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1.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 29-39, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937786

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study investigated the correlation between non-mass-like enhancement (NME) observed on preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the actual pathological size of breast cancer. We further examined the effect of NME on the positive resection margins during partial mastectomy. @*Methods@#We retrospectively collected data from breast cancer patients who underwent surgery between January 2018 and September 2020. Patients were divided into two groups based on their MRI findings: NME and no-NME (mass-like lesion only) groups. The medical records, including MRI findings and clinicopathological information of patients, were collected retrospectively, and correlations with pathologic results were analyzed. Propensity score matching was applied to develop comparable cohorts of the NME group and no-NME group. @*Results@#This study included a total of 317 patients, with 66 and 251 patients in the NME and no-NME groups, respectively. The mean pathologic size of invasive lesion was significantly smaller than the mean lesion size in the NME group (1.55±1.39 cm vs. 3.45±1.81 cm, p<0.001). The mean pathologic size of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions was larger than that in the NME group but without statistical significance (3.91±2.67 cm vs. 3.50±1.79 cm, p=0.326). In the NME group, NME estimated DCIS size to within 1 cm in 20 patients (30.3%) and overestimated invasive lesion size by more than 1 cm in 31 patients (46.9%). NME (vs. no-NME; odds ratio [OR], 2.967; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.878-10.025) showed a tendency to predict positive resection margins, but this was not statistically significant (p=0.080). @*Conclusion@#NME findings on MRI showed a similar extent of DCIS lesions. NME findings on preoperative MRI should be considered an important factor for measuring the extent of tumors, especially in DCIS patients.

2.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 30-35, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899023

ABSTRACT

Gynecomastia is a proliferation of glandular tissue of the breast in male and it is the most commonly observed breast disease amongst male patients associated with the negative impact on body image and social health of man. Although the medical therapy is an option with long-standing gynecomastia patients, the less than desirable effectiveness leads to the surgery. Although various techniques have been described for the correction of gynecomastia, the common technique of surgery has been performed with a circumareolar incision. However, this technique has been associated with undesirable complications such as a visible scar on the chest, areola inversion, and nipple necrosis. To remedy such complications, the transaxillary techniques were used in an attempt to avoid scar and the complication of the nipple areola complex. In this study, the surgery for the two patients with Simon’s grade III gynecomastia were performed using the pull-through technique and through the axillary incision. The result of the transaxillary subcutaneous mastectomy technique produced esthetic appearance with little complications.

3.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 164-174, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898981

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In this trial, we investigated the efficacy and safety of adjuvant letrozole for hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer. Here, we report the clinical outcome in postmenopausal women with HR-positive breast cancer treated with adjuvant letrozole according to estrogen receptor (ER) expression levels. @*Methods@#In this multi-institutional, open-label, observational study, postmenopausal patients with HR-positive breast cancer received adjuvant letrozole (2.5 mg/daily) for 5 years unless they experienced disease progression or unacceptable toxicity or withdrew their consent. The patients were stratified into the following 3 groups according to ER expression levels using a modified Allred score (AS): low, intermediate, and high (AS 3–4, 5–6, and 7–8, respectively). ER expression was centrally reviewed. The primary objective was the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate. @*Results@#Between April 25, 2010, and February 5, 2014, 440 patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 62.0 months, the 5-year DFS rate in all patients was 94.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.8–96.6). The 5-year DFS and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates did not differ according to ER expression; the 5-year DFS rates were 94.3% and 94.1%in the low-to-intermediate and high expression groups, respectively (p = 0.6), and the corresponding 5-year RFS rates were 95.7% and 95.4%, respectively (p = 0.7). Furthermore, 25 patients discontinued letrozole because of drug toxicity. @*Conclusion@#Treatment with adjuvant letrozole showed very favorable treatment outcomes and good tolerability among Korean postmenopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer, independent of ER expression.

