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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830751

ABSTRACT

The latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap (LDMCF) is widely used for breast reconstruction. However, it has the disadvantage of frequent seroma formation at the donor site, and late seroma has also been reported. The authors report histological findings after the surgical treatment of a late, repeatedly recurrent seroma at 10 years after breast reconstruction with LDMCF. In 2008, a 66-year-old female patient underwent immediate breast reconstruction with LDMCF. In 2015, a late seroma was found at the donor site. After aspiration and drainage, the seroma recurred again in 2018. Total surgical excision of the seroma was performed and bloody-appearing fluid was identified in the capsule. The excised tissue was biopsied. Histological examination revealed no evidence of blood in the fluid, and multinucleated giant cells with amorphous eosinophilic proteinaceous material were identified. The cyst was suggestive of chronic granulomatous inflammation. There was no recurrence at 8 months postoperatively. The patient described herein underwent surgical treatment of late seroma that recurred after immediate breast reconstruction with LDMCF, and histological findings were identified. These results may be helpful for other future studies regarding late seroma after breast reconstruction with LDMCF.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830632

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study investigated the outcomes of pharyngeal flap surgery in Asian patients with velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD), with a focus on postoperative improvements in speech articulation and complications. Additionally, this study explored whether the cause of VPD and the timing of surgery affected outcomes in terms of speech improvement. @*Methods@#A retrospective review was conducted of the medical records of 72 Asian VPD patients who underwent pharyngeal flap surgery performed by a single surgeon from 1996 to 2014. Operative complications were analyzed for all 72 patients, and preoperative and postoperative speech articulation tests were compared for the subset of 43 patients in whom such testing was possible. The relationships of age at surgery and the cause of VPD with the extent of improvement in speech articulation were also investigated. @*Results@#Nine of the 72 patients (13%) experienced wound-related complications. Furthermore, 34 patients (47%) reported persistent snoring lasting for over 3 months, and 16 (22%) reported snoring for over 1 year. Three patients (4%) underwent reoperation. Speech articulation scores significantly improved postoperatively across all groups. Younger age at surgery was associated with greater improvements in speech outcomes, but no significant relationship was found between the cause of VPD and the extent of the postoperative improvement in speech outcomes. @*Conclusion@#Speech outcomes improved after pharyngeal surgery in Asian patients with VPD. Early surgery was associated with favorable speech outcomes, but no association was found between the cause of VPD and postoperative speech outcomes.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787233

ABSTRACT

Endobiliary radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a procedure performed widely to induce locoregional tumor control by the transfer of thermal energy to the lesion and subsequent tumor necrosis. A 72-year-old male with a prior history of acute calculous cholangitis and perforated cholecystitis was admitted to the Kyungpook National University Hospital complaining of fever and nausea. He had an indwelling percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTGBD) catheter from the previous episode of perforated cholecystitis. An abdominal CT scan showed marked dilation of both the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts. Common bile duct cancer was confirmed histologically after an endobiliary biopsy. A surgical resection was considered to be the initial treatment option. During open surgery, multiple metastatic nodules were present in the small bowel mesentery and anterior abdominal wall. Resection of the tumor was not feasible, so endobiliary RFA was performed prior to biliary stenting. Cholecystectomy was required for the removal of the PTGBD catheter, but the surgical procedure could not be performed due to a cystic ductal invasion of the tumor. Instead, chemical ablation of the gallbladder (GB) with pure ethanol was performed to breakdown the GB mucosa. Palliative treatment for a biliary obstruction was achieved successfully using these procedures. In addition, a PTGBD catheter was removed successfully without significant side effects. As a result, an improvement in the patient's quality of life was accomplished.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Wall , Aged , Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic , Biopsy , Catheter Ablation , Catheters , Cholangiocarcinoma , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Cholangitis , Cholecystectomy , Cholecystitis , Common Bile Duct , Cystic Duct , Drainage , Ethanol , Fever , Gallbladder , Humans , Male , Mesentery , Mucous Membrane , Nausea , Necrosis , Palliative Care , Quality of Life , Stents , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830015

