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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893499

ABSTRACT

Orbital emphysema with pneumocephalus is an unusual condition encountered in non-fracture craniofacial trauma. We report a case of orbital emphysema with disseminated pneumocephalus without any fracture, due to an orbital trauma caused by compressed air.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901203

ABSTRACT

Orbital emphysema with pneumocephalus is an unusual condition encountered in non-fracture craniofacial trauma. We report a case of orbital emphysema with disseminated pneumocephalus without any fracture, due to an orbital trauma caused by compressed air.

3.
Journal of Stroke ; : 61-68, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874956

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Patients with acute large vessel occlusion (LVO) presenting with mild stroke symptoms are at risk of early neurological deterioration (END). This study aimed to identify the optimal imaging variables for predicting END in this population. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 94 patients from the prospectively maintained institutional stroke registry admitted between January 2011 and May 2019, presenting within 24 hours after onset, with a baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ≤5 and anterior circulation LVO. Patients who underwent endovascular therapy before END were excluded. Volumes of Tmax delay (at >2, >4, >6, >8, and >10 seconds), mismatch (Tmax >4 seconds – diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI] and Tmax >6 seconds – DWI), and mild hypoperfusion lesions (Tmax 2–6 and 4–6 seconds) were measured. The association of each variable with END was examined using receiver operating characteristic curves. The variables with best predictive performance were dichotomized at the cutoff point maximizing Youden’s index and subsequently analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. @*Results@#END occurred in 39.4% of the participants. The optimal variables were identified as Tmax >6 seconds, Tmax >6 seconds – DWI, and Tmax 4–6 seconds with cut-off points of 53.73, 32.77, and 55.20 mL, respectively. These variables were independently associated with END (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 12.78 [95% confidence interval (CI), 3.36 to 48.65]; aOR, 5.73 [95% CI, 2.04 to 16.08]; and aOR, 9.13 [95% CI, 2.76 to 30.17], respectively). @*Conclusions@#Tmax >6 seconds, Tmax >6 seconds – DWI, and Tmax 4–6 seconds could identify patients at high risk of END following minor stroke due to LVO.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834896

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study was undertaken to establish a radiologic report monitoring system (RRMS) for missed and incidental findings (MIFs) in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reports, to help determine the clinical significance of MIFs in the emergency department (ED). @*Methods@#Patients presenting to our ED in 2017 were subjected to RRMS. Preliminary reports and final reports were subsequently compared based on the clinical significance of the MIFs. If required, the patient was contacted and instructed to revisit the ED. @*Results@#Totally, 12,132 CT and MRI exams were performed during the study period, and 321 cases (2.6%) encompassed MIFs. We attempted to contact 228 cases (1.9%) who had clinically significant MIF findings; 9 patients were instructed to return to the ED, whereas 105 cases were instructed to report to the outpatient department. Hospitalization was required for 12 patients: 2 cases required surgical intervention, 2 cases had an additional procedure, and 8 cases required medical hospitalization. @*Conclusion@#This study applied RRMS for a timely assessment of MIFs, determine rearrangements required, and present an active response to the MIFs determined in the ED. To improve patient care and safety, we hereby propose monitoring MIFs using the RRMS or similar methods.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834822

ABSTRACT

Spinal cord infarction is rare, especially cervical cord infarction is lesser than thoracic and lumbar level. We describe two cases of cervical cord infarction following cerebellar infarction with vertebral artery occlusion, which initially presented with chest pain and dyspnea. Blood supply for the cervical cord comes from anterior and posterior spinal artery, which originated from the distal vertebral or posterior inferior cerebellar arteries. Therefore, occlusion of unilateral vertebral artery could cause a cervical cord infarction.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833801

ABSTRACT

Human sparganosis is a zoonotic disease caused by infection and migration of the plerocercoid of Spirometra spp. Although sparganosis were reported from most parts of the body, the sparganum parasitizing inside cerebral artery is remarkably uncommon. We report a case of cerebral intravascular sparganosis in an elderly patient with acute ischemic stroke who was diagnosed by retrieving sparganum during mechanical thrombectomy. Finally, the parasites were identified as Spirometra erinaceieuropaei using multiplex PCR and cox1 gene sequencing.