4.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 30-35, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891319

ABSTRACT

Gynecomastia is a proliferation of glandular tissue of the breast in male and it is the most commonly observed breast disease amongst male patients associated with the negative impact on body image and social health of man. Although the medical therapy is an option with long-standing gynecomastia patients, the less than desirable effectiveness leads to the surgery. Although various techniques have been described for the correction of gynecomastia, the common technique of surgery has been performed with a circumareolar incision. However, this technique has been associated with undesirable complications such as a visible scar on the chest, areola inversion, and nipple necrosis. To remedy such complications, the transaxillary techniques were used in an attempt to avoid scar and the complication of the nipple areola complex. In this study, the surgery for the two patients with Simon’s grade III gynecomastia were performed using the pull-through technique and through the axillary incision. The result of the transaxillary subcutaneous mastectomy technique produced esthetic appearance with little complications.

5.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 164-174, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891277

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In this trial, we investigated the efficacy and safety of adjuvant letrozole for hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer. Here, we report the clinical outcome in postmenopausal women with HR-positive breast cancer treated with adjuvant letrozole according to estrogen receptor (ER) expression levels. @*Methods@#In this multi-institutional, open-label, observational study, postmenopausal patients with HR-positive breast cancer received adjuvant letrozole (2.5 mg/daily) for 5 years unless they experienced disease progression or unacceptable toxicity or withdrew their consent. The patients were stratified into the following 3 groups according to ER expression levels using a modified Allred score (AS): low, intermediate, and high (AS 3–4, 5–6, and 7–8, respectively). ER expression was centrally reviewed. The primary objective was the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate. @*Results@#Between April 25, 2010, and February 5, 2014, 440 patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 62.0 months, the 5-year DFS rate in all patients was 94.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.8–96.6). The 5-year DFS and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates did not differ according to ER expression; the 5-year DFS rates were 94.3% and 94.1%in the low-to-intermediate and high expression groups, respectively (p = 0.6), and the corresponding 5-year RFS rates were 95.7% and 95.4%, respectively (p = 0.7). Furthermore, 25 patients discontinued letrozole because of drug toxicity. @*Conclusion@#Treatment with adjuvant letrozole showed very favorable treatment outcomes and good tolerability among Korean postmenopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer, independent of ER expression.

6.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 70-77, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739567

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Several studies have reported the plausible association of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) with the prognosis of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), but the results are inconsistent. In PTC, chronic inflammation is closely related to tumor progression, and the age of the patient has a great influence on prognosis. Therefore, considering the changes in the immune system with aging, we classified the patients according to age and assessed the prognostic value of individual hematologic parameters. METHODS: This retrospective analysis included 1,921 patients who underwent thyroidectomy for PTC. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on their age: Y-group (age < 45) and O-group (age ≥ 45). Blood counts were measured within 14 days before surgery. RESULTS: The Y-group consisted of 914 patients aged < 45 years and the O-group consisted of 932 patients aged ≥ 45. In both groups, the common prognostic factors related to disease recurrence were only 6 or more metastatic lymph node and grossly extrathyroidal extension, and hematologic parameters were different between the 2 groups. High Platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in the Y-group and high NLR in the O-group were identified as independent predictors of disease recurrence (NLR: hazard ratio [HR], 3.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23–8.73; P = 0.018; PLR: HR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.26–7.52; P = 0.014). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that changes in immunity with aging may affect prognosis in patients with PTC, and thus hematologic parameters might be employed as prognostic markers depending on the age of the patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aging , Hematologic Tests , Immune System , Inflammation , Lymph Nodes , Lymphocytes , Neutrophils , Prognosis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy
7.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 11-19, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714875

