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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742300

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Parasitology/history , Korea , Periodicals as Topic
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763796

ABSTRACT

Cysticercosis, a parasitic disease caused by Taenia solium metacestode (TsM), has a major global public health impact in terms of disability-adjusted life years. The parasite preferentially infects subcutaneous tissue, but may invade the central nervous system, resulting in neurocysticercosis (NC). NC is an important neglected tropical disease and an emerging disease in industrialized countries due to immigration from endemic areas. The prevalence of taeniasis in Korea declined from 0.3%–12.7% during the 1970s to below 0.02% since the 2000s. A survey conducted from 1993 to 2006 revealed that the percentage of tested samples with high levels of specific anti-TsM antibody declined from 8.3% to 2.2%, suggesting the continuing occurrence of NC in Korea. Modern imaging modalities have substantially improved the diagnostic accuracy of NC, and recent advances in the molecular biochemical characterization of the TsM cyst fluid proteome also significantly strengthened NC serodiagnosis. Two glycoproteins of 150 and 120 kDa that induce strong antibody responses against sera from patients with active-stage NC have been elucidated. The 150 kDa protein showed hydrophobic-ligand binding activities and might be critically involved in the acquisition of host-derived lipid molecules. Fasciclin and endophilin B1, both of which play roles in the homeostatic functions of TsM, showed fairly high antibody responses against calcified NC cases. NC is now controllable and manageable. Further studies should focus on controlling late-onset intractable seizures and serological diagnosis of NC patients infected with few worms. This article briefly overviews diagnostic approaches and discusses current issues relating to NC serodiagnosis.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , Central Nervous System , Cyst Fluid , Cysticercosis , Developed Countries , Diagnosis , Emigration and Immigration , Glycoproteins , Humans , Immunologic Tests , Korea , Neurocysticercosis , Parasites , Parasitic Diseases , Prevalence , Proteome , Public Health , Republic of Korea , Seizures , Serologic Tests , Subcutaneous Tissue , Taenia solium , Taenia , Taeniasis
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717592

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sparganosis is a larval cestodiasis caused by the plerocercoid of Spirometra spp. Since the first description of human sparganosis in 1924, several hundred cases have been reported in Korea. However, systematic approaches for literature surveys of Korean sparganosis have seldom appeared. METHODS: We searched publicly available databases such as PubMed, Research Information Sharing Service, and Korea Medical Citation Index with relevant Medical Subject Headings. RESULTS: At least 438 Korean sparganosis cases have been described from 1924 to 2015. Preoperative diagnosis has been significantly increased since the 1980s due to popularization of serological and imaging diagnostics. Cases were largely detected from fifth decades in general, but cerebral sparganosis was detected in relatively young age groups (third and fourth decades). Sparganosis was prevalent in men (75.9%). Consumption of frog/snake and drinking unfiltered water were found in 63.4% and 16.9% of patients, respectively. Most frequently affected sites were subcutaneous tissues (49.9%), followed by the central nervous system (36.2%). Involvements of visceral organs (7.6%), ocular regions (3.6%), and muscles (2.7%) were noticed. In women, breast sparganosis constituted a large proportion (34.2%). Sparganosis associated with immunocompromised patients has recently been reported. CONCLUSION: Sparganosis has been continuously reported in Korea during the past 90 years, although its incidence has decreased during the last 20 years. The disease is mostly characterized by subcutaneous nodule, but infection of the worm in vital organs often results in serious illness. Continuous awareness is warranted to monitor sparganosis occurrence and associated clinical consequences.


Subject(s)
Breast , Central Nervous System , Diagnosis , Drinking , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Incidence , Information Dissemination , Korea , Male , Medical Subject Headings , Muscles , Sparganosis , Sparganum , Spirometra , Subcutaneous Tissue , Water
4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-125600

