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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899148

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose: Blood pressure (BP) control is strongly recommended, but BP control rate has not been well studied in patients with stroke. We evaluated the BP control rate with fimasartan-based antihypertensive therapy initiated in patients with recent cerebral ischemia. @*Methods@#This multicenter, prospective, single-arm trial involved 27 centers in South Korea. Key inclusion criteria were recent cerebral ischemia within 90 days and high BP [systolic blood pressure (SBP) >140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) >90 mm Hg]. BP lowering was initiated with fimasartan. BP management during the follow-up was at the discretion of the responsible investigators. The primary endpoint was the target BP goal achievement rate (<140/90 mm Hg) at 24 weeks. Key secondary endpoints included achieved BP and BP changes at each visit, and clinical events (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03231293). @*Results@#Of 1,035 patients enrolled, 1,026 were included in the safety analysis, and 951 in the efficacy analysis. Their mean age was 64.1 years, 33% were female, the median time interval from onset to enrollment was 10 days, and the baseline SBP and DBP were 162.3±16.0 and 92.2±12.4 mm Hg (mean±SD). During the study period, 55.5% of patients were maintained on fimasartan monotherapy, and 44.5% received antihypertensive therapies other than fimasartan monotherapy at at least one visit. The target BP goal achievement rate at 24-week was 67.3% (48.6% at 4-week and 61.4% at 12-week). The mean BP was 139.0/81.8±18.3/11.7, 133.8/79.2±16.4/11.0, and 132.8/78.5±15.6/10.9 mm Hg at 4-, 12-, and 24-week. The treatment-emergent adverse event rate was 5.4%, including one serious adverse event. @*Conclusions@#Fimasartan-based BP lowering achieved the target BP in two-thirds of patients at 24 weeks, and was generally well tolerated.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891444

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose: Blood pressure (BP) control is strongly recommended, but BP control rate has not been well studied in patients with stroke. We evaluated the BP control rate with fimasartan-based antihypertensive therapy initiated in patients with recent cerebral ischemia. @*Methods@#This multicenter, prospective, single-arm trial involved 27 centers in South Korea. Key inclusion criteria were recent cerebral ischemia within 90 days and high BP [systolic blood pressure (SBP) >140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) >90 mm Hg]. BP lowering was initiated with fimasartan. BP management during the follow-up was at the discretion of the responsible investigators. The primary endpoint was the target BP goal achievement rate (<140/90 mm Hg) at 24 weeks. Key secondary endpoints included achieved BP and BP changes at each visit, and clinical events (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03231293). @*Results@#Of 1,035 patients enrolled, 1,026 were included in the safety analysis, and 951 in the efficacy analysis. Their mean age was 64.1 years, 33% were female, the median time interval from onset to enrollment was 10 days, and the baseline SBP and DBP were 162.3±16.0 and 92.2±12.4 mm Hg (mean±SD). During the study period, 55.5% of patients were maintained on fimasartan monotherapy, and 44.5% received antihypertensive therapies other than fimasartan monotherapy at at least one visit. The target BP goal achievement rate at 24-week was 67.3% (48.6% at 4-week and 61.4% at 12-week). The mean BP was 139.0/81.8±18.3/11.7, 133.8/79.2±16.4/11.0, and 132.8/78.5±15.6/10.9 mm Hg at 4-, 12-, and 24-week. The treatment-emergent adverse event rate was 5.4%, including one serious adverse event. @*Conclusions@#Fimasartan-based BP lowering achieved the target BP in two-thirds of patients at 24 weeks, and was generally well tolerated.

3.
Journal of Stroke ; : 113-123, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874951

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose To evaluate the outcome events and bleeding complications of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guideline-matched oral anticoagulant therapy for patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation (AF). @*Methods@#Patients with acute ischemic stroke and AF from a nationwide multicenter registry (Korean ATrial fibrillaTion EvaluatioN regisTry in Ischemic strOke patieNts [K-ATTENTION]) between January 2013 and December 2015 were included in the study. Patients were divided into the ESC guideline-matched and the non-matched groups. The primary outcome was recurrence of any stroke during the 90-day follow-up period. Secondary outcomes were major adverse cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events, ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, acute coronary syndrome, allcause mortality, and major hemorrhage. Propensity score matching and logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the effect of the treatments administered. @*Results@#Among 2,321 eligible patients, 1,126 patients were 1:1 matched to the ESC guidelinematched and the non-matched groups. As compared with the non-matched group, the ESC guideline-matched group had a lower risk of any recurrent stroke (1.4% vs. 3.4%; odds ratio [OR], 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18 to 0.95). The risk of recurrent ischemic stroke was lower in the ESC guideline-matched group than in the non-matched group (0.9% vs. 2.7%; OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.88). There was no significant difference in the other secondary outcomes between the two groups. @*Conclusions@#ESC guideline-matched oral anticoagulant therapy was associated with reduced risks of any stroke and ischemic stroke as compared with the non-matched therapy.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874440

