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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919473

ABSTRACT

Background@#Because the etiologies of bronchiectasis and related diseases vary significantly among different regions and ethnicities, this study aimed to develop a diagnostic bundle for bronchiectasis in South Korea. @*Methods@#A modified Delphi method was used to develop expert consensus statements on a diagnostic bundle for bronchiectasis in South Korea. Initial statements proposed by a core panel, based on international bronchiectasis guidelines, were discussed in an online meeting and two email surveys by a panel of experts (≥70% agreement). @*Results@#The study involved 21 expert participants, and 30 statements regarding a diagnostic bundle for bronchiectasis were classified as recommended, conditional, or not recommended. The consensus statements of the expert panel were as follows: A standardized diagnostic bundle is useful in clinical practice; diagnostic tests for specific diseases, including immunodeficiency and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, are necessary when clinically suspected; initial diagnostic tests, including sputum microbiology and spirometry, are essential in all patients with bronchiectasis, and patients suspected with rare causes such as primary ciliary dyskinesia should be referred to specialized centers. @*Conclusion@#Based on this Delphi survey, expert consensus statements were generated including specific diagnostic, laboratory, microbiological, and pulmonary function tests required to manage patients with bronchiectasis in South Korea.

2.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 151-160, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902801

ABSTRACT

Under some pathological conditions such as osteoarthritis, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)including MMP-13 have an important role in degrading cartilage materials. When the regulatory effects of some herbal extracts on MMP-13 expression were examined to evaluate the cartilage-protective potential, the ethanolextract of the radix of Viscum album was found to strongly downregulate MMP-13 induction in IL-1β-treated chondrocytes, SW1353 cells. Based on this finding, activity-guided separation was carried out, which yieldedfive constituents identified as 3,5-dihydroxy-1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)heptane (1), hesperetin-7-glucoside (2),syringin (3), homoflavoyadorinin B (4), and 4,4′-dihydroxy-3,6′-dimethoxychalcone-2′-glucoside (5). Of these, 1 and 5 significantly inhibited MMP-13 expression in SW1353 cells, with 5 being the most potent. Compound 5, a chalcone derivative, showed the downregulation of MMP-13 at 20 – 100 μM. The mechanism study revealed that 5 exerted MMP-13 down-regulatory action, at least in part, by interrupting the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) activation pathway. Furthermore, this compound protected against cartilage degradation in an IL-1-treated rabbit cartilage explant culture. All these findings demonstrated for the first time that Viscum album and its constituents, especially chalcone derivative (5), possessed cartilage-protective activity. These natural products may have the potential for alleviating cartilage degradation.

3.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 151-160, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895097

ABSTRACT

Under some pathological conditions such as osteoarthritis, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)including MMP-13 have an important role in degrading cartilage materials. When the regulatory effects of some herbal extracts on MMP-13 expression were examined to evaluate the cartilage-protective potential, the ethanolextract of the radix of Viscum album was found to strongly downregulate MMP-13 induction in IL-1β-treated chondrocytes, SW1353 cells. Based on this finding, activity-guided separation was carried out, which yieldedfive constituents identified as 3,5-dihydroxy-1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)heptane (1), hesperetin-7-glucoside (2),syringin (3), homoflavoyadorinin B (4), and 4,4′-dihydroxy-3,6′-dimethoxychalcone-2′-glucoside (5). Of these, 1 and 5 significantly inhibited MMP-13 expression in SW1353 cells, with 5 being the most potent. Compound 5, a chalcone derivative, showed the downregulation of MMP-13 at 20 – 100 μM. The mechanism study revealed that 5 exerted MMP-13 down-regulatory action, at least in part, by interrupting the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) activation pathway. Furthermore, this compound protected against cartilage degradation in an IL-1-treated rabbit cartilage explant culture. All these findings demonstrated for the first time that Viscum album and its constituents, especially chalcone derivative (5), possessed cartilage-protective activity. These natural products may have the potential for alleviating cartilage degradation.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919465