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the clinical and pathological factors associated with a higher rate of positive or close margins after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) by comparing these patients to patients with a negative margin. The second aim was to evaluate intraoperative resection margin status and reoperation rates for margin control in patients who underwent BCS. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical and pathological data of all women diagnosed with invasive breast carcinoma (IBC) and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) at our institution between January 2006 and December 2016. RESULTS: During the 10-year study period, 785 patients were diagnosed with either IBC or DCIS, and 402 of these patients had undergone a total mastectomy as the primary treatment. The remaining 383 patients who underwent BCS were included in the final analysis. Of these, 100 patients (26.1%) had intraoperative positive or close margins. The remaining 283 patients (73.9%) had a negative margin intraoperatively, but 32 of these patients had positive or close margins on permanent sections. In the multivariate analyses, microcalcifications on mammograms (vs. none; odds ratio [OR], 1.911; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.156−3.160), in situ carcinomas larger than 2.0 cm (vs. ≤2.0 cm; OR, 3.106; 95% CI, 1.193−8.086), and lumpectomy (vs. quadrantectomy; OR, 2.863; 95% CI, 1.268−6.622) showed a significant association with a positive or close surgical margins. Patients with intraoperative positive or close margins underwent more reoperation than those with negative margins (5.0% vs. 2.8%). CONCLUSION: After BCS, microcalcifications on mammograms, large-sized in situ carcinomas, and lumpectomy were more likely to have positive or close margins.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , Mastectomy , Mastectomy, Segmental , Mastectomy, Simple , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , Reoperation
8.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 453-462, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718765

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CEMRI) in preoperative evaluations, and to evaluate the effect of each modality on the surgical management of women with breast cancer. METHODS: This single-center, prospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. From November 2016 to October 2017, 84 patients who were diagnosed with invasive carcinoma (69/84) and ductal carcinoma in situ (15/84), and underwent both CEDM and CEMRI, were enrolled. Imaging findings and surgical management were correlated with pathological results and compared. The diagnostic performance of both modalities in the detection of index and secondary cancers (multifocality and multicentricity), and occult cancer in the contralateral breast, was compared. The authors also evaluated whether CEDM or CEMRI resulted in changes in the surgical management of the affected breast due to imaging-detected findings. RESULTS: Eighty-four women were included in the analysis. Compared with CEMRI, CEDM demonstrated a similar sensitivity (92.9% [78/84] vs. 95.2% [80/84]) in detecting index cancer (p=0.563). For the detection of secondary cancers in the ipsilateral breast and occult cancer in the contralateral breast, no significant differences were found between CEDM and CEMRI (p=0.999 and p=0.999, respectively). Regarding changes in surgical management, CEDM resulted in similar changes compared with CEMRI (30.9% [26/84] vs. 29.7% [25/84], p=0.610). Regarding changes in surgical management due to false-positive findings, no significant differences were found between CEDM and CEMRI (34.6% [9/26] vs. 44.0% [11/25], p=0.782). CONCLUSION: CEDM demonstrated a diagnostic performance comparable with CEMRI in depicting index cancers, secondary cancers, and occult cancer in the contralateral breast. CEDM demonstrated similar changes in surgical management compared with CEMRI.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , Contrast Media , Ethics Committees, Research , Informed Consent , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mammography , Prospective Studies
9.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 231-239, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-172618

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The incidence of thyroid cancer is relatively high, especially in young women, and postoperative scarring after thyroidectomy is an important problem for both patients and clinicians. Currently, there is no available product that can be used for wound protection during thyroid surgery. We used the EASY-EYE_C, a new silicone-based wound protector. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of the EASY-EYE_C with surgical scars. We studied 66 patients who underwent conventional total thyroidectomy or hemithyroidectomy performed by a single surgeon from August 2015 to June 2016. At 6-week follow-up, a single blinded physician observed the wounds to make clinical assessments using the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS), the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS), and a modified Stony Brook Scar Evaluation Scale (SBSES). RESULTS: There were no significant differences by sex, age, type of surgery, body mass index, length of wound, incision site (from sternal notch), or thyroid weight, but the duration of operation was significantly shorter in the experimental group (E group). The e-group also had better POSAS scores than the control group (C group), with means of 43.2 (standard deviation [SD], ±15.9) versus 68.3 (SD, ±21.5), respectively (P < 0.05). The modified SBSES and VSS scores were similar to those from the POSAS. CONCLUSION: In this study, all scores for evaluating outcomes were higher in the E group than in the C group. In addition, the operation time was significantly shorter in the E group. Therefore, the EASY-EYE_C may be useful for improving the cosmetic outcomes of conventional thyroid surgery.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Body Mass Index , Cicatrix , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Silicones , Surgical Instruments , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy , Wounds and Injuries
10.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 89-92, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-648269