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) reflects portal hypertension, but its measurement is invasive. Transient elastography (TE) is a noninvasive method for evaluating liver stiffness (LS). We investigated the correlation between the value of LS, LS to platelet ratio (LPR), LS-spleen diameter-to-platelet ratio score (LSPS) and HVPG according to the etiology of cirrhosis, especially focused on alcoholic cirrhosis. @*Methods@#Between January 2008 and March 2017, 556 patients who underwent HVPG and TE were consecutively enrolled. We evaluated LS, LPR, and LSPS according to the etiology of cirrhosis and analyzed their correlations with HVPG. @*Results@#The LS value was higher in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis than viral cirrhosis based on the HVPG (43.5 vs. 32.0 kPa, P<0.001). There were no significant differences in the LPR or LSPS between alcoholic and viral cirrhosis groups, and the areas under the curves for the LPR and LSPS in subgroups according to HVPG levels were not superior to that for LS. In alcoholic cirrhosis, the LS cutoff value for predicting an HVPG ≥10 mmHg was 32.2 kPa with positive predictive value (PPV) of 94.5% and 36.6 kPa for HVPG ≥12 mmHg with PPV of 91.0%. @*Conclusions@#The LS cutoff value should be determined separately for patients with alcoholic and viral cirrhosis. In alcoholic cirrhosis, the LS cutoff values were 32.2 and 36.6 kPa for predicting an HVPG ≥10 and ≥12 mmHg, respectively. However, there were no significant differences in the LPR or LSPS between alcoholic and viral cirrhosis groups.

5.
Journal of Stroke ; : 108-118, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834639

ABSTRACT

Background@#and purpose Whether pharmacologically altered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) affects the risk of cardiovascular events is unknown. Recently, we have reported the Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Asian Patients with Ischaemic Stroke at High Risk of Cerebral Haemorrhage (PICASSO) trial that demonstrated the non-inferiority of cilostazol to aspirin and superiority of probucol to non-probucol for cardiovascular prevention in ischemic stroke patients (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01013532). We aimed to determine whether on-treatment HDL-C changes by cilostazol and probucol influence the treatment effect of each study medication during the PICASSO study. @*Methods@#Of the 1,534 randomized patients, 1,373 (89.5%) with baseline cholesterol parameters were analyzed. Efficacy endpoint was the composite of stroke, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis examined an interaction between the treatment effect and changes in HDL-C levels from randomization to 1 month for each study arm. @*Results@#One-month post-randomization mean HDL-C level was significantly higher in the cilostazol group than in the aspirin group (1.08 mmol/L vs. 1.00 mmol/L, P<0.001). The mean HDL-C level was significantly lower in the probucol group than in the non-probucol group (0.86 mmol/L vs. 1.22 mmol/L, P<0.001). These trends persisted throughout the study. In both study arms, no significant interaction was observed between HDL-C changes and the assigned treatment regarding the risk of the efficacy endpoint. @*Conclusions@#Despite significant HDL-C changes, the effects of cilostazol and probucol treatment on the risk of cardiovascular events were insignificant. Pharmacologically altered HDL-C levels may not be reliable prognostic markers for cardiovascular risk.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is performed for single hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that are not eligible for surgery or ablation therapy. We investigated the clinical outcomes of patients with a single HCC ≤ 5 cm treated with TACE.@*METHODS@#This study analyzed 175 consecutive patients who underwent TACE as an initial treatment for single HCC ≤ 5 cm. Predictive factors for complete response (CR), recurrence after CR, and overall survival (OS) were evaluated.@*RESULTS@#Total 119 patients (68%) achieved CR after TACE. Tumor size 65 years and absence of liver cirrhosis were predictive factors for non-recurrence after CR (p < 0.05). The OS for all patients was 80.7 ± 5.6 months, and the 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS rates were 88.1%, 64.8%, and 49.9%, respectively. In multivariate analysis for OS, CR (hazard ratio [HR], 0.467; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.292 to 0.747) and Child class A (HR, 0.390; 95% CI, 0.243 to 0.626) were significant factors. The OS for the CR and Child class A group were 92 and 93.6 months, respectively, and that of the non-CR and Child B, C group were 53.3 and 50.7 months, respectively (p < 0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#TACE can be a valid treatment in patients with a single HCC ≤ 5 cm not suitable for curative treatment, especially in patients with Child class A and CR after TACE.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The clinical implications of echocardiography findings for long-term outcomes in atrial fibrillation (AF)-related stroke patients are unknown. METHODS: This was a substudy of the Korean ATrial fibrillaTion EvaluatioN regisTry in Ischemic strOke patieNts (K-ATTENTION), which is a multicenter-based cohort comprising prospective stroke registries from 11 tertiary centers. Stroke survivors who underwent two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography during hospitalization were enrolled. Echocardiography markers included the left-ventricle (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF), the left atrium diameter, and the ratio of the peak transmitral filling velocity to the mean mitral annular velocity during early diastole (E/e′ ratio). LVEF was categorized into normal (≥55%), mildly decreased (>40% and <55%), and severely decreased (≤40%). The E/e′ ratio associated with the LV filling pressure was categorized into normal (<8), borderline (≥8 and <15), and elevated (≥15). Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed for recurrent stroke, major adverse cardiac events, and all-cause death. RESULTS: This study finally included 1,947 patients. Over a median follow-up of 1.65 years (interquartile range, 0.42–2.87 years), the rates of recurrent stroke, major adverse cardiac events, and all-cause death were 35.1, 10.8, and 69.6 cases per 1,000 person-years, respectively. Multivariable analyses demonstrated that severely decreased LVEF was associated with a higher risks of major adverse cardiac events [hazard ratio (HR), 3.91; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.58–9.69] and all-cause death (HR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.23–3.10). The multivariable fractional polynomial plot indicated that recurrent stroke might be associated with a lower LVEF. CONCLUSIONS: Severe LV systolic dysfunction could be a determinant of long-term outcomes in AF-related stroke.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Cohort Studies , Diastole , Echocardiography , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Atria , Hospitalization , Humans , Prospective Studies , Registries , Stroke , Survivors
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916793

