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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914211

ABSTRACT

Background@#Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is closely associated with the progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We investigated whether urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (u-NAG), an early renal tubular damage biomarker in DKD, could be related to the degree of hepatic fibrosis in patients with T2DM. @*Methods@#A total of 300 patients with T2DM were enrolled in this study. Hepatic steatosis and fibrosis were determined using transient elastography. The levels of urinary biomarkers, including u-NAG, albumin, protein, and creatinine, and glucometabolic parameters were measured. @*Results@#Based on the median value of the u-NAG to creatinine ratio (u-NCR), subjects were divided into low and high u-NCR groups. The high u-NCR group showed a significantly longer duration of diabetes, worsened hyperglycemia, and a more enhanced hepatic fibrosis index. A higher u-NCR was associated with a greater odds ratio for the risk of higher hepatic fibrosis stage (F2: odds ratio, 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 3.82). Also, u-NCR was an independent predictive marker for more advanced hepatic fibrosis, even after adjusting for several confounding factors (β=1.58, P<0.01). @*Conclusion@#The elevation of u-NAG was independently associated with a higher degree of hepatic fibrosis in patients with T2DM. Considering the common metabolic milieu of renal and hepatic fibrosis in T2DM, the potential use of u-NAG as an effective urinary biomarker reflecting hepatic fibrosis in T2DM needs to be validated in the future.

2.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2022009-2022.
Article in 0 | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937573

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#The purpose of this study was (1) to examine whether the addition of resting heart rate (RHR) to the existing undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (UnDM) prediction model would improve predictability, and (2) to develop and validate UnDM prediction models by using only easily assessable variables such as gender, RHR, age, and waist circumference (WC). @*METHODS@#Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010, 2012, 2014, 2016 data were used to develop the model (model building set, n=19,675), while the data from 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017 were used to validate the model (validation set, n=19,917). UnDM was defined as a fasting glucose level ≥126 mg/dL or glycated hemoglobin ≥6.5%; however, doctors have not diagnosed it. Statistical package for the social sciences logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of UnDM. @*RESULTS@#RHR, age, and WC were associated with UnDM. When RHR was added to the existing model, sensitivity was reduced (86 vs. 73%), specificity was increased (49 vs. 65%), and a higher Youden index (35 vs. 38) was expressed. When only gender, RHR, age, and WC were used in the model, a sensitivity, specificity, and Youden index of 70%, 67%, and 37, respectively, were observed. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Adding RHR to the existing UnDM prediction model improved specificity and the Youden index. Furthermore, when the prediction model only used gender, RHR, age, and WC, the outcomes were not inferior to those of the existing prediction model.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937418

ABSTRACT

Background@#Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the causal relationship between NAFLD and CKD is uncertain, particularly in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to investigate the association between the presence and severity of NAFLD and incident CKD in patients with T2DM. @*Methods@#In this longitudinal cohort study of patients with T2DM, 3,188 patients with preserved renal function were followed up for the occurrence of incident CKD. NAFLD was defined as the presence of hepatic steatosis on ultrasonography, without any other causes of chronic liver disease. Advanced liver fibrosis of NAFLD was defined as a fibrosis-4 index ≥2.67. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. @*Results@#At baseline, 1,729 (54.2%) patients had NAFLD, of whom 94 (5.4%) had advanced liver fibrosis. During the follow-up of 8.3±3.6 years, 472 (14.8%) patients developed incident CKD: 220 (15.1%) in the non-NAFLD group, 231 (14.1%) in the NAFLD without advanced fibrosis group and 28 (31.1%) in the NAFLD with advanced fibrosis group. There was no increased risk of incident CKD in the NAFLD group compared to the non-NAFLD group (P=0.435). However, among patients with NAFLD, advanced liver fibrosis was associated with an increased risk of CKD (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.15 to 2.66; P=0.009). @*Conclusion@#Advanced liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD is independently associated with an increased risk of incident CKD in patients with T2DM.