ABSTRACT

A synchronous incidence of breast cancer and follicular lymphoma (FL) is uncommon. The association between these two conditions could be explained by the antigenic stimulation of the adjacent carcinoma and common genetic background. This study aimed to review the literature, and discuss the etiology and management of synchronous breast cancer and FL. Herein, we presented a case of synchronous ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast and FL involving multiple lymph nodes, including those in both axilla. A 49-year-old woman presented with palpable lumps in both axilla. She underwent lumpectomy, radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy for DCIS, while adjuvant chemotherapy was recommended for the lymphoma. Diagnosis was based on histopathologic analysis, such as excision or biopsy.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Axilla , Biopsy , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinoma, Ductal , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Diagnosis , Genetic Background , Incidence , Lymph Nodes , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, Follicular , Mastectomy, Segmental , Radiotherapy
11.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 1-8, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-52110

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The measurement of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) of papillary thyroid carcinoma patients, 12 months after total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation following thyroxine hormone withdrawal (T4-off Tg) or recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulation (rhTSH-Tg), is standard method for monitoring disease status. The aim of this study was to find predictive factors for detectable T4-off Tg during follow-up. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of 329 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and RAI ablation between October 2008 and August 2012. Subjects were assigned to high (>1 ng/mL, n = 53) and low (≤1 ng/mL, n = 276) groups, based on T4-off Tg measured 12 months postoperatively. Demographic and clinicopathological characteristics at diagnosis and follow-up were compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS: The low and high T4-off Tg groups differed with respect to tumor size, preoperative Tg, ablative Tg, cervical lymph node metastasis, thyroglobulinemia out of proportion to results of diagnostic whole body scan, and American Thyroid Association 3-level stratification and restratification. Multivariate analysis confirmed that ablative Tg > 1.0 ng/mL (odds ratio [OR], 10.801; P = 0.001), more than 5 cervical lymph node metastasis (OR, 6.491; P = 0.003), and thyroglobulinemia out of proportion (OR, 9.221; P = 0.000) were risk factors. CONCLUSION: Ablative Tg >1.0 ng/mL, more than 5 cervical lymph node metastasis, and thyroglobulinemia out of proportion were independent factors for T4-off Tg >1 ng/mL 12 months postoperative. In low-risk patients without these risk factors, the possible omission of Tg measurements could be considered during follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Iodine , Lymph Nodes , Methods , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thyroglobulin , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine , Whole Body Imaging
12.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 9-14, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-52109

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare postoperative pain between single-incision, gasless, endoscopic transaxillary thyroidectomy (SET), and conventional open thyroidectomy. METHODS: From March to December 2015, patients with thyroid disease underwent total thyroidectomy or lobectomy. Patient's clinical and pathological characteristics, postoperative pain score using visual analog scale (VAS) were compared between the 2 groups. The primary endpoint was postoperative pain evaluated by VAS score and postoperative analgesic use. Operation time and length of postoperative hospital stay were secondary outcome measures. RESULTS: Conventional, open cervical surgery was performed on 30 patients (group O) and SET was performed on 27 patients (group E). Pain scores in shoulder area, which is the ipsilateral side of the tumor location at 1 hour and 24 hours after surgery, were higher in group E patients (P < 0.05). Pain scores 7 days after surgery did not differ between the 2 groups according to the locations (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, endocrine surgeons should be concerned about immediate higher postoperative pain scores in patients who undergo SET.