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss is a rare disease characterized by bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, some in a progressive pattern and others in idiopathic or fluctuating pattern, often accompanied by vestibular symptoms. This disease is also known as autoimmune inner ear disease (AIED), which primarily involves the vestibulo-cochlear system. However, in some cases, it occurs in the context of systemic autoimmune disorder such as wegner granulomatosis, or the Bechet disease. Response to steroids has been the requisite clinical criterion for diagnosis. Treatment usually includes corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs. However, after continuous steroid treatment development of corticosteroids, resistance is common in many AIED. To patients with AIED, response to steroids is not only a criterion for diagnosis but also a criterion to test steroid-sparing therapies such as methotrexate. A 10 year-old boy presenting a fluctuating pattern of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss was treated with a cytotoxic agent in suspicion of autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss. We reviewed this case with reference to relevant publications in the medical literature.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762863

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare neuroendocrine malignancy affecting the skin, for which timely diagnosis and aggressive treatment are essential. MCC has most often been reported in Caucasians, and case reports in Asians are rare. This study presents our experiences with the surgical treatment and radiotherapy of MCC in Asian patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of seven MCC patients between 2000 and 2018 from a single institution, and analyzed patient characteristics, tumor characteristics, surgical treatment, sentinel lymph node evaluation, reconstruction, adjuvant radiation therapy, and prognosis. RESULTS: Eight MCC lesions occurred in seven patients, most commonly in the head and neck region. All patients underwent surgical excision with reconstruction. The final surgical margin was 1.0 cm in most cases, and reconstruction was most commonly performed with a split-thickness skin graft. Five patients received adjuvant radiotherapy, and two patients received sentinel lymph node biopsy. During the follow-up period, three patients remained well, two died from other causes, one experienced recurrence, and one was lost to follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: We treated seven Asian MCC patients and our series confirmed that MCC is a very dangerous cancer in Asians as well. Based on our experiences, thorough surgical excision of MCC with histopathological clearance should be considered, with sentinel lymph node evaluation if necessary, followed by appropriate reconstruction and careful postoperative observation. Adjuvant radiation therapy is also recommended for all Asian MCC patients. The results of this case series may provide guidance for the treatment of Asian MCC patients in the future.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Carcinoma, Merkel Cell , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Head , Humans , Lost to Follow-Up , Lymph Nodes , Mohs Surgery , Neck , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy , Skin , Transplants
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760146

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss is a rare disease characterized by bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, some in a progressive pattern and others in idiopathic or fluctuating pattern, often accompanied by vestibular symptoms. This disease is also known as autoimmune inner ear disease (AIED), which primarily involves the vestibulo-cochlear system. However, in some cases, it occurs in the context of systemic autoimmune disorder such as wegner granulomatosis, or the Bechet disease. Response to steroids has been the requisite clinical criterion for diagnosis. Treatment usually includes corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs. However, after continuous steroid treatment development of corticosteroids, resistance is common in many AIED. To patients with AIED, response to steroids is not only a criterion for diagnosis but also a criterion to test steroid-sparing therapies such as methotrexate. A 10 year-old boy presenting a fluctuating pattern of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss was treated with a cytotoxic agent in suspicion of autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss. We reviewed this case with reference to relevant publications in the medical literature.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Cytotoxins , Diagnosis , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural , Humans , Labyrinth Diseases , Male , Methotrexate , Rare Diseases , Steroids
7.
Journal of Rhinology ; : 26-31, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766204