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The burden of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary disease (PD) is increasing globally. To understand the treatment outcomes and prognosis of NTM-PD, a unified registry is needed. In this project, we aim to construct a multicenter prospective observational cohort with NTM-PD in South Korea (NTM-KOREA).@*METHODS@#The primary objective of this study is to analyze treatment outcomes according to the species. In addition, recurrence rate, adverse events, the impact of each drug on treatment outcomes as well as the impact of characteristics of mycobacteriology will be analyzed. The inclusion criteria for the study are as follows: fulfilling the criteria for NTM-PD having one of the following etiologic organisms: Mycobacterium avium complex, M. abscessus subspecies abscessus, M. abscessus subspecies massiliense, or M. kansasii; receiving the first treatment for NTM-PD after enrollment; age >20 years; and consenting to participate in the study. Seven institutions will participate in patient enrollment and about 500 patients are expected to be enrolled. Participants will be recruited from 1 March 2020 until 19 March 2024 and will be observed through 19 March 2029. During the follow-up period, participants' clinical course will be tracked and their clinical data as well as NTM isolates will be collected.@*CONCLUSION@#NTM-KOREA will be the first nationwide observational cohort for NTM-PD in South Korea. It will provide the information to optimize treatment modalities and will contribute to deeper understanding of the treatment outcomes and long-term prognosis of patients with NTM-PD in South Korea.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837357

ABSTRACT

Background@#The fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) test is useful in asthma patients. However, a few studies on its usefulness in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients have been reported. We analyzed the FENO level distribution and clinical characteristics according to the FENO level in COPD patients. @*Methods@#From December 2014 to June 2019, COPD patients who underwent pulmonary function and FENO tests at Chonnam National University Hospital were retrospectively evaluated for FENO, comorbidities, asthma history, blood eosinophil, and pulmonary function test. The high FENO group was defined as those with FENO level>25 parts per billion (ppb). @*Results@#A total of 849 COPD patients (mean age, 70.3±9.4 years) were included. The mean forced expiratory volume at 1 second was 66.5±21.7% and the mean FENO level was 24.3±20.5 ppb. Patients with FENO ≤25 ppb were 572 (67.4%) and those with FENO >25 ppb were 277 (32.6%). Blood eosinophil percentage was significantly higher (4.2±4.8 vs. 2.7±2.5, p3% (46.9% vs. 34.8%, p=0.001) and asthma history (25.6% vs. 8.6%, p3%, and positive bronchodilator response (BDR) were independent risk factors for the high FENO level (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.85; p<0.001; aOR, 1.46; p=0.017; and aOR, 1.57, p=0.034, respectively) in the multivariable analysis. @*Conclusion@#The FENO level distribution varied in COPD patients and the mean FENO value was slightly elevated. Asthma history, eosinophil percent, and positive BDR were independent risk factors for the high FENO level.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831723

ABSTRACT

Background@#The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current status and trends in the coverage of molecular drug susceptibility testing (mDST), and the impact of mDST on the time to multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment initiation in Korea. @*Methods@#We included confirmed rifampin-resistant (RR)/MDR-TB patients who submitted application forms for novel drug uses to the National TB Expert Review Committee from September 1, 2016 to November 30, 2019. We retrospectively reviewed their medical records. @*Results@#Of the 621 MDR/RR-TB patients, mDST was performed in 442 (71.2%); Xpert MTB/ RIF (Xpert) alone in 109 (17.6%), MTBDRplus line probe assay (LPA) alone in 199 (32.0%), and both Xpert and LPA in 134 (21.6%) patients. The coverage rate of mDST has gradually increased to 70% in 2015, 50.7% in 2016, 67.9% in 2017, 75.2% in 2018, and 79.4% in 2019 (p for trend < 0.001). Median time to MDR-TB treatment initiation was 35 days (interquartile range 25–75 0–72), which has gradually decreased during the study period (p< 0.001).Independent predictors of shorter time to MDR-TB treatment initiation were retreatment case (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10–1.54), Xpert testing (aHR, 2.42; 95% CI, 2.03–2.88), and LPA testing (aHR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.55–2.16).Transfer to another healthcare facility was inversely related to shorter time to treatment initiation (aHR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63–0.88). @*Conclusion@#mDST coverage is gradually increasing and contributes to reducing the time to MDR-TB treatment initiation. Further efforts are needed to achieve universal access to mDST and to properly integrate mDST into routine clinical practice.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827085