4.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 539-544, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927145

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To date, no study has compared the effects of adding sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors to the combination of metformin plus dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors to the effects of adding other conventional anti-diabetic drugs (ADDs) to the dual therapy. We aimed to compare the effect of adding SGLT-2 inhibitors with that of adding sulfonylurea (SU) in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients inadequately controlled with metformin plus DPP-4 inhibitors. @*Materials and Methods@#This study was designed to evaluate the non-inferiority of SGLT-2 inhibitor to SU as an add-on therapy to the dual combination of metformin plus DPP-4 inhibitors. A total of 292 T2D patients who started SU or SGLT-2 inhibitors as an add-on therapy to metformin plus DPP-4 inhibitors due to uncontrolled hyperglycemia, defined as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥7%, were recruited. After propensity score matching, 90 pairs of patients remained, and 12-week changes in HbA1c levels were reviewed to assess glycemic effectiveness. Data from these patients were analyzed retrospectively. @*Results@#After 12 weeks of triple therapy, both groups showed significant changes in HbA1c levels, with a mean of -0.9% in each group. The inter-group difference was 0.01% [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.26–0.27], and the upper limit of the 95% CI was within the limit for non-inferiority (0.40%). There were no inter-group differences in the changes of liver enzyme levels and kidney function. @*Conclusion@#Adding SGLT-2 inhibitors is not inferior to adding SU as a third-line ADD to metformin plus DPP-4 inhibitor combination therapy.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925404

ABSTRACT

Background@#Spontaneous intracranial hypotension occurs due to cerebrospinal fluid leakage from the spinal column, and orthostatic headache is the most common clinical presentation. Recent studies showed that bilateral greater occipital nerve blockade demonstrated clinical efficacy in relieving post-dural puncture headache after caesarean section. CaseA 40-year-old male who presented severe orthostatic headache was consulted to our pain clinic from neurology department. He initially felt a dull nature pain over the whole occipital area which then spread over the frontal and parietal areas. His headache was combined with nausea and vomiting. An epidural blood patch was delayed until final cisternography, and bilateral greater occipital nerve blockade using ultrasound guidance was performed instead. After the blockade, the previously existing headache around the occipital and parietal areas disappeared completely, but mild headache persisted around the frontal area. @*Conclusions@#Greater occipital nerve blockade could be a good therapeutic alternative to improve headache resulting from spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

6.
Gut and Liver ; : 290-299, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925008

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and obesity are independently associated with an increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), the leading cause of mortality in patients with NAFLD. Many NAFLD patients are lean, but their ASCVD risk compared to obese subjects with NAFLD is unclear. @*Methods@#Data from the 2008 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveysdatabase were analyzed (n=4,786). NAFLD was defined as a comprehensive NAFLD score ≥40 or a liver fat score ≥–0.640. ASCVD risk was evaluated using the American College of Cardiol-ogy/American Heart Association guidelines. @*Results@#The frequency of subjects without NAFLD, with obese NAFLD, and with lean NAFLD was 62.4% (n=2,987), 26.6% (n=1,274), and 11.0% (n=525), respectively. Subjects with lean NAFLD had a significantly higher ASCVD score and prevalence of a high ASCVD risk (mean 15.6±14.0, 51.6%) than those with obese NAFLD and without NAFLD (mean 11.2±11.4, 39.8%; mean 7.9±10.9, 25.5%; all p<0.001). Subjects with lean NAFLD and significant liver fibrosis showed a significantly higher odds ratio for a high risk for ASCVD than those with obese NAFLD with or without significant liver fibrosis (odds ratio, 2.60 vs 1.93; p=0.023). @*Conclusions@#Subjects with lean NAFLD had a significantly higher ASCVD score and prevalence of high risk for ASCVD than those with obese NAFLD. Similarly, lean subjects with significant liver fibrosis had a higher probability of ASCVD than obese subjects in the subpopulation with NAFLD.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924963

ABSTRACT

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a subtype of NAFLD, can progress to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death. Nevertheless, the current treatment for NAFLD/NASH is limited to lifestyle modifications, and no drugs are currently officially approved as treatments for NASH. Many global pharmaceutical companies are pursuing the development of medications for the treatment of NASH, and results from phase 2 and 3 clinical trials have been published in recent years. Here, we review data from these recent clinical trials and reports on the efficacy of newly developed antidiabetic drugs in NASH treatment.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924915

