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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920790

ABSTRACT

Objective To Investigate the cause of a food poisoning incident in a city in Dehong Prefecture, determine the scope of the incident, and to formulate effective prevention and control measures. Methods Field epidemiology and case-control study methods were used to formulate case definition; carry out case search; find suspicious food combined with clinical manifestations, dining history and other information; and collect samples from the suspicious food, cases and environment for laboratory testing. Results A total of 160 cases were found and the incidence rate was 26.02% (160/615). The main clinical manifestations were diarrhea, leukocytosis, vomiting, nausea and abdominal pain. The average incubation period was 10.89±5.09 h, with 2 h as the shortest and 28 h as the longest. The epidemiological curve suggested the point source exposure mode. The results of case-control study showed that eating roast pork with green shoots was an independent risk factor (OR=13.09, 95%CI: 3.26‒52.54).16 samples were tested by the local CDC laboratory. Proteus mirabilis was detected in two the anal swabs of two patients He and Chen. Both proteus pani and proteus mirabilis were detected in anal swab of patient Zhou and Proteus pani was detected in roast meat. There was no detection of pathogenic bacteria in other samples. Conclusion Based on the field epidemiological investigation and laboratory test results, we conclude that the food poisoning incident is caused by suspected proteus bacteria. We suggest that the market supervision department should strengthen the supervision of local food hygiene; clarify the sampling rights, responsibilities and technical procedures when medical institutions treat patients with foodborne diseases; ensure finding the causes in time; and take effective prevention and control measures to avoid similar food poisoning events.

2.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 752-755, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909091

ABSTRACT

Objective:To understand the clinical characteristics of pregnant women infected with dengue virus (DENV) in Ruili City, Yunnan Province, so as to provide basis for formulating effective diagnosis and treatment protocol of dengue fever in pregnant women.Methods:A total of 18 pregnant women infected with DENV hospitalized in Ruili People's Hospital in 2017 and 2018 were selected as observation group, and 18 non-pregnant women infected with DENV were selected as control group according to the age range of the observation group, and epidemiological and clinical data of patients in the two groups were retrospectively collected. Epidemiological characteristics, clinical symptoms and laboratory biochemical indexes of the two groups were compared and analyzed.Results:There were no significant differences ( t = - 0.032, 0.495, P > 0.05) in age [(27.9 ± 5.3) vs (27.9 ± 5.1) years old] and hospitalization stay [(6.8 ± 1.6) vs (6.6 ± 2.0) d] between the observation group and control group. One pregnant woman in observation group had early pregnancy abortion. Patients of both groups had fever in 18 cases (100.0%), headache, muscle aches, and chills in 14 cases (77.8%), anorexia in 15 cases (83.3%), and nausea and vomiting in 5 cases (27.8%); fatigue in 14 cases (77.8%) and 16 cases (88.9%), respectively; there was 1 case of rash in observation group (5.6%), and no rash in control group. There were no significant differences in the above mentioned clinical symptoms distribution between the two groups ( P > 0.05). On the first day of admission, the reduction proportions in red blood cells [61.1% (11/18) vs 5.6% (1/18)], hemoglobin [50.0% (9/18) vs 16.7% (3/18)], and hematocrit [61.1% (11/18) vs 16.7% (3/18)] in observation group were significantly higher than those in control group ( P < 0.05); on the fifth day of admission, the reduction proportions in hemoglobin [33.3% (6/18) vs 5.6% (1/18)] and hematocrit [33.3% (6/18) vs 5.6% (1/18)] in observation group were significantly higher than those in control group ( P < 0.05). Conclusions:The red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit of pregnant women infected with DENV are significantly reduced, and there is a risk of miscarriage in early pregnancy. It is suggested that relevant departments should strengthen the training of medical staff to diagnose and treat pregnant women infected with DENV early.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-807976