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the anti-inflammatory action and cellular mechanism of Oplopanax elatus.@*METHODS@#A hot water extract of OE (WOE) was prepared and a major constituent, syringin, was successfully isolated. Its content in WOE was found to be 214.0 µg/g dried plant (w/w). Their anti-inflammatory activities were examined using RAW 264.7 macrophages and a mouse model of croton oil-induced ear edema.@*RESULTS@#In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 cells, a mouse macrophage cell line, WOE was found to significantly and strongly inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-induced prostaglandin E (PGE) production [half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC)=135.2 µg/mL] and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-induced NO production (IC=242.9 µg/mL). In the same condition, WOE was revealed to inhibit NO production by down-regulating iNOS expression, mainly by interrupting mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs)/activator protein-1 (AP-1) pathway. The activation of all three major MAPKs, p38 MAPK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, was inhibited by WOE (50-300 µg/mL). On the other hand, WOE reduced PGE production by inhibiting COX-2 enzyme activity, but did not affect COX-2 expression levels. In addition, WOE inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. In croton oil-induced ear edema in mice, oral administration of WOE (50-300 mg/kg) dose-dependently inhibited edematic inflammation.@*CONCLUSION@#Water extract of OE exhibited multiple anti-inflammatory action mechanisms and may have potential for treating inflammatory disorders.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816695

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The burden of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary disease (PD) is increasing globally. To understand the treatment outcomes and prognosis of NTM-PD, a unified registry is needed. In this project, we aim to construct a multicenter prospective observational cohort with NTM-PD in South Korea (NTM-KOREA).METHODS: The primary objective of this study is to analyze treatment outcomes according to the species. In addition, recurrence rate, adverse events, the impact of each drug on treatment outcomes as well as the impact of characteristics of mycobacteriology will be analyzed. The inclusion criteria for the study are as follows: fulfilling the criteria for NTM-PD having one of the following etiologic organisms: Mycobacterium avium complex, M. abscessus subspecies abscessus, M. abscessus subspecies massiliense, or M. kansasii; receiving the first treatment for NTM-PD after enrollment; age >20 years; and consenting to participate in the study. Seven institutions will participate in patient enrollment and about 500 patients are expected to be enrolled. Participants will be recruited from 1 March 2020 until 19 March 2024 and will be observed through 19 March 2029. During the follow-up period, participants' clinical course will be tracked and their clinical data as well as NTM isolates will be collected.CONCLUSION: NTM-KOREA will be the first nationwide observational cohort for NTM-PD in South Korea. It will provide the information to optimize treatment modalities and will contribute to deeper understanding of the treatment outcomes and long-term prognosis of patients with NTM-PD in South Korea.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719621

ABSTRACT

The pathogen Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is the most common cause of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease worldwide. The decision to initiate long-term antibiotic treatment is difficult for the physician due to inconsistent disease progression and adverse effects associated with the antibiotic treatment. The prognostic factors for the progression of MAC pulmonary disease are low body mass index, poor nutritional status, presence of cavitary lesion(s), extensive disease, and a positive acid-fast bacilli smear. A regimen consisting of macrolides (clarithromycin or azithromycin) with rifampin and ethambutol has been recommended; this regimen significantly improves the treatment of MAC pulmonary disease and should be maintained for at least 12 months after negative sputum culture conversion. However, the rates of default and disease recurrence after treatment completion are still high. Moreover, treatment failure or macrolide resistance can occur, although in some refractory cases, surgical lung resection can improve treatment outcomes. However, surgical resection should be carefully performed in a well-equipped center and be based on a rigorous risk-benefit analysis in a multidisciplinary setting. New therapies, including clofazimine, inhaled amikacin, and bedaquiline, have shown promising results for the treatment of MAC pulmonary disease, especially in patients with treatment failure or macrolide-resistant MAC pulmonary disease. However, further evidence of the efficacy and safety of these new treatment regimens is needed. Also, a new consensus is needed for treatment outcome definitions as widespread use of these definitions could increase the quality of evidence for the treatment of MAC pulmonary disease.