ABSTRACT

Background@#Risk assessment tools have been actively studied, and they summarize key predictors with relative weights/importance for a disease. Currently, standardized screening scores for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD)—two key global health problems—are available in United States and Korea. We aimed to compare and evaluate screening scores for DM (or combined with prediabetes) and CKD, and assess the risk in contemporary United States and Korean populations. @*Methods@#Four (2×2) models were evaluated in the United States-National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2015–2018) and Korea-NHANES (2016–2018)—8,928 and 16,209 adults. Weighted statistics were used to describe population characteristics. We used logistic regression for predictors in the models to assess associations with study outcomes (undiagnosed DM and CKD) and diagnostic measures for temporal and cross-validation. @*Results@#Korean adult population (mean age 47.5 years) appeared to be healthier than United States counterpart, in terms of DM and CKD risks and associated factors, with exceptions of undiagnosed DM, prediabetes and prehypertension. Models performed well in own country and external populations regarding predictor-outcome association and discrimination. Risk tests (high vs. low) showed area under the curve >0.75, sensitivity >84%, specificity >45%, positive predictive value >8%, and negative predictive value >99%. Discrimination was better for DM, compared to the combined outcome of DM and prediabetes, and excellent for CKD due to age. @*Conclusion@#Four easy-to-use screening scores for DM and CKD are well-validated in contemporary United States and Korean populations. Prevention of DM and CKD may serve as first-step in public health, with these self-assessment tools as basic tools to help health education and disparity.

9.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 207-219, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918929

ABSTRACT

Background@#Insulin resistance (IR) and inflammation are closely related to each other and share common pathophysiological and metabolic mechanisms. We aimed to investigate the combined effect of IR and inflammation on comorbidities of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#A total 3,758 patients with T2DM were recruited through Huh’s Diabetes Center from January 2003 to June 2009. Insulin sensitivity was measured by a rate constant for plasma glucose disappearance (Kitt , %/min) using short insulin tolerance test. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was used as a surrogate for inflammation. @*Results@#Patients with the lowest tertile of Kitt (IR group) showed worse cardio-metabolic parameters while those with the highest tertile of hs-CRP levels had worse cardio-metabolic parameters. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome, fatty liver, albuminuria, and carotid atherosclerosis decreased with Kitt tertile, but increased with hs-CRP tertile. In multiple regression analysis, both Kitt and hs-CRP were independent risk factors for comorbidities of T2DM. In addition, they showed synergistic effects on these comorbidities. @*Conclusion@#Both IR and inflammation were significantly associated with comorbidities of T2DM in a dose dependent manner. In addition, the coexistence of IR and inflammation may synergistically contribute to increased comorbidities of T2DM.

10.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1232-1242, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914250

ABSTRACT

Background@#The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has rapidly increased worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an independent relationship between regional fat distribution, especially leg fat mass, and the presence of NAFLD using nationally representative data in Korea. @*Methods@#This cross-sectional study analyzed data from 14,502 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008 to 2011. Total fat mass, leg fat mass, and appendicular skeletal muscle mass were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Validated NAFLD prediction models and scoring systems for hepatic fibrosis were used. @*Results@#The leg fat to total fat (LF/TF) ratio showed a negative relationship with many factors, including body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and liver enzyme levels. When the LF/TF ratio and indices of hepatic steatosis were stratified by quartiles, the LF/TF ratio showed a negative correlation with the scoring systems that were used. The LF/TF ratio showed better accuracy in predicting NAFLD than total fat mass or leg fat mass alone. After adjusting for various traditional and lifestyle factors, a low LF/TF ratio remained a risk factor for NAFLD. Among NAFLD subjects, the LF/TF ratio showed a negative relationship with hepatic fibrosis. @*Conclusion@#A lower LF/TF ratio was markedly associated with a higher risk of hepatic steatosis and advanced hepatic fibrosis using various predictive models in a Korean population. Therefore, the LF/TF ratio could be a useful anthropometric parameter to predict NAFLD or advanced hepatic fibrosis.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914195

ABSTRACT

Background@#Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of antidiabetic drugs that exhibit multiple extraglycemic effects. However, there are conflicting results regarding the effects of SGLT2 inhibition on energy expenditure and thermogenesis. Therefore, we investigated the effect of ipragliflozin (a selective SGLT2 inhibitor) on energy metabolism. @*Methods@#Six-week-old male 129S6/Sv mice with a high propensity for adipose tissue browning were randomly assigned to three groups: normal chow control, 60% high-fat diet (HFD)-fed control, and 60% HFD-fed ipragliflozin-treated groups. The administration of diet and medication was continued for 16 weeks. @*Results@#The HFD-fed mice became obese and developed hepatic steatosis and adipose tissue hypertrophy, but their random glucose levels were within the normal ranges; these features are similar to the metabolic features of a prediabetic condition. Ipragliflozin treatment markedly attenuated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and reduced the size of hypertrophied adipocytes to that of smaller adipocytes. In the ipragliflozin treatment group, uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) and other thermogenesis-related genes were significantly upregulated in the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, and fatty acid oxidation was increased in the brown adipose tissue. These effects were associated with a significant reduction in the insulin-to-glucagon ratio and the activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) pathway in the liver and adipose tissue. @*Conclusion@#SGLT2 inhibition by ipragliflozin showed beneficial metabolic effects in 129S6/Sv mice with HFD-induced obesity that mimics prediabetic conditions. Our data suggest that SGLT2 inhibitors, through their upregulation of energy expenditure, may have therapeutic potential in prediabetic obesity.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913377