Subject(s)
Humans , Length of Stay , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pain, Postoperative , Prospective Studies , Shoulder , Surgeons , Thyroid Diseases , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy , Visual Analog Scale
13.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 156-162, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166638

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In the present study, we evaluated the levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) by performing immunohistochemical staining to determine whether they were reliable prognostic markers in patients with breast cancer. METHODS: Demographic and clinicopathological parameters of 214 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and 80 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) who were diagnosed and treated from 2006 to 2010 were analyzed. Tissue microarray was constructed and immunohistochemical staining was performed for each specimen. RESULTS: Univariate analyses showed that age at diagnosis, history of hormone replacement therapy, radiation therapy, skin and chest wall invasion, Paget disease, lymphovascular invasion, estrogen receptor positivity, and triple-negative subtype were significantly associated with patient prognosis (p<0.005). Patients with DCIS showed higher PAI-1 expression than patients with IDC (82.5% and 36.2%, respectively; p=0.012). Lymph node metastasis was more frequent in patients with high uPA levels than in patients with low uPA levels (p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that PAI-1 was involved in tumor progression in the early stages of breast cancer, such as DCIS. In addition, our results suggested that high uPA levels were associated with the lymph node metastasis of IDC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinoma, Ductal , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , Diagnosis , Estrogens , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 , Prognosis , Skin , Thoracic Wall , Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator
14.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 16-23, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-646620

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To identify predictive factors of upstaging from diagnosed ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive cancer after surgical excision. METHODS: One hundred seventy-four patients diagnosed with DCIS based on biopsies between January 2009 and December 2014 were evaluated. Patients' clinicopathological variables were assessed to identify predictive factors of invasive carcinoma from final pathology. RESULTS: One hundred seventy-four cases of DCIS were included. Of these, 42 were upstaged to invasive carcinoma on the final excision. Preoperative features such as age 40 years or younger at diagnosis, presence of a palpable mass, ultrasonography (USG)-guided core needle biopsy, tumor size ≥20 mm on USG, high grade DCIS, cribriform DCIS, comedo necrosis, presence of intraluminal calcification, estrogen receptor negativity, progesterone receptor negativity and triple-negative subtype were significantly associated with the risk of invasive carcinoma. Multivariate analysis showed that a tumor size ≥20 mm on USG and triple negative subtype were independently associated with upstaging. CONCLUSION: Tumor size ≥20 mm on USG and triple-negative subtype were independently associated with the upstaging of DCIS to invasive cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy , Biopsy, Large-Core Needle , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinoma, Ductal , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , Diagnosis , Estrogens , Multivariate Analysis , Necrosis , Pathology , Receptors, Progesterone , Ultrasonography
15.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 44-49, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173794

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated the feasibility of using surgical clips as markers for tumor localization and their effect on the imaging evaluation of treatment responses after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). METHODS: A total of 16 breast cancers confirmed by needle biopsy in 15 patients were included in this study from October 2012 to June 2014. Under ultrasonography (US)-guidance, the surgical clips were placed prior to NAC. Additional mammography, breast US, and breast magnetic resonance examinations were performed within 10 days before surgery. The time period from marker insertion to operation date was documented. Images acquired via the three modalities were evalu-ated for the following parameters: location of clip, clip migration (>1 cm), the presence of complications from clip placement, and the effect of clips on the assessment of treatment. RESULTS: The mean time period was 128.6+/-34.4 days (median, 132.0 days) from the date of clip insertion to the date of surgery. The mean number of inserted clips was 2.3+/-0.7 (median, 2.0). Clip migration was not visualized by imaging in any patient, and there were no complications reported. Surgical clips did not negatively affect the assessment of treatment responses to NAC. CONCLUSION: Surgical clips may replace commercial tissue markers for tumor localization in breast cancer patients undergoing NAC without migration. Surgical clips are well tolerated and safe for the patient, easily visualized on imaging, do not interfere with treatment response, and are cost-effective.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy, Needle , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Image-Guided Biopsy , Mammography , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Surgical Instruments , Ultrasonography
16.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 386-392, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51127