7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786524

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of inflammatory markers, the Laboratory-score, and a new laboratory combined model for predicting serious bacterial infection (SBI) in young febrile children.METHODS: The presence of SBI was reviewed in previously healthy children aged 3 years or younger with fever (> 38℃) who visited the emergency department from 2017 through 2018. Areas under the curves (AUCs) of the receiver operating characteristic curve for SBI were compared with individual inflammatory markers (white blood cells [WBC] count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR], C-reactive protein [CRP], procalcitonin [PCT], and urine WBC count), the Laboratory-score, and a laboratory combined model. The latter model was developed using logistic regression analysis including ESR, CRP, and PCT.RESULTS: Of the 203 enrolled children, SBI was diagnosed in 58 (28.6%). For SBI prediction, the Laboratory-score showed 51.7% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI], 38.2%–65.0%) and 83.5% specificity (95% CI, 76.4%–89.1%). The AUC of the Laboratory-score (0.76) was significantly superior to the values of all individual inflammatory markers (WBC, 0.59 [P = 0.032]; ESR, 0.69; and CRP, 0.74 [P < 0.001]) except that of PCT (0.77, [P < 0.001]). The AUC of the laboratory combined model (0.80) was superior to that of the Laboratory-score (0.76) (P < 0.001).CONCLUSION: In this study, the new laboratory combined model showed good predictability for SBI. This finding suggests the usefulness of combining ESR, CRP, and PCT in predicting SBI.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Bacterial Infections , Blood Cells , C-Reactive Protein , Child , Emergency Medicine , Emergency Service, Hospital , Erythrocyte Count , Fever , Humans , Logistic Models , Pediatrics , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788762

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion, collateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) flow has a protective role against ischemia. However, some of these patients may experience initial major neurological deficits and major worsening on following days. Thus, we investigated the safety and efficacy of endovascular treatment (EVT) for ICA occlusion with collateral MCA flow by comparing clinical outcomes of medical treatment versus EVT.METHODS: The inclusion criteria were as follows : 1) acute ischemic stroke with ICA occlusion and presence of collateral MCA flow on transfemoral cerebral angiography (TFCA) and 2) hospital arrival within 12 hours from symptom onset. The treatment strategy was made by the attending physician based on the patient’s clinical status and results of TFCA.RESULTS: Eighty-one patients were included (30 medical treatment, 51 EVT). The EVT group revealed a high incidence of intracranial ICA occlusion, longer ipsilesional MCA contrast filling time, and a similar rate of favorable clinical outcome despite a higher mean baseline the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score. By binary logistic regression analysis, intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and EVT were independent predictors of favorable clinical outcome. In subgroup analysis based on stroke etiology, the non-atherosclerotic group showed a higher baseline NIHSS score, higher incidence of EVT, and a higher rate of distal embolization during EVT in comparison with the atherosclerotic group.CONCLUSION: In patients with ICA occlusion and collateral MCA flow, decisions regarding treatment strategy based on TFCA can help achieve favorable clinical outcomes. EVT strategy with respect to etiology of ICA occlusion might help achieve better angiographic outcomes.


Subject(s)
Carotid Artery, Internal , Cerebral Angiography , Collateral Circulation , Humans , Incidence , Ischemia , Logistic Models , Middle Cerebral Artery , Stroke , Thrombectomy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator
9.
Neurointervention ; : 107-115, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760596

