, ZD rats performed less movement in open-field test, both Bmax of NMDAR and 3H-L-Glu uptake of hippocampus in these rats were significantly decreased. Compared with corresponding non-stressed groups, the stressed groups appeared longer latency and less movement in open-field test. Increased Bmax of NMDAR and decreased 3H-L-Glu uptake were observed in all stressed rats, but only in SZD rats these indices showed statistical difference.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Abnormal behaviors of rats induced by photoelectric stress were observed in open-field test, which was more serious in zinc deficiency rats. It is supposed that the Glu-NMDAR pathway is involved in the process of stress reaction. As it shows in our experiment, the changes of Bmax of NMDAR and 3H-L-Glu uptake of hippocampus synaptosome seems to be a part of the mechanisms of stress action.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Glutamic Acid , Metabolism , Hippocampus , Metabolism , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Metabolism , Stress, Physiological , Zinc , Pharmacology
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-682936

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effects of TENS on metatarsus plantar flexion and inversion in stroke patients,and to explore its mechanism.Methods Thirty-two stroke patients with gastrocnemius spasticity were randomly divided into a control group (n=16) and a TENS group (n=16).All patients were treated with foot sup- ports,neurodevelopmental and manipulation therapies.In addition,the TENS group received TENS on the anterior tibialis,peroneus longus and brevis muscles.All patients were assessed in terms of their Chinese stroke scale(CSS) and H reflex scores before and after therapy.Results Compared with those in the control group,the H reflex scores in the TENS group were obviously decreased,while H reflex latency was prolonged and H/M was reduced. Gait in the TENS group was evidently improved.Conclusion TENS is an effective therapy to decrease gastrocnemi- us spasticity and to improve the gait of stroke patients.

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