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Nipple sparing mastectomy provides good cosmetic results and low local recurrence rates for breast cancer patients. However, there is a potential risk of leaving an occult tumor within the nipple, which could lead to cancer relapse and poor prognosis for the patient. The objective of this study was to investigate the occult nipple involvement rate in mastectomy specimens, and to identify preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and the clinicopathological characteristics of the primary tumor that may correlate with nipple invasion. METHODS: Four hundred sixty-six consecutive mastectomy samples with grossly unremarkable nipples were evaluated. Demographic and clinicopathological data were collected. Nipple involvement was evaluated using serial histological sections. The tumor size and tumor-nipple distance were measured using preoperative MRI images. RESULTS: Thirty-six of the 466 therapeutic mastectomy specimens (7.7%) were found to have occult nipple involvement. In univariate analysis, tumor size, tumor-nipple distance, lymph node status, p53 mutation, and lymphovascular invasion (LVI) were found to influence the likelihood of nipple involvement. Multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusted by lymph node status, p53 mutation, and LVI, showed that tumor size and tumor-nipple distance were predictive factors indicating nipple involvement. With regard to tumor location, only tumors in the central area of the breast showed a significant association with nipple involvement. CONCLUSION: In this study, a statistically significant association was found between occult nipple involvement and tumor size, tumor-nipple distance, axillary lymph node status, LVI, and p53 mutation. A cutoff point of 2.2 cm for tumor size and 2 cm for tumor-nipple distance could be used as parameters to predict occult nipple involvement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Logistic Models , Lymph Nodes , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mastectomy , Nipples , Prognosis , Recurrence
17.
Korean Journal of Endocrine Surgery ; : 257-261, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-169059

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Gasless transaxillary approach to endoscopic thyroidectomy is a widely performed procedure for benign or malignant thyroid neoplasms. However, it requires wide dissection for approaching the target area. The intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) is an effective method for postoperative pain control and patients can use it according to their requirement. However, patients suffer from nausea, vomiting, sleep disturbance, etc. due to opioids. Pain pump ON-Q® PainBuster® (pain buster) has been used widely in various surgeries for control of postoperative localizing and wide area pain without side effects of opioid analgesia because it consists of Ropivacaine. METHODS: From Aug. 2008 to Jan. 2013, Gasless transaxillary endoscopic thyroidectomy was performed in 90 patients in a single institution, who were divided into three groups, including the IV PCA, pain buster, and null groups. We compared postoperative outcomes, pain severity between groups. We recorded scores immediately, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after surgery following visual analog pain score (VAS), and investigated hospital stay and occurrence of events of nausea, vomiting, and complications. RESULTS: In the IV PCA group, it was discontinued due to nausea in 36.7% of patients. No significant difference in pain severity following VAS score was observed among the three groups. However, smaller numbers of analgesia injections were required in the Pain buster group than in the other groups, and fewer patients suffered from constipation, compared with the PCA group. CONCLUSION: Pain buster showed even effects compared to IV PCA, with few side effects and less discomfort of patients, compared with the other groups. Therefore, pain buster was thought to be the proper method for pain control after dissection of the anterior chest wall, cervical area in order to secure an operative view for transaxillary endoscopic thyroidectomy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Analgesia , Analgesia, Patient-Controlled , Analgesics, Opioid , Constipation , Length of Stay , Methods , Nausea , Pain, Postoperative , Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis , Thoracic Wall , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy , Vomiting
18.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 152-158, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-38444