ABSTRACT

Background@#Gasserian ganglion radiofreqeucy thermoablation is a good treatment option for the management of pain in trigeminal neuralgia. We report a case in which the patient of trigeminal neuralgia combined with anterior cerebral artery aneurysm was treated successfully by gasserian ganglion thermoablation without any complication.CaseAn 85-year-old female presenting with electric shock like sensation in the gum and molar teeth was diagnosed as trigeminal neuralgia. Carbamazepine medication and trigeminal nerve blockade relieved her pain partially, but severe side effects of carbamazepine occurred. Magnetic resonance angiography of the brain showed saccular aneurysm in inferior aspect of the anterior communicating artery. Gasserian ganglion thermoablation under sedation anesthesia using nicardipine was performed carefully without any rupture of the cerebral aneurysm. @*Conclusions@#Gasserian ganglion thermoablation could be performed safely in a patient with cerebral aneurysm without any inadvertent event.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898190

ABSTRACT

Background@#Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor that accelerates NAFLD progression, leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Thus, here we aimed to develop a simple model to predict the presence of NAFLD based on clinical parameters of patients with T2DM. @*Methods@#A total of 698 patients with T2DM who visited five medical centers were included. NAFLD was evaluated using transient elastography. Univariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify potential contributors to NAFLD, followed by multivariable logistic regression analyses to create the final prediction model for NAFLD. @*Results@#Two NAFLD prediction models were developed, with and without serum biomarker use. The non-laboratory model comprised six variables: age, sex, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), dyslipidemia, and smoking status. For a cutoff value of ≥60, the prediction accuracy was 0.780 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.743 to 0.817). The second comprehensive model showed an improved discrimination ability of up to 0.815 (95% CI, 0.782 to 0.847) and comprised seven variables: age, sex, waist circumference, BMI, glycated hemoglobin, triglyceride, and alanine aminotransferase to aspartate aminotransferase ratio. Our non-laboratory model showed non-inferiority in the prediction of NAFLD versus previously established models, including serum parameters. @*Conclusion@#The new models are simple and user-friendly screening methods that can identify individuals with T2DM who are at high-risk for NAFLD. Additional studies are warranted to validate these new models as useful predictive tools for NAFLD in clinicalpractice.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890486

ABSTRACT

Background@#Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor that accelerates NAFLD progression, leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Thus, here we aimed to develop a simple model to predict the presence of NAFLD based on clinical parameters of patients with T2DM. @*Methods@#A total of 698 patients with T2DM who visited five medical centers were included. NAFLD was evaluated using transient elastography. Univariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify potential contributors to NAFLD, followed by multivariable logistic regression analyses to create the final prediction model for NAFLD. @*Results@#Two NAFLD prediction models were developed, with and without serum biomarker use. The non-laboratory model comprised six variables: age, sex, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), dyslipidemia, and smoking status. For a cutoff value of ≥60, the prediction accuracy was 0.780 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.743 to 0.817). The second comprehensive model showed an improved discrimination ability of up to 0.815 (95% CI, 0.782 to 0.847) and comprised seven variables: age, sex, waist circumference, BMI, glycated hemoglobin, triglyceride, and alanine aminotransferase to aspartate aminotransferase ratio. Our non-laboratory model showed non-inferiority in the prediction of NAFLD versus previously established models, including serum parameters. @*Conclusion@#The new models are simple and user-friendly screening methods that can identify individuals with T2DM who are at high-risk for NAFLD. Additional studies are warranted to validate these new models as useful predictive tools for NAFLD in clinicalpractice.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786071