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To understand the serotypes, genotypes and transmission source of dengue viruses(DENV) isolated in Yunnan from 2013 to 2015.@*Methods@#Viral RNA was extracted from serum samples of dengue fever(DF) cases at the acute stage in Yunnan, then the gene fragments of envelope protein(E) region were amplified by RT-PCR. The homology and phylogenetic analysis was made on the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences by bioinformatics softwares including Clustal X, DNAStar and MEGA5.@*Results@#Viral nucleic acid detection and sequencing indicated that 40 E genes of DENV were obtained. The serotypes and genotypes of DENV were revealed by homology and phylogenetic analysis based on E genes of DENV. Fifteen virus strains belonged to DENV serotype 1(DENV-1), of these, 14(11 from Ruili, 1 from Lincang and 2 from Kunming) were genotype I(G-I), 1 from Kunming was G-V. Twenty-two virus strains belonged to DENV serotype 2(DENV-2), of these, 10 from Ruili were G-I and 12 from Xishuangbanna were G-IV. Two virus strains belonged to DENV serotype 3(DENV-3) and G-II. One virus strain belonged to DENV serotype 4(DENV-4) and G-I. All detected DENV genotypes were mainly predominant in Southeast Asia. All the 40 Yunnan DENV strains shared high homology with the DENV strains in Southeast Asia countries.@*Conclusions@#Four serotypes and multiple genotypes of DENV had been co-circulating in Yunnan from 2013 to 2015. The DENV transmitted from Southeast Asia countries was the main cause of DF in Yunnan. It is necessary to strengthen the surveillance and management on the imported cases of DF in Yunnan.

4.
Chinese Journal of Zoonoses ; (12): 473-480, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-618032

ABSTRACT

We investigated the molecular characteristics of the full-length genome of 14 dengue serotype 1 virus (DENV-1)strains isolated in Sino-Myanmar border region in Yunnan Province,China during 2013-2015.Isolation of dengue virus was using C6/36 cell culture method.Viral RNA was extracted from virus isolates,and then the full-length genome was amplified by RT-PCR.The homology and phylogenetic analysis was made on the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences by bioinformatics software including ClastalX1.83 and MEGA6 etc.Results showed that fourteen strains of DENV-1 isolated from dengue fever cases,of these,9 strains from Ruili City of Dehong Prefecture,3 from Lincang Prefecture,2 from Kunming City.RT-PCR and sequencing indicated that the full-length genes (10 735 nt) of 14 DENV-1 strains were obtained,and their open reading frame (95-10 271) were coded 3 392 amino acid residues.The genotypes of DENV-1 were revealed by homology and phylogenetic analysis based on structural and non-structural proteins.Thirteen were genotype Ⅰ (G-Ⅰ) (7 from indigenous cases in Ruili and Lincang and 6 from imported case from Myanmar to Ruili,Lincang and Kunming),and 1 G-Ⅲ from imported case from India to Kunming.The phylogenic analysis indicated that the 13 isolates from Yunnan divided into 2 phylogenic subgroups,and they had a closer genetic relationship with the strains isolated from Southeast Asia.The gene sequences of the 13 G-Ⅰ strains have been acquired,the rate of their nucleotide homology and amino acid homology were 97.02 %-100 % and 98.78 %100 % respectively.Compared with 6 strains from Southeast Asia,nucleotide homology and amino acid homology were 96.53%-99.53% and 97.33%-100% respectively.Compared with prototype strain (US_Hawaii) of DENV-1,nucleotide homology and amino acid homology were 93.76%-94.45 % and 95.86 %-96.91% respectively.Compared with US_Hawaii strain,there were 44 and 150 different sites in amino acid of structural and non-structural proteins,respectively.The G-1 of DENV-1 have been popular in Sino-Myanmar border region in Yunnan,2013-2015.They have genetic diversity but multiple transmission sources were from Myanmar,and should strengthen control cross-border spread of dengue fever in this region.It is necessary to further study that change of the amino acid sites of Yunnan strains of DENV-1 is related to its antigenicity and pathogenicity.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-615559