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The conventional transseptal transsphenoidal approach can inhibit visualization of the surgical field and may change the shape of external nose. We used the transseptal transsphenoidal technique to remove septal cartilage except the L strut via a modified Killian's incision and preserved the ‘key-stone area.’ The aim of this study was to verify the usefulness of this technique. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Retrospective analysis was carried out on 42 pituitary tumor patients who received this technique by a single otolaryngologist from March 2005 to March 2012 at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. RESULTS: The mean patient age at time of surgery was 52 years, and 41 cases were pituitary adenoma and 1 was Rathke's cleft cyst. Three patients had undergone prior surgery; of which 2 used a pterional approach and 1 a transsphenoidal approach. With regard to complication, there were 2 cases of CSF leakage and 5 cases of septal laceration. There were no cases of meningitis, deformity of external nose, septal perforation, anosmia, or sinusitis. In post operation follow up, 25 cases (59.5%) had no residual tumor, while 17 cases (40.5%) had residual tumor. CONCLUSION: This study reveals that transseptal transsphenoidal surgery with septal cartilage removal and a replacement technique for a pituitary tumor are effective, allow easy exposure, and result in a low complication rate.


Subject(s)
Cartilage , Congenital Abnormalities , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lacerations , Meningitis , Methods , Neoplasm, Residual , Nose , Olfaction Disorders , Pituitary Neoplasms , Retrospective Studies , Sinusitis
8.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 299-308, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716237

ABSTRACT

Angiogenic factors contribute to cerebral angiogenesis following cerebral hypoperfusion, and understanding these temporal changes is essential to developing effective treatments. The present study examined temporal alterations in angiogenesis-related matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) expression in the hippocampus following bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAo). Male Wistar rats (12 weeks of age) were randomly assigned to sham-operated control or experimental groups, and expression levels of MMP-9 and ANG-2 were assessed after BCCAo (1 week, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks), using western blotting. Protein expression increased 1 week after BCCAo and returned to control levels at 4 and 8 weeks. In addition, immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that the MMP-9- and ANG-2-positive signals were primarily observed in the NeuN-positive neurons with very little labeling in non-neuronal cells and no labeling in endothelial cells. In addition, these cellular locations of MMP-9- and ANG-2-positive signals were not altered over time following BCCAo. Other angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor and hypoxia-inducible factor did not differ from controls at 1 week; however, expression of both factors increased at 4 and 8 weeks in the BCCAo group compared to the control group. Our findings increase understanding of alterations in angiogenic factors during the progression of cerebral angiogenesis and are relevant to developing effective temporally based therapeutic strategies for chronic cerebral hypoperfusion-associated neurological disorders such as vascular dementia.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inducing Agents , Angiopoietin-2 , Animals , Blotting, Western , Carotid Artery, Common , Dementia, Vascular , Endothelial Cells , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Hippocampus , Humans , Male , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Nervous System Diseases , Neurons , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760075

ABSTRACT

A mammary-type myofibroblastoma is a rare benign mesenchymal neoplasm composed of spindle cells initially described to occur in the breast. However, they also arise at extra-mammary sites including the inguinal area, breast, chest wall/axilla, trunk, upper and lower extremities, and head and neck regions. In particular, mammary-type myofibroblastoma of the head and neck are extremely rare and may occur at any age. Immunohistochemically, it is typically CD34 and desmin positive. Currently, complete excision is considered as the first line treatment and recurrence of the tumor is rare. We experienced a 41-year-old man who visited with 1 cm sized firm mass of the tongue. The mass was resected and tissue biopsy revealed a diagnosis of mammary-type myofibroblastoma. Herein we report a rare case of mammary-type myofibroblastoma of the tongue with a review of the literature.