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether serum bilirubin levels can predict the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).METHODS: This observational study included 1,381 subjects with T2DM in whom serial measurements of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) were made at 1- to 2-year intervals for 6–8 years. The progression of carotid atherosclerosis was defined as newly detected plaque lesions on repeat ultrasonography. After dividing total serum bilirubin levels into tertiles, the association between total serum bilirubin at baseline and plaque progression status was analyzed.RESULTS: Among 1,381 T2DM patients, 599 (43.4%) were categorized as having plaque progression in their carotid arteries. Those with plaque progression were significantly older; showed a higher prevalence of hypertension, abdominal obesity, and chronic kidney disease; and had a longer duration of T2DM, higher levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, and insulin resistance, and lower total bilirubin concentrations than those with no plaque progression. When total serum bilirubin levels were divided into tertiles, the highest tertile group was younger than the lowest tertile group, with higher levels of TC and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that higher serum bilirubin levels were associated with a significantly lower risk of CIMT progression (odds ratio, 0.584; 95% confidence interval, 0.392–0.870; p=0.008). Age (p<0.001), body mass index (p=0.023), and TC (p=0.019) were also associated with the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in T2DM patients.CONCLUSION: Total serum bilirubin is independently associated with progression of atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries in T2DM patients.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , Bilirubin , Body Mass Index , Carotid Arteries , Carotid Artery Diseases , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Cholesterol , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Hypertension , Insulin Resistance , Lipoproteins , Logistic Models , Obesity, Abdominal , Observational Study , Prevalence , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Triglycerides , Ultrasonography
16.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 443-457, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833044

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#We sought to investigate an anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors in normoglycemic atherosclerotic rabbit model.@*METHODS@#Male New Zealand white rabbits (n=26) were fed with a 1% high-cholesterol diet for 7 weeks followed by normal diet for 2 weeks. After balloon catheter injury, the rabbits were administered with the Dapagliflozin (1mg/kg/day) or control-medium for 8 weeks (n=13 for each group). All lesions were assessed with angiography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and histological assessment.@*RESULTS@#Atheroma burden (38.51±3.16% vs. 21.91±1.22%, p<0.01) and lipid accumulation (18.90±3.63% vs. 10.20±2.03%, p=0.047) was significantly decreased by SGLT-2 inhibitor treatment. The SGLT-2 inhibitor group showed lower macrophage infiltration (20.23±1.89% vs. 12.72±1.95%, p=0.01) as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression (31.17±4.40% vs. 19.47±2.10%, p=0.025). Relative area of inducible nitric oxide synthase+ macrophages was tended to be lower in the SGLT-2 inhibitor-treated group (1.00±0.16% vs. 0.71±0.10%, p=0.13), while relative proportion of Arg1⁺ macrophage was markedly increased (1.00±0.27% vs. 2.43±0.64%, p=0.04). As a result, progression of atherosclerosis was markedly attenuated in SGLT-2 inhibitor treated group (OCT area stenosis, 32.13±1.20% vs. 22.77±0.88%, p<0.01). Mechanistically, SGLT-2 treatment mitigated the inflammatory responses in macrophage. Especially, Toll-like receptor 4uclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway, and their downstream effectors such as interleukin-6 and TNF-α were markedly suppressed by SGLT-2 inhibitor treatment.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These results together suggest that SGLT-2 inhibitor exerts an anti-atherosclerotic effect through favorable modulation of inflammatory response as well as macrophage characteristics in non-diabetic situation.

17.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832360

ABSTRACT

This clinical practice position statement, a product of the Fatty Liver Research Group of the Korean Diabetes Association, proposes recommendations for the diagnosis, progression and/or severity assessment, management, and follow-up of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients with both T2DM and NAFLD have an increased risk of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis and a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetic complications compared to those without NAFLD. With regards to the evaluation of patients with T2DM and NAFLD, ultrasonography-based stepwise approaches using noninvasive biomarker models such as fibrosis-4 or the NAFLD fibrosis score as well as imaging studies such as vibration-controlled transient elastography with controlled attenuation parameter or magnetic resonance imagingproton density fat fraction are recommended. After the diagnosis of NAFLD, the stage of fibrosis needs to be assessed appropriately. For management, weight reduction achieved by lifestyle modification has proven beneficial and is recommended in combination with antidiabetic agent(s). Evidence that some antidiabetic agents improve NAFLD/NASH with fibrosis in patients with T2DM is emerging. However, there are currently no definite pharmacologic treatments for NAFLD in patients with T2DM. For specific cases, bariatric surgery may be an option if indicated.