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Emergent intracranial occlusions causing acute ischemic stroke are often related to extracranial atherosclerotic stenosis. This study aimed to investigate the association between post-procedure intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and emergent extracranial artery stenting and assess their effects on clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients undergoing hyperacute endovascular treatment for cervicocephalic vascular occlusion in three Korean hospitals between January 2011 and February 2016. Patients who had extracranial artery involvement and were treated from 24 hours of symptom onset to puncture were included in this study, and they were divided into the extracranial stenting (ES) and non-ES groups. Any type of petechial hemorrhages and parenchymal hematoma was defined as ICH for the current study. RESULTS: In total, 76 patients were included in this study. Among them, 56 patients underwent ES, and 20 patients did not. Baseline characteristics, risk factors, laboratory data, treatment methods, successful reperfusion rates, and baseline stenotic degrees of extracranial internal carotid artery did not differ between these two groups. However, atrial fibrillation was more frequent in patients without than with ES (P=0.002), and post-procedure ICH was more frequent in patients with than without ES (P=0.035). Logistic regression models revealed that ES was independently associated with post-procedure ICH (odds ratio [OR], 7.807; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.213–50.248; P=0.031), and ICH was independently associated with poor clinical outcomes (OR, 0.202; 95% CI, 0.054–0.759; P=0.018); however, ES itself was not associated with clinical outcomes (OR, 0.530; 95% CI, 0.117–2.395; P=0.409). Notably, ICH and ES had interaction for predicting good outcomes (P=0.041). CONCLUSION: Post-procedure ICH was associated with ES and poor clinical outcomes. Therefore, ES should be cautiously considered in patients with hyperacute stroke.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Atrial Fibrillation , Carotid Artery, Internal , Carotid Stenosis , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Cerebral Infarction , Constriction, Pathologic , Endovascular Procedures , Hematoma , Hemorrhage , Humans , Logistic Models , Punctures , Reperfusion , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stents , Stroke
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765333

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion, collateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) flow has a protective role against ischemia. However, some of these patients may experience initial major neurological deficits and major worsening on following days. Thus, we investigated the safety and efficacy of endovascular treatment (EVT) for ICA occlusion with collateral MCA flow by comparing clinical outcomes of medical treatment versus EVT. METHODS: The inclusion criteria were as follows : 1) acute ischemic stroke with ICA occlusion and presence of collateral MCA flow on transfemoral cerebral angiography (TFCA) and 2) hospital arrival within 12 hours from symptom onset. The treatment strategy was made by the attending physician based on the patient’s clinical status and results of TFCA. RESULTS: Eighty-one patients were included (30 medical treatment, 51 EVT). The EVT group revealed a high incidence of intracranial ICA occlusion, longer ipsilesional MCA contrast filling time, and a similar rate of favorable clinical outcome despite a higher mean baseline the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score. By binary logistic regression analysis, intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and EVT were independent predictors of favorable clinical outcome. In subgroup analysis based on stroke etiology, the non-atherosclerotic group showed a higher baseline NIHSS score, higher incidence of EVT, and a higher rate of distal embolization during EVT in comparison with the atherosclerotic group. CONCLUSION: In patients with ICA occlusion and collateral MCA flow, decisions regarding treatment strategy based on TFCA can help achieve favorable clinical outcomes. EVT strategy with respect to etiology of ICA occlusion might help achieve better angiographic outcomes.


Subject(s)
Carotid Artery, Internal , Cerebral Angiography , Collateral Circulation , Humans , Incidence , Ischemia , Logistic Models , Middle Cerebral Artery , Stroke , Thrombectomy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766718

ABSTRACT

Carotid free-floating thrombus (FFT) is a rare cause of stroke. The FFT is commonly associated with an atherosclerotic plaque rupture, but other causes need to be examined in young patients. We report a case of 31-year-old male patient with recurrent ischemic stroke caused by carotid FFT. Although initial laboratory test was unremarkable, recurrent stroke events led us to perform additional study and antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) was diagnosed. Repetitive testing for APLS seems considerable when young patients present with recurrent stroke.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid , Antiphospholipid Syndrome , Humans , Male , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Rupture , Stroke , Thrombosis
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766712

ABSTRACT

Delayed anoxic encephalopathy after carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is characterized by neurological deterioration that occurs after recovery from acute CO intoxication. There has been no established therapy. We report a patient recovered from acute CO intoxication developed various neurological symptoms. After the administration of high dose prednisolone and anticholinesterase inhibitor, the therapeutic effect was remarkable and confirmed by quantitative analysis of diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI). DTI could be used to evaluate the therapeutic effect for delayed anoxic encephalopathy after CO poisoning.