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effects of clarithromycin on the expressions of histone deacetylase-2 (HDAC2) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) of cigarette smoke-exposed asthmatic mice.Methods BALB/c mice were chosen to be the subjects of this study.They were raised to establish asthma model (OVA group);and mice in one asthma group were exposed to smoke (SEA group), one asthma group were treated with clarithromycin (CAM group) after smoke exposure.Control group mice were used as parallel comparison.The histopathological changes were studied to assess lung tissue inflammation.Cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were also tested for airway inflammation.Histone deacelytase2 (HDAC2) activity of lung tissues was measured by qRT-PCR.HDAC2 and GR expressions in the lung tissue were detected by Western blot.Results Histopathologic observation showed massive infiltration of inflammatory cells in both OVA group and SEA group, while inflammation infiltration attenuated in CAM group.Compared with those in CAM group, the levels of IL-4 and IL-8 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of SEA group increased significantly (104.36±14.39 vs.65.49±10.82, 681.35±66.18 vs.321.49±90.37;P=0.031, 0.017).The expression of HDAC2 mRNA in CAM group was significantly higher than that in SEA group (0.062±0.013 vs.0.031±0.015, P=0.032).The expressions of HDAC2 protein (0.23±0.017 vs.0.49±0.022, P=0.033) and GR protein (0.19±0.014 vs.0.64±0.023, P=0.011) were significantly lower in SEA group than in CAM group.Conclusion Clarithromycin could attenuate airway inflammation in smoke-exposed asthmatic mice.The mechanism of action may be related to the expression of HDAC2 gene in the lower reaches by combining with GR.

6.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 323-326, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-614577

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the change and value of interleukin (IL)-2,IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the serum samples of patients with brucellosis.Methods The levels of serum IL-2,IL-6 and TNF-α were measured using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method in 155 patients with brucellosis in different clinical stages (including 69 cases in acute,34 cases in subacute and 52 cases in chronic periods) and 50 healthy controls.IL-2 was used to represent the helper T cell (Th)-type 1 cytokines,IL-6 represent Th2 type cytokines,and the Th1/Th2 ratio in different clinical stages was compared.Results The expression level of serum IL-2 in patients with brucellosis was different (ng/L:acute:10.15 ± 2.01;subacute:9.53 ± 1.68;chronic:6.76± 1.31;control:47.25 ± 5.68),the differences were statistically significant (F =74.921,P < 0.05).The expression levels of serum IL-2 in acute,subacute and chronic periods of brucellosis patients were significantly lower than that of healthy controls (all P < 0.05).The expression levels of serum IL-2 in acute and subacute periods of brucellosis patients were higher than that of chronic period patients (all P < 0.05).The expression of IL-6 and TNF-α in serum of patients in different clinical stages were different (ng/L:acute:615.22± 341.07,802.55 ± 479.53;subacute:478.45 ± 105.33,680.21 ± 366.95;chronic:306.37 ± 96.12,455.36 ± 176.27;control:121.45 ± 30.16,87.51 ± 24.03),the differences were statistically significant (F =57.692,63.210,all P < 0.05).The levels of serum IL-6 and TNF-o were significantly higher in patients with brucellosis in acute,subacute and chronic clinical stages than that of healthy controls (all P < 0.05).Serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels in acute period of brucellosis patients were higher than those of subacute and chronic periods patients (all P < 0.05);the levels of serum IL-6 and TNF-α in subacute period of brucellosis patients were also significantly higher than that of chronic period patients (all P < 0.05).The Th1/Th2 ratio was different (acute:0.02 ± 0.00;subacute:0.02 ± 0.00;chronic:0.23 ± 0.02;control:0.41 ± 0.06) in clinical patients with brucellosis,the differences were statistically significant (F =17.843,P < 0.05),the value of Th1/Th2 in acute and subacute period patients were lower than that of chronic period (all P < 0.05).Conclusion IL-2,IL-6 and TNF-α may play an important role in the pathogenesis of brucellosis,and their dynamic changes can reflect the progression and outcome of brucellosis.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-614534