Subject(s)
Adult , Biopsy , Breast , Desmin , Diagnosis , Head , Humans , Lower Extremity , Neck , Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue , Recurrence , Thorax , Tongue
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714777

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed short-term clinical outcome and safety of Neuro One® (Oticon Medical) cochlear implantation on postlingually deafened Korean adults. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: A prospective study was performed on five postlingually deafened Korean adults who underwent Neuro One® cochlear implantation between April and June, 2016. All cases were successfully implanted via round window approach. Preoperative pure tone audiometry and speech perception score [phonetically balanced (PB) words, bi-syllable words, Korean version-central institute for the deaf (K-CID)], intraoperative evoked compound action potential (ECAP), postoperative audiometry, aided warble-tone thresholds and speech perception scores after 6 months were evaluated. Residual hearing group was defined as patients with below 40 dB of average audiometric threshold in low frequency (250 and 500 Hz). Preservation of residual hearing and postoperative complication were also evaluated. RESULTS: The mean age of five patients (3 men, 2 women) was 37.6 years. All of the recipients were unsatisfied about the conventional hearing aid. Two patients met the criteria for belonging to a residual hearing group. The audiometric threshold on the implanted side was 102.8 dB, and the opposite side was 89.6 dB. The speech perception score with hearing aid resulted in the PB word score of 35.5%, bi-syllable word score of 50%, and the open set sentence test of 62.5% on the average. The mean operation time was 87 minutes. Three patients showed normal ECAP response throughout the entire electrode intraoperatively, but the other two patients could not detect ECAP response intraoperatively. However, we could eventually identify ECAP responses in all cases postoperatively. All patients of residual hearing group could preserve their residual hearing without deteriorating more than 10 dB on audiometry. At 6 months after implantation, there was significant improvement of speech perception scores (PB word score was 54.1%; bi-syllable word score was 68.1% and K-CID was 86.2%). CONCLUSION: Neuro One® cochlear implant system was able to preserve residual hearing with relative short operation time. Short-term clinical outcome showed no significant difference with other cochlear implant devices. However, intraoperative ECAP measurement was not consistent. Further investigation was necessary.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Adult , Audiometry , Cochlear Implantation , Cochlear Implants , Electrodes , Hearing , Hearing Aids , Humans , Male , Methods , Postoperative Complications , Prospective Studies , Speech Perception
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-158121

ABSTRACT

Laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (LPRD) is common in laryngologic practice. In Korea, up to 1 out of every 5 patients who visit otorhinolaryngology clinic is supposed to have LPRD with symptoms and physical findings. Major symptoms of LPRD include hoarseness, cough, reflux symptom and mild dysphagia. Even though LPRD is common, its diagnosis may be difficult, because its symptoms are nonspecific and the laryngeal findings are not always associated with symptom severity. In Recent study, 66.4% of Patient who has LPRD also associated with esophageal motility disorders. Esophageal achalasia is a disease of unknown etiology characterized by an absence of peristalsis in the body of esophagus and nonrelaxing hypertension of the lower esophageal sphincter. Common cause is loss of ganglion cells in Auerbachs plexus. The classic triad of symptoms in achalasia includes dysphagia, regurgitation and weight loss. LPRD and esophageal achalasia have similar symptoms but have different treatment of choice. The Differentiation diagnosis of theses disease is important and should be established by history, radiologic examination and endoscopic examination. We recently assessed a 59-year-old female patient who complained of an epigastric pain, dysphagia and chronic cough. LPRD was initially diagnosed on Laryngoscopic examination and Reflux Symptom Index, but patient was not relieved of any symptoms after treatment of Proton Pump Inhibitor for 3 months. After high resolution manometry, esophageal achalasia was finally diagnosed. We report this case regarding the diagnosis and treatment with review of literatures because we have to think about esophageal motility disorders as a differential diagnosis in laryngology.