ABSTRACT

In Korea, patterns of parasitic infections have notably changed during the past few decades. The soil-transmitted helminthiases and water-borne protozoan infections, which had been prevalent, became negligible, while parasitic zoonosis including pet-associated infections, food-borne helminthiases, and imported tropical endemic diseases have increasingly been detected. People who travel abroad and those who have immigrated from other countries might suffer from endemic tropical diseases. Except for a few entities, which invoked acute febrile illness (malaria) and diarrhea (giardiasis and amoebiasis), most helminthic and protozoan infections did not provoke acute symptoms. Those infections progress slowly, but can sometimes result in fatal clinical consequences. Diverse tropical endemic diseases are prevalent in several continents/countries according to different natural environments (climate and humidity), socioeconomic status, and traditional cultural background. Those diseases might be acquired through different routes of infection. Travelers who have returned to Korea from overseas and immigrants should undergo a careful differential diagnosis. Information on countries and duration of travel/residence, food habits, underlying medical history, prophylactics received, exposure to harmful environments (insect bites, contaminated food or water), and swimming in freshwater is valuable. This article briefly overviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and specific chemotherapeutics of the tropical endemic diseases that are important in Korea.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Diarrhea , Emigrants and Immigrants , Endemic Diseases , Epidemiology , Feeding Behavior , Fresh Water , Helminthiasis , Helminths , Humans , Korea , Parasitic Diseases , Protozoan Infections , Social Class , Swimming
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-188620

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several risk scores have been developed to predict mortality in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We aimed to systematically determine the performance of published prognostic tools. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for prognostic models (published between 2004 and April 2014) used in predicting early mortality (<6 months) after ICH. We evaluated the discrimination performance of the tools through a random-effects meta-analysis of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) or c-statistic. We evaluated the following components of the study validity: study design, collection of prognostic variables, treatment pathways, and missing data. RESULTS: We identified 11 articles (involving 41,555 patients) reporting on the accuracy of 12 different tools for predicting mortality in ICH. Most studies were either retrospective or post-hoc analyses of prospectively collected data; all but one produced validation data. The Hemphill-ICH score had the largest number of validation cohorts (9 studies involving 3,819 patients) within our systematic review and showed good performance in 4 countries, with a pooled AUC of 0.80 [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.77-0.85]. We identified several modified versions of the Hemphill-ICH score, with the ICH-Grading Scale (GS) score appearing to be the most promising variant, with a pooled AUC across four studies of 0.87 (95% CI=0.84-0.90). Subgroup testing found statistically significant differences between the AUCs obtained in studies involving Hemphill-ICH and ICH-GS scores (p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis evaluated the performance of 12 ICH prognostic tools and found greater supporting evidence for 2 models (Hemphill-ICH and ICH-GS), with generally good performance overall.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Cohort Studies , Discrimination, Psychological , Mortality , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Stroke
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197158

ABSTRACT

A synthetic peptide was prepared based on the antigenic region of Paragonimus westermani pre-procathepsin L, and its applicability for immunodiagnosis for human paragonimiasis (due to Paragonimus heterotremus) was tested using an ELISA to detect IgG4 antibodies in the sera of patients. Sera from other helminthiases, tuberculosis, and healthy volunteers were used as the references. This peptide-based assay system gave sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values of 100%, 94.6%, 96.2%, 100%, and 88.9%, respectively. Cross reactivity was frequently seen against the sera of fascioliasis (75%) and hookworm infections (50%). Since differential diagnosis between paragonimiasis and fascioliasis can be easily done by clinical presentation and fascioliasis serology, this cross reaction is not a serious problem. Sera from patients with other parasitoses (0-25%) rarely responded to this synthetic antigen. This synthetic peptide antigen seems to be useful for development of a standardized diagnostic system for paragonimiasis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Antibodies, Helminth/blood , Antigens, Helminth , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Cross Reactions , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Paragonimiasis/diagnosis , Paragonimus/immunology , Parasitology/methods , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155360

ABSTRACT

Morphological characteristics of Mesocestoides lineatus tetrathyridia collected from Chinese snakes and their adults recovered from experimental animals were studied. The tetrathyridia were detected mainly in the mesentery of 2 snake species, Agkistrodon saxatilis (25%) and Elaphe schrenckii (20%). They were 1.73 by 1.02 mm in average size and had an invaginated scolex with 4 suckers. Adult tapeworms were recovered from 2 hamsters and 1 dog, which were orally infected with 5-10 larvae each. Adults from hamsters were about 32 cm long and those from a dog were about 58 cm long. The scolex was 0.56 mm in average width with 4 suckers of 0.17 by 0.15 mm in average size. Mature proglottids measured 0.29 by 0.91 mm (av.). Ovaries and vitellaria bilobed and located in the posterior portion of proglottids. The cirrus sac was oval-shaped and located median. Testes were follicular, distributed in both lateral fields of proglottids, and 41-52 in number per proglottid. Gravid proglottids were 1.84 by 1.39 mm (av.) with a characteristic paruterine organ. Eggs were 35 by 27 microm in average size with a hexacanth embryo. These morphological characteristics of adult worms were identical with those of M. lineatus reported previously. Therefore, it has been confirmed that the tetrathyridia detected in 2 species of Chinese snakes are the metacestodes of M. lineatus, and 2 snake species, A. saxatilis and E. schrenckii, play the role of intermediate hosts.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cestode Infections/parasitology , Cricetinae , Dogs , Larva , Mesocestoides/anatomy & histology , Snakes/parasitology
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-45627