Subject(s)
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning , Carbon Monoxide , Carbon , Diffusion Tensor Imaging , Humans , Hypoxia, Brain , Leukoencephalopathies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Poisoning , Prednisolone
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766634

ABSTRACT

Multiple large-vessel occlusive stroke is rare in clinical practice, and its prognosis is usually poor. A 58-year-old female with atrial fibrillation experienced left hemiparesis and drowsy mentality, and was diagnosed with ischemic stroke due to acute occlusion of right carotid and basilar artery. Successful mechanical thrombectomy was performed for both occlusions with clot aspiration technique, and favorable outcome was achieved at 3-month. Endovascular revascularization therapy in acute occlusion of multiple large vessels seems feasible when favorable outcome can be expected.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Basilar Artery , Carotid Artery, Internal , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Paresis , Prognosis , Stroke , Thrombectomy
17.
Neurointervention ; : 2-12, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-730352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the influence of temporal patterns related to the availability of new endovascular treatment (EVT) devices on care processes and outcomes among patients with AIS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 720 consecutive patients (January 2011 to May 2016) in a retrospective registry, ASIAN KR, from three Korean hospitals, who received EVT for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) caused by cervicocephalic arterial occlusions. We performed period-to-period analyses based on stent retriever reimbursement and the availability of second-generation direct-aspiration devices (Period 1: January 2011–July 2014 vs. Period 2: August 2014–May 2016); time metrics and outcomes were compared when the onset-to-puncture time was <720 min among patients with EVT for intracranial occlusion. RESULTS: Period 2 had better post-EVT outcomes (3-month modified Rankin Scale 0–2 or equal to prestroke score, 48.3% vs. 60.2%, P=0.004), more successful reperfusion rates (modified Treatment In Cerebral Ischemia 2b–3, 74.2% vs. 82.2%, P=0.019), fewer subarachnoid hemorrhages (modified Fisher grade 3–4, 5.5% vs. 2.0%, P=0.034) and lower hemorrhagic transformation rates (any intracerebral hemorrhage, 35.3 vs. 22.7%, P=0.001) than Period 1. Compared to Period 1, Period 2 had a shorter door-to-puncture time (median 109 vs. 90 min, P<0.001), but longer onset-to-door time (129 vs. 143 min, P=0.057). CONCLUSION: Recent temporal improvements in post-EVT AIS outcomes in Korea are likely due to a combination of enhanced hospital care processes and administration of newer thrombectomy devices.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Brain Ischemia , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Cerebral Infarction , Humans , Korea , Learning Curve , Reperfusion , Retrospective Studies , Stents , Stroke , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Thrombectomy , Treatment Outcome
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718714

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We conducted a study to validate the effectiveness of the Korean criteria for trauma team activation (TTA) and compared its results with a two-tiered system. METHODS: This observational study was based on data from the Korean Trauma Data Bank. Within the study period, 1,628 trauma patients visited our emergency department, and 739 satisfied the criteria for TTA. The rates of overtriage and undertriage in the Korean one-tiered system were compared with the two-tiered system recommended by the American College of Surgery-Committee on Trauma. RESULTS: Most of the patient’s physiologic factors reflected trauma severity levels, but anatomical factors and mechanism of injury did not show consistent results. In addition, while the rate of overtriage (64.4%) was above the recommended range according to the Korean criteria, the rate of undertriage (4.0%) was within the recommended range. In the simulated two-tiered system, the rate of overtriage was reduced by 5.5%, while undertriage was increased by 1.8% compared to the Korean activation system. CONCLUSION: The Korean criteria for TTA showed higher rates of overtriage and similar undertriage rates compared to the simulated two-tier system. Modification of the current criteria to a two-tier system with special considerations would be more effective for providing optimum patient care and medical resource utilization.