Subject(s)
Cough , Deglutition Disorders , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Esophageal Achalasia , Esophageal Motility Disorders , Esophageal Sphincter, Lower , Esophagus , Female , Ganglion Cysts , Hoarseness , Humans , Hypertension , Korea , Laryngopharyngeal Reflux , Manometry , Middle Aged , Myenteric Plexus , Otolaryngology , Peristalsis , Proton Pumps , Weight Loss
12.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 380-389, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-146664

ABSTRACT

Ischemic preconditioning (IP) is one of the most important endogenous mechanisms that protect the cells against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the exact molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we showed that changes in the level of agmatine were correlated with ischemic tolerance. Changes in brain edema, infarct volume, level of agmatine, and expression of arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and nitric oxide synthases (NOS; inducible NOS [iNOS] and neural NOS [nNOS]) were analyzed during I/R injury with or without IP in the rat brain. After cerebral ischemia, brain edema and infarct volume were significantly reduced in the IP group. The level of agmatine was increased before and during ischemic injury and remained elevated in the early reperfusion phase in the IP group compared to the experimental control (EC) group. During IP, the level of plasma agmatine was increased in the early phase of IP, but that of liver agmatine was abruptly decreased. However, the level of agmatine was definitely increased in the ipsilateral and contralateral hemisphere of brain during the IP. IP also increased the expression of ADC—the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of endogenous agmatine—before, during, and after ischemic injury. In addition, ischemic injury increased endogenous ADC expression in the EC group. The expression of nNOS was reduced in the I/R injured brain in the IP group. These results suggest that endogenous increased agmatine may be a component of the ischemic tolerance response that is induced by IP. Agmatine may have a pivotal role in endogenous ischemic tolerance.


Subject(s)
Agmatine , Animals , Arginine , Brain , Brain Edema , Brain Ischemia , Ischemic Preconditioning , Liver , Neuroprotection , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Plasma , Rats , Reperfusion , Reperfusion Injury
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-37081

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Researchers and clinicians have been unable to fully elucidate the natural course of and proper treatment for unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) smaller than or equal to 5 mm, particularly with regard to whether close observation or surgery is more appropriate. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of endovascular coil embolization of small (≤ 5 mm) asymptomatic UIAs by analyzing outcomes and complications associated with the procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from 150 patients with small asymptomatic UIAs (≤ 5 mm) treated with coil embolization between January 2011 and December 2015. Three-dimensional angiography was used to measure aneurysm size. We evaluated procedure-related morbidity and mortality, immediate post-operative angiographic results, brain computed thomography follow-up results on post-operative day one, and clinical progress. RESULTS: UIAs occurred primarily in the anterior circulation area (142 cases, 94.67%), though eight patients exhibited UIAs of the posterior circulation. Following coil embolization, aneurysms with complete occlusion were observed in 137 cases (91.3%). Partial occlusion occurred in five cases (3.33%), while the procedure had failed in eight cases (5.33%). Procedure-related morbidity and mortality were five cases (3.33%) and zero cases, respectively. CONCLUSION: The endovascular treatment of small asymptomatic UIAs is associated with good short-term outcomes without permanent neurologic complications as well as low overall complication and morbidity rates. Thus, the procedure should be considered for patients with smaller asymptomatic UIAs.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Angiography , Brain , Embolization, Therapeutic , Endovascular Procedures , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm , Mortality , Retrospective Studies
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-37080

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Endovascular treatment is one of the most important treatments along with open craniotomy for cerebrovascular surgery. The successful treatment of endovascular disease relies on appropriate instruments and the surgeon's skill. Endovascular treatment needs to provide safe and stable access to the catheter cavity. Additionally, it is important to maintain a round shape without changing to an oval shape. The catheter for endovascular treatment has to be flexible and accommodate at least 0.027 inches of inner diameter. The 6-Fr Navien™ Intracranial Support Catheter (formerly the ReFlex Intracranial Catheter; Covidien Vascular Therapies, Mansfield, MA, USA) provides 0.072 inches of inner diameter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed 61 cases for 56 cases of endovascular treatment with a Navien catheter. A triaxial system was used for all procedures with femoral arterial access. The Navien catheter was placed in the petrous segment of the internal carotid artery or third segment of the vertebral artery. The patients had various shapes of intracranial arteries, including tortuous vessels. RESULTS: The Navien catheter was used for 61 cases of endovascular treatment. We had 59 cases of coil embolization at unruptured and ruptured aneurysms and two cases of stent insertion into the middle cerebral artery. All the cases were successful without any catheter-related complications. CONCLUSION: The Navien catheter is a recently developed catheter that has several strengths compared with previously developed catheters. It provides a more stable environment for endovascular treatment. It provides a cavity sufficient for endovascular treatment devices. Additionally, it is sufficiently flexible to approach tortuous vessels.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm, Ruptured , Arteries , Carotid Artery, Internal , Catheters , Craniotomy , Embolization, Therapeutic , Endovascular Procedures , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm , Middle Cerebral Artery , Reflex , Stents , Vascular Access Devices , Vertebral Artery
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761217