ABSTRACT

In fascioliasis, T-helper 2 (Th2) responses predominate, while little is known regarding early immune phenomenon. We herein analyzed early immunophenotype changes of BALB/c, C57BL/6, and C3H/He mice experimentally infected with 5 Fasciola hepatica metacercariae. A remarkable expansion of CD19+ B cells was observed as early as week 1 post-infection while CD4+/CD8+ T cells were down-regulated. Accumulation of Mac1+ cells with time after infection correlated well with splenomegaly of all mice strains tested. The expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha mRNA in splenocytes significantly decreased while that of IL-4 up-regulated. IL-1beta expression was down-modulated in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, but not in C3H/He. Serum levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta were considerably elevated in all mice during 3 weeks of infection period. These collective results suggest that experimental murine fascioliasis might derive immune suppression with elevated levels of TGF-beta and IL-4 during the early stages of infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Down-Regulation , Fasciola hepatica/immunology , Fascioliasis/immunology , Immunophenotyping , Immunosuppression , Interleukin-4/blood , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C3H , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Spleen/immunology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/blood
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78167

ABSTRACT

A large-scale survey was conducted to investigate the infection status of fresh water fishes with Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae (CsMc) in 3 wide regions, which were tentatively divided by latitudinal levels of the Korean peninsula. A total of 4,071 freshwater fishes were collected from 3 regions, i.e., northern (Gangwon-do: 1,543 fish), middle (Chungcheongbuk-do and Gyeongsangbuk-do: 1,167 fish), and southern areas (Jeollanam-do, Ulsan-si, and Gyeongsangnam-do: 1,361 fish). Each fish was examined by the artificial digestion method from 2003 to 2010. In northern areas, only 11 (0.7%) fish of 2 species, Pungtungia herzi and Squalidus japonicus coreanus from Hantan-gang, Cheolwon-gun, Gangwon-do were infected with av. 2.6 CsMc. In middle areas, 149 (12.8%) fish were infected with av. 164 CsMc. In southern areas, 538 (39.5%) fish were infected with av. 159 CsMc. In the analysis of endemicity in 3 regions with an index fish, P. herzi, 9 (6.2%) of 146 P. herzi from northern areas were infected with av. 2.8 CsMc. In middle areas, 34 (31.8%) of 107 P. herzi were infected with av. 215 CsMc, and in southern areas, 158 (92.9%) of 170 P. herzi were infected with av. 409 CsMc. From these results, it has been confirmed that the infection status of fish with CsMc is obviously different among the 3 latitudinal regions of the Korean peninsula with higher prevalence and burden in southern regions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Clonorchiasis/epidemiology , Clonorchis sinensis/isolation & purification , Fish Diseases/epidemiology , Fishes , Fresh Water , Korea/epidemiology , Metacercariae , Prevalence
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28147

ABSTRACT

A successful experience of lymphatic filariasis control in the Republic of Korea is briefly reviewed. Filariasis in the Republic of Korea was exclusively caused by infection with Brugia malayi. Over the past several decades from the 1950s to 2006, many investigators exerted their efforts to detection, treatment, and follow-up of filariasis patients in endemic areas, and to control filariasis. Mass, combined with selective, treatments with diethylcarbamazine to microfilaria positive persons had been made them free from microfilaremia and contributed to significant decrease of the microfilarial density in previously endemic areas. Significant decrease of microfilaria positive cases in an area influenced eventually to the endemicity of filariasis in the relevant locality. Together with remarkable economic growth followed by improvement of environmental and personal hygiene and living standards, the factors stated above have contributed to blocking the transmission cycle of B. malayi and led to disappearance of this mosquito-borne ancient disease in the Republic of Korea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brugia malayi/isolation & purification , Diethylcarbamazine/therapeutic use , Elephantiasis, Filarial/diagnosis , Endemic Diseases , Filaricides/therapeutic use , Humans , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-49339