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the mechanism of tripterygium wilfordii polyglycoside tablets for elderly patients with relapsing refractory immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP),and to seek the theoretical basis for Chinese medicine treatment of this disease.Methods The clinical data of 79 patients with relapsing refractory ITP were retrospectively analyzed.According to whether the combined use of tripterygium wilfordii polyglycoside,they were divided into the control group (35 cases) and the observation group (44 cases).The control group was treated with platelet and tranexamic acid,sulfasalazine,sulforaphane sodium,hemagglutinin and other symptomatic hemostasis treatment.The observation group in symptomatic hemostasis support on the basis of treatment with tripterygium wilfordii polyglycoside tablets.The CD4+/CD8+ ratio and CD4+ CD25+ Treg expression were compared between the two groups.Results The CD4+/CD8+ ratio,CD4+ CD25+ Treg and platelet count in the control group before treatmentwere (0.96 ± 0.36),(1.21 ± 0.67) %,(13.14 ± 6.92) × 109/L,respectively,which of the observation group were (0.92 ± 0.37),(1.19 ± 0.59) %,(11.51 ± 6.21) × 109/L,respectively,there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups (all P > 0.05).The CD4+/CD8+ ratios in peripheral blood of the observation group at 2 weeks,3 weeks and 4 weeks after treatmentwere (1.04 ±0.56),(1.55 ±0.34),(1.59 ±0.41),respectively,there were statistically significant differences between the two groups (t =9.994,9.797,all P < 0.05).The CD4+ CD25+ Treg proportions in the observation group at 2 weeks,3 weeks and 4 weeks after treatmentwere (1.01 ± 0.61) %,(1.06:±:0.57) %,(5.92 ± 0.65) %,respectively,there was statistically significant difference between the 4 weeks after treatment and before treatment(t =5.378,P < 0.05).The CD4+/CD8+ ratios in the peripheral blood of the control group were (1.01 ±0.60),(0.89 ±0.50) and (0.96 ±0.51),respectively,and the CD4+ CD25+ Treg in control group at 2 weeks,3 weeks and 4 weeks after treatment proportions were (0.99 ±0.72)%,(1.15 ±0.66)%,(1.22 ±0.56)%,respectively,there were no statistically significant differences between before and after treatment (all P >0.05).There were statistically significant differences in the CD4+/CD8+ ratio and CD4+ CD25+ Treg expression between the observation group and control group at 4 weeks after treatment (t =8.589,P < 0.01;t =2.369,P < 0.05).There was no statistically significant difference in the platelet count between the two groups(P > 0.05),but the symptoms of bleeding of the observation group was lighter at 3 weeks after treatment.Conclusion Tripterygium wilfordii polyglycoside improves the expression of CD4+/CD8+ and CD4+ CD25+ Treg in peripheral blood of elderly patients with relapsed or refractory ITP.It is an ideal drug for the treatment of relapsed and refractory ITP in the elderly,it is worth further study.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-614183

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the effects of Jiuxieling Granules on the expressions of MyD88 and IRAK1 in ulcerative colitis model rats with spleen-kidney yang deficiency; To discuss its mechanism of action. Methods Animal models were established by compound methods. 90 Wistar rats were randomly divided into blank group, model group, positive medicine group, and Jiuxieling Granules high-, medium-, and low-dose groups. Each administration group was given relevant medicine for gavage. RT-qPCR, SP immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to detect mRNA and proteins of MyD88 and IRAK1 in colon tissues. Results Compared with the blank group, mRNA and proteins of MyD88 and IRAK1 in the model group increased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, mRNA and proteins of MyD88 and IRAK1 in each administration group decreased (P<0.01), especially in Jiuxieling Granules high-dose group. Conclusion Jiuxieling Granules can reduce the expressions of MyD88 and IRAK1, and then influence the transmission of MyD88 signaling pathway and block the release of downstream inflammatory factors to achieve the result of treating ulcerative colitis with spleen-kidney yang deficiency.