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) is thought to be assessing the function of the saccule and inferior vestibular nerve. Therefore, cVEMP indirectly reflects the function of the posterior semicircular canal. Recently, the video head impulse test (vHIT) is considered as useful clinical tool to detect each semicircular canal dysfunction. Goal of this study was to evaluate and compare the results of cVEMP with posterior canal plane of vHIT (p-vHIT). METHODS: Retrospectively, we compared the results of cVEMP with p-vHIT in 43 patients who visited with dizziness. We analyzed the inter-test agreement of cVEMP with p-vHIT. RESULTS: Positive asymmetry of cVEMP was present in 37.2% (16/43), and no responses of both ears were identified in 16.3% (7/43). In p-vHIT analysis, unilateral positive was 27.9% (12/43), bilateral positive was 11.6% (5/43) and negative in both sides was 60.5% (26/43). The inter-test agreement between cVEMP and p-vHIT was 75.8% (25/33) as we considered even in lesion side. And, Fleiss's kappa value showed a fair to good agreement (kappa value=0.559). In bilateral no response group (7 patients) in cVEMP, variable additional information could be obtained using p-vHIT. CONCLUSION: cVEMP and p-vHIT showed relatively lower inter-test agreement than expected. But, p-vHIT could be easily performed, and give additional information for differential diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis, Differential , Dizziness , Ear , Head Impulse Test , Head , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Saccule and Utricle , Semicircular Canals , Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials , Vestibular Nerve
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210689

ABSTRACT

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with poor neurological outcome, including necrosis and brain edema. In this study, we investigated whether agmatine treatment reduces edema and apoptotic cell death after TBI. TBI was produced by cold injury to the cerebral primary motor cortex of rats. Agmatine was administered 30 min after injury and once daily until the end of the experiment. Animals were sacrificed for analysis at 1, 2, or 7 days after the injury. Various neurological analyses were performed to investigate disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and neurological dysfunction after TBI. To examine the extent of brain edema after TBI, the expression of aquaporins (AQPs), phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) were investigated. Our findings demonstrated that agmatine treatment significantly reduces brain edema after TBI by suppressing the expression of AQP1, 4, and 9. In addition, agmatine treatment significantly reduced apoptotic cell death by suppressing the phosphorylation of MAPKs and by increasing the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB after TBI. These results suggest that agmatine treatment may have therapeutic potential for brain edema and neural cell death in various central nervous system diseases.


Subject(s)
Active Transport, Cell Nucleus/drug effects , Agmatine/therapeutic use , Animals , Apoptosis/drug effects , Aquaporins/metabolism , Blood-Brain Barrier/physiopathology , Brain Edema/drug therapy , Brain Injuries/pathology , Male , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Motor Cortex/pathology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-171257