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#To evaluate effectiveness of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for transposed brachiobasilic arteriovenous fistula (tBBAVF), and to analyze the factors influencing patency after PTA.@*MATERIALS AND METHODS@#In 101 patients who underwent operation for tBBAVF from January 2006 to February 2008, we identified 42 patients undergoing PTA. We conducted a retrospective analysis of sequential PTAs in these patients from 2006 to 2017.@*RESULTS@#A total of 100 PTAs were performed. The technical success rate was 93% and the clinical success was 100%. Only ruptures occurred in 12% as minor complications. Primary patency rate was 61%, 29%, 7%, and secondary patency was 91%, 82%, 59% at 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. Primary patency rate was lower in tBBAVF with rupture (p = 0.024). Secondary patency rate was significantly lower in the diabetes (p = 0.002).@*CONCLUSION@#Repetitive PTAs in tBBAVF are acceptable due to excellent secondary patency. Primary patency of tBBAVF is low in patients with rupture. Diabetes itself has a significant effect on secondary patency.

11.
Journal of Stroke ; : 131-139, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740602

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Following the positive results from recent trials on endovascular therapy (EVT), bridging therapy (intravenous alteplase plus EVT) is increasingly being used for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. However, the optimal dose of intravenous alteplase remains unknown in centers where bridging therapy is actively performed. The optimal dose for eventual recanalization and positive clinical outcomes in patients receiving bridging therapy also remains unknown. METHODS: In this prospective Enhanced Control of Hypertension and Thrombolysis Stroke Study (ENCHANTED) sub-study, we explored the outcomes following treatment with two different doses (low- [0.6 mg/kg] or standard-dose [0.9 mg/kg]) of intravenous alteplase across 12 Korean centers where EVT is actively performed. The primary endpoint was a favorable outcome at 90 days (modified Rankin Scale scores 0 to 1). Secondary endpoints included symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in all patients, and the recanalization rate and favorable outcome in patients who underwent cerebral angiography for EVT (ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01422616). RESULTS: Of 351 patients, the primary outcome occurred in 46% of patients in both the standard-(80/173) and low-dose (81/178) groups (odds ratio [OR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 1.81; P=0.582), although ICHs tended to occur more frequently in the standard-dose group (8% vs. 3%, P=0.056). Of the 67 patients who underwent cerebral angiography, there was no significant difference in favorable functional outcome between the standard- and low-dose groups (39% vs. 21%; OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 0.73 to 7.78; P=0.149). CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference in functional outcome between the patients receiving different doses of alteplase in centers actively performing bridging therapy.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Angiography , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Cerebral Infarction , Humans , Hypertension , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Prospective Studies , Stroke , Thrombectomy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714340