9.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 713-716, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-502211

ABSTRACT

Objective This study was designed to compare the mRNA expression of Toll-like receptors 2 (TLR2) and Toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4) in monocytes between brucellosis cases and healthy controls,to explore the role and value of TLR2 and TLR4 in the pathogenesis of brucellosis.Methods From March to June in 2015,a total of 155 brucellosis cases at different clinical stages were diagnosed in Ulanqab Center for Endemic Disease Prevention and Control and 50 healthy controls were selected as research subjects.Subjective clinical symptoms of all patients were observed.Serological detection of all cases was done using serum tube agglutination test (SAT).The mRNA expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in peripheral blood cell was detected by real-time PCR technique.Results Fever,hyperhidrosis,weak,bone ache and hepatosplenomegaly were found in patients of acute (69 people),subacute (34 people) and chronic (52 people) periods.The incidences of fever and hyperhidrosis in acute and subacute periods were higher than that in chronic period,and the differences were statistically significant (x2 =58.427,26.190,all P < 0.01).The incidence of bone ache in chronic period was higher than that in acute period,and the difference was statistically significant (x2 =9.264,P < 0.01).In the agglutination titer of 1:800 and higher,the positive rate of chronic period was lower than those in acute and subacute periods,and the differences were statistically significant (x2 =14.302,8.682,all P < 0.01).The mRNA expression levels of TLR2 and TLR4 were different among different clinical periods of brucellosis patients,and the differences were statistically significant (F =17.502,24.931,all P < 0.01).The expression levels of TLR2 mRNA (8.67 ± 2.39) and TLR4 mRNA (12.38 ± 3.87) in acute period of brucellosis patients were higher than those of subacute period (5.21 ± 1.76,7.62 ± 2.21),chronic period (1.25 ± 0.47,1.72 ± 0.55) and healthy control (1.17 ± 0.23,1.43 ± 0.62),and the differences were statistically significant (all P < 0.01).The expression levels of TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA in subacute period of brucellosis patients were higher than those of chronic period and healthy controls,and the differences were statistically significant (all P < 0.01).The expression levels of TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA were not significantly different (all P > 0.05) between chronic period and healthy controls.Conclusion TLR2 and TLR4 may be the specific recognizing receptors participated in the immune response in brucellosis and associated with the occurrence and development of brucellosis.

10.
Clinical Medicine of China ; (12): 945-947, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-478409

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of Ilizarov bone transport combined with dressing change in the treatment of acute tibial osteomyditis accompanied with massive soft tissue defection.Methods From July 2009 to september 2012, 14 patients with acute tibial osteomyelitis associsted with large-area soft tissue necrosis and defection were treated in Traumatic Orthopaedics Department of the Central Hospital of Binzhou.All cases were Gustillu Ⅲ type open fracture, and Ⅲ C type injury in 11 casas accompanied with vascular injure.Associated with contralateral lower limb in 4 casas.They were 10 male and 4 female,aged from 21 to 45 years old(average age of 35 years old).The duration from injury to surgery ranged from 12-24 days,averaging of 19 days.All cases were treated first with excision of the infected or necrosis bone segment and soft tissue.The wound keep opening, followed by llizarov bone transport combined with dressing change to repair the bone and soft tissue defection.The clinical efficacy was assessed using the Paley's evaluation system at the last follow-up.Results All the patients were followed up for 24 to 36 months (average of 27 months).The bone defection rapaired was from 5 to 1 3 cm(average of 7 cm).The mean duration of distraction was 4 months, range from 2 to 6 months.All cases' gain s.ufficient soft tissue coverage the later period of Ilizarov bone transport.All the fracture and bone defection were cured.Infection were cured in 13 cases, and 1 case converted to chronicle osteomyelitis, and the cure rate was 93%.According to the Paley' s system, the bone union was excellent in 11 cases, good in 2 cases, and fair in 1 Cases, with a good-to-excellent rate was 93%.The functional outcome was excellent in 10 cases,good in 2 cases,and fair in 2 cases,with a good-to-excellent rate of 86%.Conclusion Ilizarov bone transport and dressing change is one reliable and effective treatment of tibial acute infected and soft tissue defection.