18.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832305

ABSTRACT

Background@#Impaired diastolic heart function has been observed in persons with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and/or with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, it is unclear whether NAFLD fibrotic progression, i.e., non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, poses an independent risk for diastolic dysfunction in T2DM. We investigated the association between liver fibrosis and left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction in T2DM. @*Methods@#We analyzed 606 patients with T2DM, aged ≥50 years, who had undergone liver ultrasonography and pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiography. Insulin sensitivity was measured by short insulin tolerance test. Presence of NAFLD and/or advanced liver fibrosis was determined by abdominal ultrasonography and NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS). LV diastolic dysfunction was defined according to transmitral peak early to late ventricular filling (E/A) ratio and deceleration time, using echocardiography. @*Results@#LV diastolic dysfunction was significantly more prevalent in the NAFLD versus non-NAFLD group (59.7% vs. 49.0%, P=0.011). When NAFLD was stratified by NFS, subjects with advanced liver fibrosis exhibited a higher prevalence of diastolic dysfunction (49.0%, 50.7%, 61.8%; none, simple steatosis, advanced fibrosis, respectively; P for trend=0.003). In multivariable logistic regression, liver fibrosis was independently associated with diastolic dysfunction (odds ratio [OR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 2.34; P=0.022) after adjusting for insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk factors. This association remained significant in patients without insulin resistance (OR, 4.32; 95% CI, 1.73 to 11.51; P=0.002). @*Conclusions@#Liver fibrosis was associated with LV diastolic dysfunction in patients with T2DM and may be an independent risk factor for diastolic dysfunction, especially in patients without systemic insulin resistance.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811146

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk remains increased despite optimal low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level induced by intensive statin therapy. Therefore, recent guidelines recommend non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) as a secondary target for preventing cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of omega-3 fatty acids (OM3-FAs) in combination with atorvastatin compared to atorvastatin alone in patients with mixed dyslipidemia.METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, and phase III multicenter study included adults with fasting triglyceride (TG) levels ≥200 and <500 mg/dL and LDL-C levels <110 mg/dL. Eligible subjects were randomized to ATOMEGA (OM3-FAs 4,000 mg plus atorvastatin calcium 20 mg) or atorvastatin 20 mg plus placebo groups. The primary efficacy endpoints were the percent changes in TG and non-HDL-C levels from baseline at the end of treatment.RESULTS: After 8 weeks of treatment, the percent changes from baseline in TG (−29.8% vs. 3.6%, P<0.001) and non-HDL-C (−10.1% vs. 4.9%, P<0.001) levels were significantly greater in the ATOMEGA group (n=97) than in the atorvastatin group (n=103). Moreover, the proportion of total subjects reaching TG target of <200 mg/dL in the ATOMEGA group was significantly higher than that in the atorvastatin group (62.9% vs. 22.3%, P<0.001). The incidence of adverse events did not differ between the two groups.CONCLUSION: The addition of OM3-FAs to atorvastatin improved TG and non-HDL-C levels to a significant extent compared to atorvastatin alone in subjects with residual hypertriglyceridemia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Atorvastatin , Cholesterol , Cholesterol, LDL , Dyslipidemias , Fasting , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Hypertriglyceridemia , Incidence , Lipoproteins , Triglycerides
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to identify a consensus on definition, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of frozen shoulder (FS) among shoulder specialists.METHODS: A questionnaire composed of 18 questions about FS—definition, classification, utilization of diagnostic modalities, the propriety of treatment at each stage, and prognosis—was sent to 95 shoulder specialists in Korea. Most questions (15 questions) required an answer on a 5-point analog scale (1, strongly disagree; 5, strongly agree); three questions about the propriety of treatment were binary.RESULTS: We received 71 responses (74.7%). Of the 71 respondents, 84.5% agreed with the proposed definition of FS, and 88.8% agreed that FS should be divided into primary and secondary types according to the proposed definition. Only 43.7% of the respondents agreed that FS in patients with systemic disease should be classified as secondary FS. For the diagnosis of FS, 71.9% agreed that plain radiography should be used and 64.8% agreed ultrasonography should be used. There was a high consensus on proper treatment of FS: 97.2% agreed on education, 94.4%, on the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; 76.1%, on intra-articular steroid injections; and 97.2%, on stretching exercise. Among all respondents, 22.5% answered that more than 10% of the patients with FS do not respond to conservative treatment.CONCLUSIONS: The survey revealed a general consensus among shoulder specialists on the definition and treatment of FS. However, classification of FS was found controversial.


Subject(s)
Bursitis , Classification , Consensus , Diagnosis , Education , Humans , Korea , Prognosis , Radiography , Shoulder , Specialization , Surveys and Questionnaires , Ultrasonography
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