Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 64
Filter
1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913490

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the relationship between maximal tongue protrusion length (MTPL) and dysphagia in post-stroke patients. @*Methods@#Free tongue length (FTL) was measured using the quick tongue-tie assessment tool and MTPL was measured using a transparent plastic ruler in 47 post-stroke patients. The MTPL-to-FTL (RMF) ratio was calculated. Swallowing function in all patients was evaluated via videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS), PenetrationAspiration Scale (PAS), Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS), and Videofluoroscopic Dysphagia Scale (VDS). @*Results@#The MTPL and RMF values were significantly higher in the non-aspirator group than in the aspirator group (MTPL, p=0.0049; RMF, p<0.001). MTPL and RMF showed significant correlations with PAS, FOIS and VDS scores. The cut-off value in RMF for the prediction of aspiration was 1.56, with a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 86%. @*Conclusion@#There is a relationship between MTPL and dysphagia in post-stroke patients. MTPL and RMF can be useful for detecting aspiration in post-stroke patients.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898097

ABSTRACT

BackgroundGlycemic variability is associated with the development of diabetic complications and hypoglycemia. However, the effect of sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors on glycemic variability is controversial. We aimed to examine the effect of dapagliflozin as an add-on therapy to insulin on the glycemic variability assessed using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.MethodsIn this multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized study, 84 subjects received 10 mg of dapagliflozin (n=41) or the placebo (n=43) for 12 weeks. CGM was performed before and after treatment to compare the changes in glycemic variability measures (standard deviation [SD], mean amplitude of glycemic excursions [MAGEs]).ResultsAt week 12, significant reductions in glycosylated hemoglobin (−0.74%±0.66% vs. 0.01%±0.65%, PPPConclusionDapagliflozin effectively decreased glucose levels, but not glucose variability, after 12 weeks of treatment in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving insulin treatment. The role of SGLT2 inhibitors in glycemic variability warrants further investigations.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890393

ABSTRACT

BackgroundGlycemic variability is associated with the development of diabetic complications and hypoglycemia. However, the effect of sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors on glycemic variability is controversial. We aimed to examine the effect of dapagliflozin as an add-on therapy to insulin on the glycemic variability assessed using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.MethodsIn this multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized study, 84 subjects received 10 mg of dapagliflozin (n=41) or the placebo (n=43) for 12 weeks. CGM was performed before and after treatment to compare the changes in glycemic variability measures (standard deviation [SD], mean amplitude of glycemic excursions [MAGEs]).ResultsAt week 12, significant reductions in glycosylated hemoglobin (−0.74%±0.66% vs. 0.01%±0.65%, PPPConclusionDapagliflozin effectively decreased glucose levels, but not glucose variability, after 12 weeks of treatment in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving insulin treatment. The role of SGLT2 inhibitors in glycemic variability warrants further investigations.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897524

ABSTRACT

Objective@#High-quality intensive care, including targeted temperature management (TTM) for patients with postcardiac arrest syndrome, is a key element for improving outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We aimed to assess the status of postcardiac arrest syndrome care, including TTM and 6-month survival with neurologically favorable outcomes, after adult OHCA patients were treated with TTM, using data from the Korean Hypothermia Network prospective registry. @*Methods@#We used the Korean Hypothermia Network prospective registry, a web-based multicenter registry that includes data from 22 participating hospitals throughout the Republic of Korea. Adult comatose OHCA survivors treated with TTM between October 2015 and December 2018 were included. The primary outcome was neurological outcome at 6 months. @*Results@#Of the 1,354 registered OHCA survivors treated with TTM, 550 (40.6%) survived 6 months, and 413 (30.5%) had good neurological outcomes. We identified 839 (62.0%) patients with preClinsumed cardiac etiology. A total of 937 (69.2%) collapses were witnessed, shockable rhythms were demonstrated in 482 (35.6%) patients, and 421 (31.1%) patients arrived at the emergency department with prehospital return of spontaneous circulation. The most common target temperature was 33°C, and the most common target duration was 24 hours. @*Conclusion@#The survival and good neurologic outcome rates of this prospective registry show great improvements compared with those of an earlier registry. While the optimal target temperature and duration are still unknown, the most common target temperature was 33°C, and the most common target duration was 24 hours.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896913

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To determine the most optimal needle insertion point of extensor indicis (EI) using ultrasound. @*Methods@#A total 80 forearms of 40 healthy volunteers were recruited. We identified midpoint (MP) of EI using ultrasound and set MP as optimal needle insertion point. The location of MP was suggested using distances from landmarks. Distance from MP to medial border of ulna (MP-X) and to lower margin of ulnar head (MP-Y) were measured. Ratios of MP-X to Forearm circumference (X ratio) and MP-Y to forearm length (Y ratio) were calculated. In cross-sectional view, depth of MP (Dmp), defined as middle value of superficial depth (Ds) and deep depth (Dd) was measured and suggested as proper depth of needle insertion. @*Results@#Mean MP-X was 1.37±0.14 cm and mean MP-Y was 5.50±0.46 cm. Mean X ratio was 8.10±0.53 and mean Y ratio was 22.15±0.47. Mean Dmp was 7.63±0.96 mm. @*Conclusion@#We suggested that novel optimal needle insertion point of the EI. It is about 7.6 mm in depth at about 22% of the forearm length proximal from the lower margin of the ulnar head and about 8.1% of the forearm circumference radial from medial border of ulna.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889820