Subject(s)
Amikacin , Body Mass Index , Clofazimine , Consensus , Disease Progression , Ethambutol , Humans , Lung , Lung Diseases , Macrolides , Mycobacterium avium Complex , Mycobacterium avium , Mycobacterium , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria , Nutritional Status , Recurrence , Rifampin , Sputum , Treatment Failure , Treatment Outcome
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761948

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), a transmembrane protein, binds to the programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor, and anti-PD-1 therapy enables immune responses against tumors. This study aimed to assess clinical characteristics of PD-L1 expression using immunohistochemistry among Korean patients with lung cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the data of patients with pathologically proven lung cancer from a single institution. PD-L1 expression determined by Tumor Proportion Score (TPS) was detected using 22C3 pharmDx (Agilent Technologies) and SP263 (Ventana Medical Systems) assays. RESULTS: From July 2016 to July 2017, 267 patients were enrolled. The main histologic type was adenocarcinoma (69.3%). Most participants were smokers (67.4%) and had clinical stage IV disease (60.7%). In total, 116 (42%) and 58 (21%) patients had TPS ≥1% and ≥50%, respectively. The patients were significantly older in TPS ≥1% group than in TPS <1% group (64.83±9.38 years vs. 61.73±10.78 years, p=0.014), not in TPS ≥50% cutoff value (64.69 ± 9.39 vs. 62.36 ± 10.51, p= 0.178). Regarding histologic grade, higher proportions of poorly differentiated tumor were observed in the TPS ≥1% (40.8% vs. 25.8%, p=0.020) and TPS ≥50% groups (53.2% vs. 27.2%, p=0.004). Among 34 patients examined with 22C3 and SP263 assays, 27 had positive results in both assays, with a cutoff of TPS ≥1% (r=0.826; 95% confidence interval, 0.736–0.916). CONCLUSION: PD-L1 expression, defined as TPS ??%, was related to older age and poorly differentiated histology. There was a similar distribution of PD-L1 expression in both 22C3 and SP263 results.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Retrospective Studies
12.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 111-114, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760556

ABSTRACT

The herbal formula, DF-02, consisting of Ephedra intermedia and Rheum palmatum are used for the treatment of the metabolic diseases such as obesity and liver fibrosis in Korean local clinics. We aimed to develop the simultaneous analytical conditions for four standards, (+)-pseudoephedrine (PSEP) and (−)-ephedrine (EP) for E. intermedia, and aloe-emodin (AE) and chrysophanol (CP) for R. palmatum using HPLC-UV techniques. The validated conditions yielded the high precision (relative standard deviation (RSD) 0.9994). As a result, four standards of DF-02 were simultaneously determined under the developed method, which will be utilized for the quality control or evaluation of DF-02 and many herbal preparations containing E. intermedia and R. palmatum.


Subject(s)
Calibration , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Ephedra , Liver Cirrhosis , Metabolic Diseases , Methods , Obesity , Plant Preparations , Quality Control , Rheum
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), a transmembrane protein, binds to the programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor, and anti-PD-1 therapy enables immune responses against tumors. This study aimed to assess clinical characteristics of PD-L1 expression using immunohistochemistry among Korean patients with lung cancer.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively reviewed the data of patients with pathologically proven lung cancer from a single institution. PD-L1 expression determined by Tumor Proportion Score (TPS) was detected using 22C3 pharmDx (Agilent Technologies) and SP263 (Ventana Medical Systems) assays.@*RESULTS@#From July 2016 to July 2017, 267 patients were enrolled. The main histologic type was adenocarcinoma (69.3%). Most participants were smokers (67.4%) and had clinical stage IV disease (60.7%). In total, 116 (42%) and 58 (21%) patients had TPS ≥1% and ≥50%, respectively. The patients were significantly older in TPS ≥1% group than in TPS <1% group (64.83±9.38 years vs. 61.73±10.78 years, p=0.014), not in TPS ≥50% cutoff value (64.69 ± 9.39 vs. 62.36 ± 10.51, p= 0.178). Regarding histologic grade, higher proportions of poorly differentiated tumor were observed in the TPS ≥1% (40.8% vs. 25.8%, p=0.020) and TPS ≥50% groups (53.2% vs. 27.2%, p=0.004). Among 34 patients examined with 22C3 and SP263 assays, 27 had positive results in both assays, with a cutoff of TPS ≥1% (r=0.826; 95% confidence interval, 0.736–0.916).@*CONCLUSION@#PD-L1 expression, defined as TPS ??%, was related to older age and poorly differentiated histology. There was a similar distribution of PD-L1 expression in both 22C3 and SP263 results.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919146