ABSTRACT

Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) may play an important role in emphysematous change in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. We previously reported that simvastatin, an inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, attenuates emphysematous change and MMP-9 induction in the lungs of rats exposed to cigarette smoke. However, it remained uncertain how cigarette smoke induced MMP-9 and how simvastatin inhibited cigarette smoke-induced MMP-9 expression in alveolar macrophages (AMs), a major source of MMP-9 in the lungs of COPD patients. Presently, we examined the related signaling for MMP-9 induction and the inhibitory mechanism of simvastatin on MMP-9 induction in AMs exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE). In isolated rat AMs, CSE induced MMP-9 expression and phosphorylation of ERK and Akt. A chemical inhibitor of MEK1/2 or PI3K reduced phosphorylation of ERK or Akt, respectively, and also inhibited CSE-mediated MMP-9 induction. Simvastatin reduced CSE-mediated MMP-9 induction, and simvastatin-mediated inhibition was reversed by farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) or geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP). Similar to simvastatin, inhibition of FPP transferase or GGPP transferase suppressed CSE-mediated MMP-9 induction. Simvastatin attenuated CSE-mediated activation of RAS and phosphorylation of ERK, Akt, p65, IkappaB, and nuclear AP-1 or NF-kappaB activity. Taken together, these results suggest that simvastatin may inhibit CSE-mediated MMP-9 induction, primarily by blocking prenylation of RAS in the signaling pathways, in which Raf-MEK-ERK, PI3K/Akt, AP-1, and IkappaB-NF-kappaB are involved.


Subject(s)
Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/metabolism , Alkyl and Aryl Transferases/metabolism , Animals , Anticholesteremic Agents/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects , I-kappa B Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Macrophages, Alveolar/cytology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/genetics , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases/metabolism , Polyisoprenyl Phosphates/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Rats , Sesquiterpenes/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , Simvastatin/pharmacology , Smoke/adverse effects , Tobacco/adverse effects
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-178007

ABSTRACT

National surveys on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections have been carried out every 5-7 years since 1971 in the Republic of Korea in order to establish control measures. The present nationwide survey was conducted from June to December 2004. The 10% population sampling data of Population and Housing Census by the Korean government in 2000 was used as the survey population. One sample was selected randomly from each of the 22,858 registered subjects, and a total of 20,541 people were ultimately included in this survey. Fecal examinations were performed by the cellophane thick smear and saturated brine flotation techniques. Pinworm infection was examined by cello-tape anal swab method. This survey also included a questionnaire study for a socioeconomic analysis. The total helminth egg positive rate was 3.7%, and the estimated total positive number among nationwide people was 1,780,000. The rates in urban and rural areas were 3.1% and 6.8%, respectively. As the total egg positive rate in the 6th survey in 1997 was 2.4%, the present survey showed that there was a considerable degree of increase in the prevalence rate of intestinal parasitic infections over the 7-year period following the 6th survey. The largest increases occurred in the egg positive rates of Clonorchis sinensis and heterophyids including Metagonimus yokogawai.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Data Collection , Feces/parasitology , Female , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Helminths/isolation & purification , Humans , Infant , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Korea/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Parasite Egg Count , Prevalence , Rural Population , Urban Population , Young Adult
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-219743

ABSTRACT

A total of 205 larval gnathostomes were collected from 18 (22.5%) of 80 red banded odd-tooth snakes, Dinodon rufozonatum rufozonatum, which had been smuggled from China and confiscated at Customs in Busan, Republic of Korea. In order to identify the species, some of the larvae were observed by a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The larvae were 2.18 x 0.29 mm in average size, and had a pair of lips at the anterior end, a muscular esophagus, 2 pairs of cervical sacs, and brownish intestines. The head bulb was characteristically equipped with 4 rows of hooklets; the average number of hooklets in each respective row was 38.6, 40.5, 41.5, and 43.7. In SEM views, the mouth evidenced a pair of lateral lips of equal size in a half-moon shape. Each lip featured a couple of labial papillae and a small amphid located between the 2 papillae. The hooklets on the head bulb had single-pointed, posteriorly-curved tips. The cuticular spines were larger and more densely distributed on the anterior part of the body, and decreased gradually in size and number toward the posterior body. On the basis of these morphological characteristics, the larvae were identified as the third stage larvae of Gnathostoma hispidum.