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human chorionic plate-derived mesenchymal stem cells (CP-MSCs) isolated from the placenta have been reported to demonstrate therapeutic effects in animal models of liver injury; however, the underlying epigenetic mechanism of this effect has not been elucidated. Thus, we investigated whether CP-MSCs influence epigenetic processes during regeneration of the injured liver. METHODS: CP-MSCs were engrafted into a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-injured rat model through direct transplantation into the liver (DTX), intrasplenic transplantation (STX), and intravenous transplantation via the tail vein (TTX). Non-transplanted (NTX) rats were maintained as sham controls. Liver tissues were analyzed after transplantation using immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis, and quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Proliferation and human interleukin-6 (hIL-6) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were performed using CCl4-treated hepatic cells that were co-cultured with CP-MSCs. RESULTS: The Ki67 labeling index, cell cyclins, albumin, IL-6, and gp130 levels were elevated in the CP-MSC transplantation groups. The concentration of hIL-6 in supernatants and the proliferation of CCl4-treated rat hepatic cells were enhanced by co-culturing with CP-MSCs (p<0.05), while the methylation of IL-6/IL-6R and STAT3 by CP-MSC transplantation decreased. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that administration of CP-MSCs promotes IL-6/STAT3 signaling by decreasing the methylation of the IL-6/SATA3 promoters and thus inducing the proliferation of hepatic cells in a CCl4-injured liver rat model. These data advance our understanding of the therapeutic mechanisms in injured livers, and can facilitate the development of cell-based therapies using placenta-derived stem cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Carbon Tetrachloride , Chorion , Cyclins , DNA Methylation , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epigenesis, Genetic , Epigenomics , Hepatocytes , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Interleukin-6 , Liver Regeneration , Liver , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Methylation , Models, Animal , Placenta , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rats , Regeneration , Stem Cells , Veins
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-198141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Actinic cheilitis (AC) is the main precancerous lesion of the lip. Knowledge of prognostic and diagnostic markers can have positive impacts, although the exact transition rate from AC to lip squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed 59 patients to investigate the relationship between clinical and histopathological features and the expression of the p53 protein in AC and LSCC. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 59 patients who received biopsy for AC and LSCC between January 2005 and December 2012 and compared clinical and histopathological features of AC and LSCC. RESULTS: The ratios of males to females for AC and LSCC were 1.3:1 and 1.7:1. The mean ages of those with AC and LSCC were 66.4 and 70.1 years. All of the lesions involved the lower lip, and the most frequently affected site was the right side of the lip in LSCC. Persistent fissures with scales and exudative ulcers were noted 90.6% and 43.7% of the AC cases, respectively. The intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate was significantly associated with the degree of epithelial dysplasia. Most LSCCs (96.2%) were immunoreactive to the p53 protein. The intensities of AC and LSCC p53 protein expression were 1.1 and 2.4. The degree of epithelial dysplasia was the only histopathological finding significantly associated with p53 protein expression. CONCLUSION: An intense inflammatory infiltrate in AC was predictive of a microinvasive SCC. Therefore, p53 protein immunoreactivity may be an important indicator in lip carcinogenesis and the degree of epithelial dysplasia.


Subject(s)
Actins , Biopsy , Carcinogenesis , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cheilitis , Female , Humans , Lip , Male , Retrospective Studies , Ulcer , Weights and Measures
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195454

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was performed to evaluate the effect of anthocyanoside and ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG), according to the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: A chart review of patients with normal tension glaucoma was retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent a Humphrey visual field (HVF) test and logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity (log MAR BCVA) was measured over a 6 months period. Changes in mean deviation (MD), pattern standard deviation (PSD) of visual field and log MAR BCVA were compared among anthocyanoside, GBE and no medication (control) groups. Patients were divided according to the presence of DM. RESULTS: A total of 406 NTG patients, including 151 DM patients, were included in the present study. MD was improved in the anthocyanoside and GBE groups, but not in the control group. PSD was not significantly different in all groups. BCVA was improved in the anthocyanoside group, but deteriorated in the control group. The results were similar in patients with or without DM. The generalized linear model demonstrated that systemic medication affected changes in visual indices. CONCLUSIONS: The results from the present study suggest that anthocyanoside and GBE may be helpful for improving visual function in some patients with NTG regardless of their DM status.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Ginkgo biloba , Glaucoma , Humans , Linear Models , Low Tension Glaucoma , Retrospective Studies , Visual Acuity , Visual Fields
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