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Peripheral eosinophilia during tuberculosis (TB) treatment is common, but has not been fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and clinical significance of peripheral blood eosinophilia in patients undergoing anti-TB treatment.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and laboratory data of patients who received anti-TB treatment and had peripheral blood eosinophilia (> 5% of the total white blood cell count) at the Chonnam National University Hospital between January 2010 and December 2014.@*RESULTS@#Of all 2,234 patients with TB who received anti-TB treatment, 397 (17.8%) had peripheral blood eosinophilia. Of the 397 with eosinophilia, we reviewed the data of 262 (66%), and cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADRs) were observed in 161 (61.5%). Of the 161 with CADRs, itching (47.2%) and skin rash (47.8%) were common. Older age, abnormal liver function, and higher peak blood eosinophil percentage were associated with CADRs in multivariate analysis. There was a significant relationship between increased peak eosinophil counts and the degree of severity of CADRs.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Peripheral blood eosinophilia is a relatively common occurrence during anti-TB treatment. Peripheral blood eosinophil counts were higher according to the degree of severity of CADRs.

15.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 304-310, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786430

ABSTRACT

The stems of Oplopanax elatus (OE) have long been used to treat inflammatory disorders in herbal medicine, and in the previous investigation, OE was found to possess anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide-treated macrophages, RAW 264.7 cell. OE reduces inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase-induced NO production, and interferes with mitogen-activated protein kinase activation pathways. In the present study, the pharmacological action of the water extract of OE was examined to establish anti-arthritic action, using a rat model of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA). The water extract of OE administered orally inhibited AIA-induced arthritis at (100 – 300) mg/kg/day. The paw edema was significantly decreased, in combination with reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The action mechanism includes an inhibition of MAPKs/nuclear transcription factor-κB activation. These new findings strongly suggest that OE possesses anti-arthritic action, and may be used as a therapeutic agent in inflammation-related disorders, particularly in arthritic condition.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthritis , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Cytokines , Edema , Herbal Medicine , Macrophages , Models, Animal , Nitric Oxide , Oplopanax , Protein Kinases , Rats , Water
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717998

ABSTRACT

Investigations into the development of new therapeutic agents for lung inflammatory disorders have led to the discovery of plant-based alternatives. The rhizomes of Anemarrhena asphodeloides have a long history of use against lung inflammatory disorders in traditional herbal medicine. However, the therapeutic potential of this plant material in animal models of lung inflammation has yet to be evaluated. In the present study, we prepared the alcoholic extract and derived the saponin-enriched fraction from the rhizomes of A. asphodeloides and isolated timosaponin A-III, a major constituent. Lung inflammation was induced by intranasal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mice, representing an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI). The alcoholic extract (50–200 mg/kg) inhibited the development of ALI. Especially, the oral administration of the saponin-enriched fraction (10–50 mg/kg) potently inhibited the lung inflammatory index. It reduced the total number of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Histological changes in alveolar wall thickness and the number of infiltrated cells of the lung tissue also indicated that the saponin-enriched fraction strongly inhibited lung inflammation. Most importantly, the oral administration of timosaponin A-III at 25–50 mg/kg significantly inhibited the inflammatory markers observed in LPS-induced ALI mice. All these findings, for the first time, provide evidence supporting the effectiveness of A. asphodeloides and its major constituent, timosaponin A-III, in alleviating lung inflammation.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Administration, Intranasal , Administration, Oral , Alcoholics , Anemarrhena , Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Herbal Medicine , Humans , Lung , Mice , Models, Animal , Plants , Pneumonia , Rhizome
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)–guided transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) of mediastinal lymph nodes, the incidence of histopathologically-confirmed sarcoidosis has increased. METHODS: The electronic medical records of Chonnam National University (CNU) Hospital and CNU Hwasun Hospital (CNUHH) were searched for confirmed cases of sarcoidosis diagnosed between 1996 and 2014. Cases were selected using a combination of clinical, radiological, and pathological evidence. Of 115 cases with the relevant disease codes, 16 cases were excluded, as they had not been confirmed pathologically or had no definitive clinical features of sarcoidosis. RESULTS: Among 99 cases of confirmed sarcoidosis, only nine patients were diagnosed with sarcoidosis before 2008; the rest were diagnosed from 2008 onward, after the introduction of EBUS-TBNA. EBUS-TBNA was used in 75.8% of patients, open surgical biopsy in 13.2%, and mediastinoscopic biopsy in 5.1%. At the time of diagnosis, 42.4% of sarcoidosis cases were at stage I, 55.6% at stage II, and 2% at stage III. Spontaneous remission of sarcoidosis was observed in 33.3% of cases, and stable disease in 37.4%; systemic steroid treatment was initiated in 23.2% of cases. Of the patients treated with systemic steroids, 69.6% showed improvement. The median duration of steroid treatment was 5 months. CONCLUSION: Following the introduction of EBUS-TBNA, the number of newly diagnosed sarcoidosis patients has increased. Clinical features of sarcoidosis were similar to those previously reported. Spontaneous remission occurred in about one-third of patients, while one-fourth of patients required systemic steroid treatment.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Bronchoscopy , Diagnosis , Electronic Health Records , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Lymph Nodes , Needles , Remission, Spontaneous , Sarcoidosis , Steroids , Ultrasonography
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-198628