11.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 373-375, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-470403

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the characteristics of liver function damage in brucellosis and provide theoretical basis for clinical treatment.Methods One hundred and thirty-six hospitalized patients with brucellosis from Endemic Disease Prevention and Control Center of Wulanchabu City from January 2011 to October 2012 were selected randomly as the research subjects.Parameters of Alanine transaminase (ALT),Aspartate transaminase (AST),Alkaline phosphatase (ALP),Gamma glutamyltransferase (γ-GT),Total protein (TP),Albumin (ALB),Albumin/globulin (A/G),total bilirubin (TBIL) and Direct bilirubin (DBIL) were determined.The means of liver function parameters with mid-value of all the reference ranges were compared by one sample t test;Parameters of liver function were analyzed in 70 acute and 66 chronic brucellosis by two independent-samples t test.Results The means of ALT,AST,ALP,γ-GT,TP,ALB,TBIL and DBIL ((x):36.18,28.20,95.87,29.29 U/L,65.08,40.84 g/ L and 19.76,5.86 μmol/L) in the 136 samples of brucellosis serum were significantly different from the medians of their reference ranges ((x):20.50,18.50,85.00,24.50 U/L,69.00,43.50 g/L and 11.80,3.40 μ mol/L,t =9.46,9.19,4.55,2.22,-2.71,-4.99,5.58,11.32,all P < 0.05);A/G was not significantly different ((x):2.14,2.00;t =0.94,P > 0.05);Parameters of liver function were not significantly different between acute and chronic brucellosis (all P > 0.05).Conclusions This study confirmed that the liver function of the 136 patients with brucellosis is impaired.The level of the liver function impairment is usually mild and moderate and no difference in acute and chronic brucellosis is found.

12.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 528-532, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-737364

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the distribution patterns of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne viruses in Dehong prefecture,Yunnan province,China. Methods Mosquito samples were collected using the mosquito traps from five counties of Dehong prefecture on July,2007 and 2010. Mosquitoes were cell cultured for viral isolation,and positive isolates were identified using RT-PCR and sequence analysis. Results A total of 43 634 mosquitoes comprised of 29 species representing six genera were collected. Culex tritaeriorhynchus and Anopheles sinensis comprised 78.69% and 14.77% of the total. Six strains of viruses were isolated from the mosquito pools. RT-PCR and phylogenetic analysis revealed three strains from Cx. tritaeriorhynchus,identified as genotypeⅠJapanese encephalitis virus(JEV). One strain was identified from Cx. tritaeriorhynchus,as Getah virus (GETV). Two strains isolated from Cx. tritaeriorhynchus and Anopheles vagus were identified as Culex pipiens pallens Densovirus(CppDNV). Conclusion Cx. tritaeriorhynchus had been the major species of mosquitoes and mainly transmitting vector of mosquito-borne viruses in Dehong prefecture. GenotypeⅠJEV,GETV and CppDNV were the vectors causing transmission of mosquitoe-borne diseases in this area. Data from phylogenetic analysis showed that these newly discovered isolates seemed to have had close relationship with those viruses previously circulating in Yunnan and other provinces of China.