Subject(s)
Animals , China , Colubridae/parasitology , Gnathostoma/isolation & purification , Larva/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/veterinary , Muscles/parasitology , Species Specificity , Spirurida Infections/parasitology
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-205706

ABSTRACT

Modernized urban life style has changed patterns of parasitic infections in Korea. Parasitic diseases caused by soil-transmitted helminths and water-borne protozoans has significantly decreased, while imported parasitic diseases, zoonosis, and opportunistic infections are being increasingly recognized. Tissue-invading helminthiases also invoked formidable health problems, which had been neglected due to the difficult clinical diagnosis and slow progression. However, the diseases are associated with chronic morbidity and severe mortality. A variety of helminths invade the human tissue. With an exception of few entities (i.e., schistosomiasis, clonorchiasis, and paragonimiasis), most of tissue-invading helminths are associated with larvae/juveniles but not with adults. Larval infections might be more serious, since the larvae may migrate throughout the whole body, after which they lodge in critical foci in the brain, eye, liver, or elsewhere or may grow into large masses exerting space-occupying effects (i.e., cysticercosis, sparganosis, and hydatidosis). When the parasites invade the tissue, IgE levels are modulated by several effector molecules including interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, interferon- and other cytokines secreted by different Th-cell subsets. Immediate-type hypersensitivity is related to huge production of Th2-type cytokines, mast cells, eosinophils, and IgE. These immune interactions elicit cellular responses, culminating in immunophysiological changes, which protect the host by surrounding the invasive parasite with granuloma. However, hyperactivation of the immune system may also be harmful to the host, resulting in immune-mediated diseases. This article briefly reviews the biology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and principle of the treatment of the tissue-invading helminthic infections, which are important in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Biology , Brain , Cestoda , Clonorchiasis , Cysticercosis , Cytokines , Diagnosis , Eosinophils , Granuloma , Helminthiasis , Helminths , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Immune System , Immunoglobulin E , Interleukin-6 , Interleukins , Korea , Larva , Life Style , Liver , Mast Cells , Mortality , Opportunistic Infections , Parasites , Parasitic Diseases , Schistosomiasis , Sparganosis
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-60516

ABSTRACT

In order to develop tools for an early serodiagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infection, we evaluated the usefulness of P. falciparum liver stage antigen-3 (LSA-3) as a serodiagnostic antigen. A portion of LSA-3 gene was cloned, and its recombinant protein (rLSA-3) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by column chromatography. The purified rLSA-3 and 120 test blood/serum samples collected from inhabitants in malaria-endemic areas of Mandalay, Myanmar were used for this study. In microscopic examinations of blood samples, P. falciparum positive rate was 39.1% (47/120) in thin smear trials, and 33.3% (40/120) in thick smear trials. Although the positive rate associated with the rLSA-3 (30.8%) was lower than that of the blood stage antigens (70.8%), rLSA-3 based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay could detect 12 seropositive cases (10.0%), in which blood stage antigens were not detected. These results indicate that the LSA-3 is a useful antigen for an early serodiagnosis of P. falciparum infection.


Subject(s)
Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Plasmodium vivax/isolation & purification , Plasmodium falciparum/immunology , Molecular Sequence Data , Malaria, Falciparum/blood , Humans , Genes, Protozoan/genetics , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct/methods , Escherichia coli/genetics , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Early Diagnosis , DNA, Protozoan/chemistry , DNA Primers/chemistry , Cloning, Molecular/methods , Base Sequence , Antigens, Protozoan/biosynthesis , Animals , Amino Acid Sequence
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-59373

ABSTRACT

In order to determine the current infection status of pond smelts, Hypomesus olidus, and other freshwater fishes with trematode metacercariae, a total of 4,861 pond smelts and 18 other freshwater fishes, collected from the Soyang and Uiam Lakes in Gangwon-do, the Unam Lake in Jeollabuk-do, the Jangseong Lake in Jeollanam-do, the Uirim-ji (lake) in Chungcheongbuk-do, and the Andong Lake in Gyeongsangbuk-do, were individually digested with 1% pepsin-HCl and examined under a dissecting microscope. In all pond smelts caught from the 6 lakes, we were unable to detect any known human infectious trematode metacercariae in Korea. However, in other freshwater fishes, such as, Squalidus japonicus coreanus (Unam Lake), and Zacco platypus (Jangseong Lake) and Opsariichthys uncirostris amurensis (Jangseong Lake), metacercariae of human-infecting trematodes, i.e., Clonorchis sinensis and Metagonimus sp. were detected, respectively.