ABSTRACT

DF formula is comprised of three traditional herbs, Ephedra intermedia, Rheum palmatum and Lithospermum erythrorhizon, and locally used for treating of the metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes in Korea. We tried to optimize the extraction conditions of two major components, (−)-ephedrine and (+)-pseudoephedrine, in DF formula using response surface methodology with Box-Behnken design (BBD). The experimental conditions with 70% for EtOH concentrations, 4.8 hour for extraction hours and 8.7 times for the solvent to material ratio were suggested for the optimized extraction of DF formula with the highest amounts of (−)-ephedrine and (+)-pseudoephedrine in the designed model.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Ephedra , Korea , Lithospermum , Metabolic Diseases , Obesity , Rheum
19.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 103-109, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-151397

ABSTRACT

The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a growing problem worldwide. The lack of safe and effective drugs, together with the frequent development of adverse drug reactions can result in worse outcomes. Therefore, new TB drugs able to bolster the current TB treatment regimen are urgently required. Novel drugs that are effective and safe against Mycobacterium tuberculosis are required to reduce the number of drugs and the duration of treatment in both drug-susceptible TB and multi-drug-resistant (MDR)-TB. This review covers promising novel TB drugs and regimens that are currently under development. Bedaquiline and delamanid are the most promising novel drugs for the treatment of MDR-TB, each having a high efficacy and tolerability. However, the best regimen for achieving better outcomes and reducing adverse drug reactions remains yet to be determined, with safety concerns regarding cardiac events due to QT prolongation still to be addressed. Pretomanid is a novel drug that potentially shortens the duration of treatment in both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB. Many regimens consisting of injection free drugs with shorter treatment duration compared to the conventional treatment are now undergoing clinical trials. Therefore a simple and short treatment with higher efficacy, and lesser adverse drug reactions and drug-drug interaction is expected for patients with MDR-TB.


Subject(s)
Antitubercular Agents , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Humans , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-226873

ABSTRACT

Acute bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) are essentially lung inflammatory disorders. Various plant extracts and their constituents showed therapeutic effects on several animal models of lung inflammation. These include coumarins, flavonoids, phenolics, iridoids, monoterpenes, diterpenes and triterpenoids. Some of them exerted inhibitory action mainly by inhibiting the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and nuclear transcription factor-κB activation. Especially, many flavonoid derivatives distinctly showed effectiveness on lung inflammation. In this review, the experimental data for plant extracts and their constituents showing therapeutic effectiveness on animal models of lung inflammation are summarized.


Subject(s)
Bronchitis , Coumarins , Diterpenes , Flavonoids , Iridoids , Lung Diseases, Obstructive , Lung , Models, Animal , Monoterpenes , Phenol , Plant Extracts , Plants, Medicinal , Pneumonia , Protein Kinases , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Therapeutic Uses
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