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Mucins are members of the glycoprotein family expressed in benign and malignant epithelial cells. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationships between the expression of mucins in breast ductal carcinoma and clinicopathologic parameters. METHODS: We constructed tumor microarrays based on 240 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma and 40 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) using formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissues. We examined the expressions of MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6 by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: MUC1 demonstrated cytoplasmic, membranous, apical, and combinative expressions. Other mucins demonstrated cytoplasmic expression. In invasive ductal carcinoma, MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6 were expressed in 93.6%, 6.2%, 4.8%, and 12.4% of cases, respectively; these rates were slightly, but not significantly, higher than observed in cases of DCIS. MUC1 expression was associated with estrogen receptor (ER) expression and negative MUC1 expression was associated with triple negativity. MUC6 expression was correlated with higher histologic grade, lymphatic invasion, lymph node metastasis, and HER2 positivity. No associations with any other clinicopathologic parameters were observed. CONCLUSION: Most invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast express MUC1, and this expression is associated with ER expression. MUC6 expression is correlated with some clinicopathologic parameters that are indicators of poor prognosis. To evaluate the role of MUC6 as a potential biomarker, further studies are warranted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Ductal , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , Cytoplasm , Epithelial Cells , Estrogens , Formaldehyde , Glycoproteins , Lymph Nodes , Mucins , Neoplasm Metastasis , Paraffin , Prognosis
19.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 218-223, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147876

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been mostly used as a therapeutic alternative to hepatic resection for treating liver metastasis of colorectal cancer. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there were differences in outcome between RFA and surgical resection in the treatment of colorectal cancer with liver metastases. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 53 patients who underwent only hepatic resection or only RFA for colorectal liver metastases. Twenty-five patients who underwent hepatic resection were compared with 28 patients who underwent RFA for synchronous or metachronous liver metastases. RESULTS: The median CEA level at the time of diagnosis of liver metastases was significantly higher in the resection group (14.2 ng/mL vs. 2.8 ng/mL, p=0.002). The median size of main liver metastases was significantly larger in the resection group (4.0 cm vs. 2.05 cm, p=0.002). There was no difference in the percentage of patients experiencing major complication (one patient in each group). The marginal recurrence rate was significantly higher in the RFA group (p=0.004). Disease-free and overall survival were longer in the resection group (p=0.008 and 0.017, respectively). In multivariate analysis, only the type of treatment was a factor associated with disease-free and overall survival (p=0.004 and 0.007, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Because of the high marginal recurrence rate, RFA shows an inferior outcome in comparison with surgical resection. Therefore, RFA should be considered for only selected patients with unresectable (by any means) disease or with high operative risk.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Catheter Ablation , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Hepatectomy , Liver Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 239-243, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-43876

ABSTRACT

This survey was performed to analyze the usability of the third edition of the Korean breast cancer clinical practice guidelines (KBCCPG) in clinical practice. We made a questionnaire composed of 18 general and 82 specific questions regarding benign breast disease (B; 1 question); non-invasive disease (N; 12 questions); early-stage disease (E; 26 questions); advanced disease (A; 24 questions); and metastatic (M) breast cancer-related problems (19 questions). A total of 100 questionnaires, with a link to an online survey, were delivered via e-mail to over 700 members of the Korean Breast Cancer Society (KBCS), and associated academy members, over 20 days between 26th February and 16th May 2010. Out of 270 respondents who read the e-mail, 96 answered the questionnaire. Participants included 87 surgical oncologists, 5 radiation oncologists, 2 oncoplastic surgeons, 1 pathologist, and 1 medical oncologist. The third KBCCPG were perceived as differing from the second guidelines in terms of the level of clinical evidence required before choosing a recommendation. For the progress of the KBCCPG, the guideline committee should try to reinforce all courses of guideline development with several elements including data from clinical trials of Korean breast cancer patients, securing a multidisciplinary approach, developing consistent and reasonable processes for each step of the revision of the guidelines, induction of liberal scientific and ethical discussion about all issues with all KBCS members. The cost-effectiveness of healthcare and the logical development of the KBCCPG would also be ensured. Timely updates of the clinical guidelines for breast cancer treatment are essential to facilitate optimal decision-making in daily practice, and to ensure adequate patient feedback.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aluminum Hydroxide , Breast , Breast Diseases , Breast Neoplasms , Carbonates , Surveys and Questionnaires , Delivery of Health Care , Dietary Sucrose , Electronic Mail , Korea , Logic
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