Subject(s)
Trematode Infections/veterinary , Osmeriformes/parasitology , Korea , Humans , Fresh Water , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Animals
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-215237

ABSTRACT

We have observed the seropositive rate of Taenia solium cysticercosis in residents at Nabo Village, Tiandong County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The village had been found to be a relatively high endemic area of porcine cysticercosis among roaming pigs. Of 202 persons examined four males aged 15, 25, 35 and 41 year-old exhibited absorbance (abs) at 0.18, 0.20, 0.35 and 0.55, respectively. In addition, two females whose ages were 35 and 39 years revealed specific antibody levels of abs 0.26 and 0.41 in their sera. Overall positive rate among the people was 2.97%. All of these persons agreed that they had ingested the pork infected with T. solium metacestode (TsM), while history of proglottid discharge was not noticed from all of them. Three males and one female complained of intermittent headache. Our findings reinforced not only that the prevalence of cysticercosis might be related with roaming pigs infected with TsM but also that behavioral and environmental practices in local community constituted risk factors for transmission of the infection.


Subject(s)
Taenia solium/isolation & purification , Swine Diseases/parasitology , Swine , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Rural Population , Neurocysticercosis/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Meat/parasitology , Male , Immunoblotting , Humans , Female , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , China/epidemiology , Child , Antibodies, Helminth/blood , Animals , Adult , Adolescent
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-188037

ABSTRACT

A highly specific antigenic protein of 31 kDa from plerocercoid of Spirometra mansoni (sparganum) was obtained by gelatin affinity and Mono Q anion-exchange column chromatography. The purified 31 kDa protein was subjected to N-glycan enzymatic digestion for structural analysis. The relative electrophoretic mobility was analyzed by SDS-PAGE, before and after digestion. On SDS-PAGE after enzymatic digestion, the 31 kDa protein showed a molecular shift of approximately 2 kDa, which indicated the possession of complex N-linked oligosaccharides (N-glycosidase F sensitive) but not of high-mannose oligosaccharides (endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H, non-sensitive). Chemically periodated 31 kDa protein showed statistically non-significant changes with human sparganosis sera by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Therefore, the dominant epitopes of the 31 kDa molecule in human sparganosis were found to be mainly polypeptide, while N-glycans of the antigenic molecule in sparganum was minimal in anti-carbohydrate antibody production.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigens, Helminth/analysis , Carbohydrates/analysis , Chromatography, Affinity , Chromatography, Ion Exchange , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epitopes/analysis , Hexosaminidases/metabolism , Humans , /metabolism , Periodic Acid/chemistry , Sparganosis/parasitology , Sparganum/immunology , Spirometra/immunology
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-188036

ABSTRACT

The plasmepsins are the aspartic proteases of malaria parasites. Treatment of aspartic protease inhibitor inhibits hemoglobin hydrolysis and blocks the parasite development in vitro suggesting that these proteases might be exploited their potentials as antimalarial drug targets. In this study, we determined the genetic variations of the aspartic proteases of Plasmodium vivax (PvPMs) of wild isolates. Two plasmepsins (PvPM4 and PvPM5) were cloned and sequenced from 20 P. vivax Korean isolates and two imported isolates. The sequences of the enzymes were highly conserved except a small number of amino acid substitutions did not modify key residues for the function or the structure of the enzymes. The high sequence conservations between the plasmepsins from the isolates support the notion that the enzymes could be reliable targets for new antimalarial chemotherapeutics.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases/genetics , Base Sequence , Cloning, Molecular , Conserved Sequence , DNA, Protozoan/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Sequence Data , Plasmodium vivax/enzymology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Analysis, DNA
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-7144

ABSTRACT

The evolutionary course of the CsRn1 long-terminal-repeat (LTR) retrotransposon was predicted by conducting a phylogenetic analysis with its paralog LTR sequences. Based on the clustering patterns in the phylogenetic tree, multiple CsRn1 copies could be grouped into four subsets, which were shown to have different integration times. Their differential sequence divergences and heterogeneous integration patterns strongly suggested that these subsets appeared sequentially in the genome of C. sinensis. Members of recently expanding subset showed the lowest level of divergence in their LTR and reverse transcriptase gene sequences. They were also shown to be highly polymorphic among individual genomes of the trematode. The CsRn1 element exhibited a preference for repetitive, agenic chromosomal regions in terms of selecting integration targets. Our results suggested that CsRn1 might induce a considerable degree of intergenomic variation and, thereby, have influenced the evolution of the C. sinensis genome.


Subject(s)
Animals , Clonorchis sinensis/genetics , DNA, Helminth/analysis , Evolution, Molecular , Gene Dosage , Genome , Phylogeny , Polymorphism, Genetic , RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase , Retroelements/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Terminal Repeat Sequences/genetics
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