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Elevated postprandial blood glucose is a critical risk factor for stroke. The dietary glycemic load (GL) and glycemic index (GI) are frequently used as markers of the postprandial blood glucose response to estimate the overall glycemic effect of diets. We hypothesized that high dietary GL, GI, or total carbohydrate intake is associated with a poor functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: We prospectively included 263 first-ever ischemic stroke patients who completed a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. The dietary GL, GI, and total carbohydrate intake were investigated by examining the average frequency of intake during the previous year based on reference amounts for various food items. Poor functional outcome was defined as a score on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) of ≥3 at 3 months after stroke. RESULTS: The patients were aged 65.4±11.7 years (mean±standard deviation), and 58.2% of them were male. A multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex, marital status, prestroke mRS score, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, body mass index, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, hemoglobin A1c, stroke classification, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, early neurological deterioration, and high-grade white-matter hyperintensities revealed that the dietary GL and total carbohydrate intake were associated with a poor functional outcome, with odds ratios for the top quartile relative to the bottom quartile of 28.93 (95% confidence interval=2.82–296.04) and 36.84 (95% confidence interval=2.99–453.42), respectively (p for trend=0.002 and 0.002, respectively). In contrast, high dietary GI was not associated with a poor functional outcome (p for trend=0.481). CONCLUSIONS: Increased dietary GL and carbohydrate intake were associated with a poor short-term functional outcome after an acute ischemic stroke.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Body Mass Index , Cerebral Infarction , Classification , Diabetes Mellitus , Diet , Glycemic Index , Glycemic Load , Humans , Hyperlipidemias , Lipoproteins , Male , Marital Status , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke , Triglycerides
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717901

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Interarm differences in the systolic and diastolic blood pressures (IASBD and IADBD, respectively) are found in various populations, including stroke patients, but their significance for stroke outcomes has rarely been reported. We aimed to determine the associations of IASBD and IADBD with early neurological deterioration (END), functional outcome, and mortality. METHODS: This study included 1,008 consecutive noncardioembolic cerebral infarction patients who were admitted within 24 hours of onset and had automatic measurements of blood pressures in the bilateral arms. END was assessed within 72 hours of stroke onset according to predefined criteria. A poor functional outcome was defined as a score on the modified Rankin Scale ≥3 at 3 months after the index stroke. All-cause mortality was also investigated during a median follow-up of 24 months. The absolute difference of blood pressure measurements in both arms were used to define IASBD and IADBD. RESULTS: END occurred in 15.3% (155/1,008) of the patients. A multivariate analysis including sex, age, and variables for which the p value was < 0.1 in a univariate analysis revealed that IASBD ≥10 mm Hg was significantly associated with END [odds ratio (OR)=1.75, 95% CI=1.02–3.01]. IADBD ≥10 mm Hg was also related to END (OR=3.11, 95% CI=1.61–5.99). Moreover, having both IASBD ≥10 mm Hg and IADBD ≥10 mm Hg was related to a poor functional outcome (OR=2.67, 95% CI=1.36–5.35) and mortality (hazard ratio=7.67, 95% CI=3.76–12.83) even after adjusting for END. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that an interarm blood pressure difference of ≥10 mm Hg could be a useful indicator for the risks of END, poor functional outcome, and mortality.


Subject(s)
Ankle Brachial Index , Arm , Blood Pressure , Cerebral Infarction , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Stroke
14.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 754-759, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716428