Subject(s)
Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Observational Study , Patient Care , Patient Care Team , Trauma Centers , Triage
19.
Journal of Stroke ; : 394-403, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717266

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Little is known about prognosis after endovascular therapy (EVT) for acute large artery occlusion (LAO) caused by underlying intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS). Therefore, we investigated the prognosis following EVT according to the underlying etiology of LAO. METHODS: Patients from the Acute Stroke due to Intracranial Atherosclerotic occlusion and Neurointervention-Korean Retrospective (ASIAN KR) registry (n=720) were included if their occlusion was in the intracranial anterior circulation and their onset-to-puncture time was < 24 hours. Occlusion was classified according to etiology as follows: no significant stenosis after recanalization (Embolic group), and fixed significant focal stenosis in the occlusion site with flow impairment or re-occlusion observed during EVT (ICAS group). Patients were excluded when significant extracranial carotid lesions existed, and when the intracranial occlusion was intractable to EVT so that the etiology was undetermined. The effect of angiographic etiologic classification on outcomes was evaluated using multivariable analysis that was adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Among eligible patients (n=520), 421 and 99 were classified in the Embolic and ICAS groups, respectively. Patients in the Embolic and ICAS groups had similar successful reperfusion rates with EVT (79.6% vs. 76.8%, P=0.537) and 3-month functional independence (54.5% vs. 45.5%, P=0.104). In multivariable analysis, ICAS-related occlusion (odds ratio, 0.495; 95% confidence interval, 0.269 to 0.913; P=0.024) showed poorer 3-month functional independence compared to embolic occlusion. CONCLUSIONS: After EVT, patients with acute ICAS-related occlusion have relatively poor functional outcomes compared to those with embolic occlusion. Novel strategies need to be developed to improve EVT outcomes for ICAS occlusion.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Atherosclerosis , Cerebral Infarction , Classification , Constriction, Pathologic , Embolism , Humans , Prognosis , Reperfusion , Retrospective Studies , Stroke , Thrombectomy , Treatment Outcome
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1232-1239, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719240

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Recent basic life support (BLS) guidelines recommend a 30:2 compression-to-ventilation ratio (CV2) or chest compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CC); however, there are inevitable risks of interruption of high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in CV2 and hypoxemia in CC. In this study, we compared the short-term outcomes among CC, CV2, and 30:1 CV ratio (CV1). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 42 pigs were randomly assigned to CC, CV1, or CV2 groups. After induction of ventricular fibrillation (VF), we observed pigs for 2 minutes without any intervention. Thereafter, BLS was started according to the assigned method and performed for 8 minutes. Defibrillation was performed after BLS and repeated every 2 minutes, followed by rhythm analysis. Advanced cardiac life support, including continuous chest compression with ventilation every 6 seconds and intravenous injection of 1 mg epinephrine every 4 minutes, was performed until the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or 22 minutes after VF induction. Hemodynamic parameters and arterial blood gas profiles were compared among groups. ROSC, 24-hour survival, and neurologic outcomes were evaluated at 24 hours. RESULTS: The hemodynamic parameters during CPR did not differ among the study groups. Partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood and arterial oxygen saturation were lowest in the CC group, compared to those in the other groups, during the BLS period (p=0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively). The CV1 groups showed a significantly higher rate of favorable neurologic outcome (swine CPC 1 or 2) than the other groups (p=0.044). CONCLUSION: CPR with CV1 could promote better neurologic outcome than CV2 and CC.


Subject(s)
Advanced Cardiac Life Support , Hypoxia , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Epinephrine , Heart Arrest , Hemodynamics , Injections, Intravenous , Methods , Oxygen , Partial Pressure , Swine , Thorax , Treatment Outcome , Ventilation , Ventricular Fibrillation
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