13.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 528-532, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-735896

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the distribution patterns of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne viruses in Dehong prefecture,Yunnan province,China. Methods Mosquito samples were collected using the mosquito traps from five counties of Dehong prefecture on July,2007 and 2010. Mosquitoes were cell cultured for viral isolation,and positive isolates were identified using RT-PCR and sequence analysis. Results A total of 43 634 mosquitoes comprised of 29 species representing six genera were collected. Culex tritaeriorhynchus and Anopheles sinensis comprised 78.69% and 14.77% of the total. Six strains of viruses were isolated from the mosquito pools. RT-PCR and phylogenetic analysis revealed three strains from Cx. tritaeriorhynchus,identified as genotypeⅠJapanese encephalitis virus(JEV). One strain was identified from Cx. tritaeriorhynchus,as Getah virus (GETV). Two strains isolated from Cx. tritaeriorhynchus and Anopheles vagus were identified as Culex pipiens pallens Densovirus(CppDNV). Conclusion Cx. tritaeriorhynchus had been the major species of mosquitoes and mainly transmitting vector of mosquito-borne viruses in Dehong prefecture. GenotypeⅠJEV,GETV and CppDNV were the vectors causing transmission of mosquitoe-borne diseases in this area. Data from phylogenetic analysis showed that these newly discovered isolates seemed to have had close relationship with those viruses previously circulating in Yunnan and other provinces of China.

14.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 528-532, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-348630

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the distribution patterns of mosquito and mosquito-borne viruses in Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province, China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Mosquito samples were collected using the mosquito traps from five counties of Dehong prefecture on July, 2007 and 2010. Mosquito were cell cultured for viral isolation, and positive isolates were identified using RT-PCR and sequence analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 43 634 mosquito comprised of 29 species representing six genera were collected. Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Anopheles sinensis comprised 78.69% and 14.77% of the total. Six strains of viruses were isolated from the mosquito pools. RT-PCR and phylogenetic analysis revealed three strains from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, identified as genotype I Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). One strain was identified from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, as Getah virus (GETV). Two strains isolated from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Anopheles vagus were identified as Culex pipiens pallens Densovirus (CppDNV).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Cx. tritaeniorhynchus had been the major species of mosquito and mainly transmitting vector of mosquito-borne viruses in Dehong prefecture. Genotype I JEV, GETV and CppDNV were the vectors causing transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in this area. Data from phylogenetic analysis showed that these newly discovered isolates seemed to have had close relationship with those viruses previously circulating in Yunnan and other provinces of China.</p>


Subject(s)
Alphavirus , Animals , Arboviruses , Classification , China , Culicidae , Virology , Disease Vectors , Classification , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese
15.
Chinese Journal of Radiology ; (12): 39-43, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-432932

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the usefulness of combined dual-energy CT pulmonary angiography (DE-CTPA) and indirect CT venography (CTV) in the diagnosis of venous thromboembolism (VTE).Methods Forty-nine patients with leg swelling suspected of pulmonary embolism (PE) underwent both DE-CTPA combined with CTV and lower extremity venous ultrasound (US) in 1-2 days prior to CT.Image quality of CTPA and dual energy lung perfusion image (DEPI) was rated using a 5-point scale and the coherence between CTPA and DEPI was analyzed by Kappa statistics.The ability of CTV and US in the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) was compared by Chi-square test.Results Twenty-nine of 49 patients were identified with PE by DE-CTPA,including 28 patients identified by CTPA and one more by DEPI,and 21 patients were found to have both PE and DVT.Both DE-CTPA and DEPI had positive findings for pulmonary embolism in 19 patients and both had negative findings in 18 patients.There was a moderate agreement between DEPI and DE-CTPA in the assessment of PE (Kappa value =0.7534).Thirty-eight patients with DVT were identified by US,while 35 patients were identified by CTV.Among the 35 patients with DVT identified by CTV,pelvic veins were involved in 25 patients,while the inferior vena cava was involved in 3 patients.There was no significant difference between CTV and US in the diagnosis of DVT(P =0.625).The detection rate of VTE with DE-CTPA combining CTV was 30.6% higher than that with CTPA alone.Conclusions The combined DE-CTPA and CTV achievesone-stop examination.It not only provides evaluation of PE and DVT and increases detection of VTE,but also depicts perfusion defect of pulmonary parenchyma that corresponds to PE.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-592126