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Abnormalities in hemostasis and coagulation have been suggested in chronic renal failure (CRF). In this study, we compared processes of thrombus formation between rats with CRF and those with normal kidney function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CRF was induced by 5/6 ablation/infarction of the kidneys in Sprague-Dawley rats, and surviving rats after 4 weeks were used. Ferric chloride (FeCl3)-induced thrombosis in the carotid artery was induced to assess thrombus formation. Whole blood clot formation was evaluated using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). Platelet aggregation was assessed with impedance platelet aggregometry. RESULTS: FeCl3-induced thrombus formation was initiated faster in the CRF group than in the control group (13.2±1.1 sec vs. 17.8±1.0 sec, p=0.027). On histological examination, the maximal diameters of thrombi were larger in the CRF group than in the control group (394.2±201.1 µm vs. 114.0±145.1 µm, p=0.039). In extrinsic pathway ROTEM, the CRF group showed faster clot initiation (clotting time, 59.0±7.3 sec vs. 72.8±5.0 sec, p=0.032) and increased clot growth kinetics (α angle, 84.8±0.2° vs. 82.0±0.6°, p=0.008), compared to the control group. Maximal platelet aggregation rate was higher in the CRF group than in the control group (58.2±0.2% vs. 44.6±1.2%, p=0.006). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that thrombogenicity is increased in rats with CRF. An activated extrinsic coagulation pathway may play an important role in increasing thrombogenicity in CRF.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Platelets , Carotid Arteries , Electric Impedance , Hemostasis , Kidney , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Kinetics , Models, Animal , Platelet Aggregation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Thrombelastography , Thrombosis
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-119355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The recently developed total cerebral small-vessel disease (CSVD) score might appropriately reflect the total burden or severity of CSVD. We investigated whether the total CSVD score is associated with long-term outcomes during follow-up in patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: In total, 1,096 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging were enrolled. We calculated the total CSVD score for each patient after determining the burden of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), high-grade white-matter hyperintensities (HWHs), high-grade perivascular spaces (HPVSs), and asymptomatic lacunar infarctions (ALIs). We recorded the date and cause of death for all of the patients using data from the Korean National Statistical Office. We compared the long-term mortality rate with the total CSVD score using Cox proportional-hazards models. RESULTS: CMBs were found in 26.8% of the subjects (294/1,096), HWHs in 16.4% (180/1,096), HPVSs in 19.3% (211/1,096), and ALIs in 38.0% (416/1,096). After adjusting for age, sex, and variables that were significant at p<0.1 in the univariate analysis, the total CSVD score was independently associated with long-term death from all causes [hazard ratio (HR)=1.18 per point, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.07–1.30], ischemic stroke (HR=1.20 per point, 95% CI=1.01–1.42), and hemorrhagic stroke (HR=2.05 per point, 95% CI=1.30–3.22), but not with fatal cardiovascular events (HR=1.17 per point, 95% CI=0.82–1.67). CONCLUSIONS: The total CSVD score is a potential imaging biomarker for predicting mortality during follow-up in patients with acute ischemic stroke.


Subject(s)
Brain , Cause of Death , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mortality , Stroke , Stroke, Lacunar
16.
Journal of Stroke ; : 356-364, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51263

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy and safety of antiplatelet agents for the secondary prevention of ischemic stroke based on cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) polymorphisms. METHODS: This study was a prospective, multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, open-label, blind genotype trial. First time non-cardiogenic ischemic stroke patients were enrolled and screened within 30 days. Participants were randomized to receive either triflusal or clopidogrel for secondary stroke prevention. The primary outcome was the time from randomization to first recurrent ischemic stroke or hemorrhagic stroke. RESULTS: The required sample size was 1,080 but only 784 (73%) participants were recruited. In patients with a poor CYP2C19 genotype for clopidogrel metabolism (n=484), the risk of recurrent stroke among those who received triflusal treatment was 2.9% per year, which was not significantly different from those who received clopidogrel treatment (2.2% per year; hazard ratio [HR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60–2.53). In the clopidogrel treatment group (n=393), 38% had good genotypes and 62% poor genotypes for clopidogrel metabolism. The risk of recurrent stroke in patients with a good CYP2C19 genotype was 1.6% per year, which was not significantly different from those with a poor genotype (2.2% per year; HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.26–1.79). CONCLUSIONS: Whilst there were no significant differences between the treatment groups in the rates of stroke recurrence, major vascular events, or coronary revascularization, the efficacy of antiplatelet agents for the secondary prevention of stroke according to CYP2C19 genotype status remains unclear.


Subject(s)
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19 , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Cytochromes , Genotype , Humans , Metabolism , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Prospective Studies , Random Allocation , Recurrence , Sample Size , Secondary Prevention , Stroke
17.
Gut and Liver ; : 409-416, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-17722