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To investigate the microorganisms on the hands of nurses who are doing the intravenous infusion.METHODS Sampled the hands of nurses during the procedure of intravenous infusion randomly,and then sampled after monitoring the nurses washing their hands by the six steps hand-cleaning technique.Then cultured the samples and did the identification of bacteria.The distribution of microorganism on nurses' hands was analyzed.RESULTS During the procedure of intravenous infusion,before and after the intervention the microorganisms on the nurses' hands had evident difference and with the statistic meanings.CONCLUSIONS The handwashing compliance among nurses before working in our hospital is poor,and the hand hygiene status during the nursing procedure needs to be improved.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-587132

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To study the usage of antibiotics in aseptic operation,and strengthen the management of antibiotics usage. METHODS We investgated the usage of antibiotics in aseptic operation retrospectively,then statistically analyzed. RESULTS Among all the 347 cases,343 cases were used for prophylaxis,the usage rate was 98.85%.The mean time of antibiotic therapy was 7.22 days.90.96% of the patients were treated with antibiotics for 3 days or more,53.35% of the patients were treated beyond 7 days.Ninety one patients were given antibiotics 0.5-2 hours before the operation(26.53%).There were 7 kinds of drugs used in the operation,the cephalosporin class accounted for 70.26%,moreover was third generation cephalosporin. CONCLUSIONS The prophylactic application of antibiotics in the aseptic surgery has some unreasonable phenomenon and must be strengthened.Training the doctor to use the antibiotics reasonably,and the effective surveillance management mechanism be established.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-684131

ABSTRACT

The incidence of venous thromboembolism(VTE) including deep venous thrombosis(DVT) and pulmonary embolism(PE) increases exponentially with age. Age is an independent risk factor, acute and chronic diseases and factors affecting blood coagulation and anticoagulation equilibrium are also associated with VTE. Homocysteine may be an independent risk factor for occlusive vascular disease. The author summarized the risk factor, mechanism of action, diagnosis and therapy of VTE.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-340113

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the diagnostic value of spirometrically controlled quantitative CT in silica-exposed workers.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Whole lung spiral scans at 50% vital capacity (VC) and image with high resolution CT(HRCT) at 10% VC and 90% VC level and 5 cm above/below carina were performed in 62 silica-exposed workers and 54 healthy adults. Automatic evaluation software, Pulmo, was used to evaluate the quantitative parameters and compared with clinical pulmonary function tests.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>9 workers with emphysema were detected by CT scans from 62 silica-exposed workers. The quantitative parameters of 10% VC and 90% VC were significantly different between the silica-exposed workers and the controls (P < 0.05). With the increasing of length of exposure to silica dust, the difference showed a ladder-like rising.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Spirometrically controlled quantitative CT is a sensitive, accurate and objective method. It is superior to conventional CT and pulmonary function tests for the early detection in silica-exposed workers, espicially for detecting early stage of small airway disease.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Occupational Exposure , Respiratory Function Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Silicon Dioxide , Spirometry , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Methods , Vital Capacity
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-673651

ABSTRACT

Objective To seek a rational method of estimating the demands for medical services so as to work out regional health planning in a scientific way. Methods A metropolis including 19 counties and districts was selected as a region and demands for medical services were forecasted via retrospective analysis and the econometric model. Results A model of the demands for outpatient and inpatient services was obtained based on the impact of many social and economic factors on medical health services, and illustrations were given to indicate the demands for medical health services in the 19 counties and districts in future when prices should rise by 15% and 20%. Conclusion The econometric model can be used as a tool for estimating the demands for medical health services, and yet improvements need to be made.

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