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate the predictive factors for complete response (CR) and recurrence after CR in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). METHODS: Among 691 newly diagnosed HCC patients, 287 were treated with TACE as a first therapy. We analyzed the predictive factors for CR, recurrence after CR, and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Eighty-one patients (28.2%) achieved CR after TACE, and recurrence after CR was detected in 35 patients (43.2%). In multivariate analyses, tumor size (≤5 cm) and single nodularity were predictive factors for CR, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 0.35 (p=0.002) and 0.41 (p20 ng/mL) level and multinodularity exhibited significant relationships with recurrence after CR, with HRs of 2.220 (p=0.026) and 3.887 (p5 cm), multinodularity, elevated serum AFP (>20 ng/mL) level, Child-Turcotte-Pugh score (B and C), and portal vein thrombosis were significant factors for OS. CONCLUSIONS: In patients treated with TACE as a first therapy, tumor size (≤5 cm) and single nodularity were predictive factors for CR, and multinodularity and elevated serum AFP (>20 ng/mL) levels were predictive factors for recurrence after CR. These factors were also significant for OS.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Chemoembolization, Therapeutic , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Recurrence , Venous Thrombosis
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-54925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to examine relationships between dietary habits and intakes of antioxidants and B vitamins and the risk of ischemic stroke, and to compare dietary factors according to the presence of cerebral artery atherosclerosis and stroke subtypes. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 147 patients and 144 control subjects were recruited consecutively in the metropolitan area of Seoul, Korea. Sixty participants each in the case and control groups were included in analyses after 1:1 frequency matching. In addition, 117 acute ischemic stroke patients were classified into subtypes according to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) guidelines. Dietary intake was measured using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire composed of 111 food items and plasma lipid and homocysteine levels were analyzed. RESULTS: When compared with control subjects, stroke patients had unfavorable dietary behaviors and lower intakes of fruits (73.1 ± 83.2 g vs. 230.9 ± 202.1 g, P < 0.001), vegetables (221.1 ± 209.0 g vs. 561.7 ± 306.6 g, P < 0.001), and antioxidants, including vitamins C, E, B₆, β-carotene, and folate. The intakes of fruits, vegetables, vitamin C, and folate were inversely associated with the risk of ischemic stroke after adjusting for confounding factors. Intakes of vegetables, vitamins C, B₆, B₁₂, and folate per 1,000 kcal were lower in ischemic stroke with cerebral atherosclerosis than in those without. Overall vitamin B₁₂ intake per 1,000 kcal differed according to the TOAST classification (P = 0.004), but no differences among groups existed based on the post-hoc test. CONCLUSIONS: When compared with control subjects, ischemic stroke patients, particularly those with cerebral atherosclerosis, had unfavorable dietary intake, which may have contributed to the development of ischemic stroke. These results indicate that proper dietary recommendations are important for the prevention of ischemic stroke.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Ascorbic Acid , Atherosclerosis , Cerebral Arteries , Classification , Folic Acid , Feeding Behavior , Fruit , Homocysteine , Humans , Intracranial Arteriosclerosis , Korea , Plasma , Seoul , Stroke , Vegetables , Vitamin B Complex , Vitamins
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-150663

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: New-onset headache in elderly patients is generally suggestive of a high probability of secondary headache, and the subtypes of primary headache diagnoses are still unclear in the elderly. This study investigated the characteristics of headache with an older age at onset (≥65 years) and compared the characteristics between younger and older age groups. METHODS: We prospectively collected demographic and clinical data of 1,627 patients who first visited 11 tertiary hospitals in Korea due to headache between August 2014 and February 2015. Headache subtype was categorized according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, Third Edition Beta Version. RESULTS: In total, 152 patients (9.3%, 106 women and 46 men) experienced headache that began from 65 years of age [elderly-onset group (EOG)], while the remaining 1,475 patients who first experienced headache before the age of 65 years were classified as the younger-age-at-onset group (YOG). Among the primary headache types, tension-type headache (55.6% vs. 28.8%) and other primary headache disorders (OPH, 31.0% vs. 17.3%) were more common in the EOG than in the YOG, while migraine was less frequent (13.5% vs. 52.2%) (p=0.001) in the EOG. Among OPH, primary stabbing headache (87.2%) was more frequent in the EOG than in the YOG (p=0.032). The pain was significantly less severe (p=0.026) and the frequency of medication overuse headache was higher in EOG than in YOG (23.5% vs. 7.6%, p=0.040). CONCLUSIONS: Tension-type headache and OPH headaches, primarily stabbing headache, were more common in EOG patients than in YOG patients. The pain intensity, distribution of headache diagnoses, and frequency of medication overuse differed according to the age at headache onset.


Subject(s)
Age of Onset , Aged , Classification , Diagnosis , Electrooculography , Female , Headache Disorders , Headache Disorders, Primary , Headache Disorders, Secondary , Headache , Humans , Korea , Migraine Disorders , Prescription Drug Overuse , Prospective Studies , Tension-Type Headache , Tertiary Care Centers
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