ABSTRACT

Objective@#High-quality intensive care, including targeted temperature management (TTM) for patients with postcardiac arrest syndrome, is a key element for improving outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We aimed to assess the status of postcardiac arrest syndrome care, including TTM and 6-month survival with neurologically favorable outcomes, after adult OHCA patients were treated with TTM, using data from the Korean Hypothermia Network prospective registry. @*Methods@#We used the Korean Hypothermia Network prospective registry, a web-based multicenter registry that includes data from 22 participating hospitals throughout the Republic of Korea. Adult comatose OHCA survivors treated with TTM between October 2015 and December 2018 were included. The primary outcome was neurological outcome at 6 months. @*Results@#Of the 1,354 registered OHCA survivors treated with TTM, 550 (40.6%) survived 6 months, and 413 (30.5%) had good neurological outcomes. We identified 839 (62.0%) patients with preClinsumed cardiac etiology. A total of 937 (69.2%) collapses were witnessed, shockable rhythms were demonstrated in 482 (35.6%) patients, and 421 (31.1%) patients arrived at the emergency department with prehospital return of spontaneous circulation. The most common target temperature was 33°C, and the most common target duration was 24 hours. @*Conclusion@#The survival and good neurologic outcome rates of this prospective registry show great improvements compared with those of an earlier registry. While the optimal target temperature and duration are still unknown, the most common target temperature was 33°C, and the most common target duration was 24 hours.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889209

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To determine the most optimal needle insertion point of extensor indicis (EI) using ultrasound. @*Methods@#A total 80 forearms of 40 healthy volunteers were recruited. We identified midpoint (MP) of EI using ultrasound and set MP as optimal needle insertion point. The location of MP was suggested using distances from landmarks. Distance from MP to medial border of ulna (MP-X) and to lower margin of ulnar head (MP-Y) were measured. Ratios of MP-X to Forearm circumference (X ratio) and MP-Y to forearm length (Y ratio) were calculated. In cross-sectional view, depth of MP (Dmp), defined as middle value of superficial depth (Ds) and deep depth (Dd) was measured and suggested as proper depth of needle insertion. @*Results@#Mean MP-X was 1.37±0.14 cm and mean MP-Y was 5.50±0.46 cm. Mean X ratio was 8.10±0.53 and mean Y ratio was 22.15±0.47. Mean Dmp was 7.63±0.96 mm. @*Conclusion@#We suggested that novel optimal needle insertion point of the EI. It is about 7.6 mm in depth at about 22% of the forearm length proximal from the lower margin of the ulnar head and about 8.1% of the forearm circumference radial from medial border of ulna.

8.
Ultrasonography ; : 236-245, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761982

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to present a technique for measuring physiologic distal tibiofibular syndesmosis widening using 3-dimensional ultrasonography (3D-US) with an evaluation of its reliability, and to determine whether there were differences in the measurements between different dynamic stress tests. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 3D-US of 20 subjects with normal ankle syndesmosis. 3D-US was performed in neutral (N), dorsiflexion with external rotation (DFER), and weight-bearing standing (WB) positions at the anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament level in both ankles for comparison. Using 3D-US volume data, axial images were reconstructed at the level of the lateral prominence of the anterior tibial tubercle to ensure consistent measurements of the tibiofibular clear space (TFCS) by two radiologists. RESULTS: There was a wide range of TFCS values among the subjects (N, 1.2 to 4.2 mm; DFER, 2.3 to 4.8 mm; WB, 1.7 to 4.6 mm). When both ankles of each subject were evaluated, the side-to-side differences were less than 1 mm in all positions, with high intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values between both ankles (ICC, 0.85 to 0.93). The inter-rater agreement for all TFCS measurements between the two radiologists was excellent (ICC, 0.81 to 0.96). In comparisons between the two dynamic stress tests, the TFCS was significantly wider in the DFER position than in the WB position (DFER vs. WB, 3.3 mm vs. 2.9 mm; P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Using 3D-US, we were able to consistently evaluate the TFCS with good reliability. In a comparison of the two dynamic tests, there was more significant widening of the TFCS in the DFER position than in the WB position.


Subject(s)
Ankle Joint , Ankle , Diagnosis , Exercise Test , Lateral Ligament, Ankle , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Weight-Bearing
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763650

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of acarbose add-on therapy in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who are inadequately controlled with metformin and sitagliptin. METHODS: A total of 165 subjects were randomized to metformin and sitagliptin (Met+Sita, n=65), metformin, sitagliptin, and acarbose (Met+Sita+Acarb, n=66) and sitagliptin and acarbose (Sita+Acarb, exploratory assessment, n=34) therapy in five institutions in Korea. After 16 weeks of acarbose add-on or metformin-switch therapy, a triple combination therapy was maintained from week 16 to 24. RESULTS: The add-on of acarbose (Met+Sita+Acarb group) demonstrated a 0.44%±0.08% (P<0.001 vs. baseline) decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at week 16, while changes in HbA1c were insignificant in the Met+Sita group (−0.09%±0.10%, P=0.113). After 8 weeks of triple combination therapy, HbA1c levels were comparable between Met+Sita and Met+Sita+Acarb group (7.66%±0.13% vs. 7.47%±0.12%, P=0.321). Acarbose add-on therapy demonstrated suppressed glucagon secretion (area under the curve of glucagon, 4,726.17±415.80 ng·min/L vs. 3,314.38±191.63 ng·min/L, P=0.004) in the absence of excess insulin secretion during the meal tolerance tests at week 16 versus baseline. The incidence of adverse or serious adverse events was similar between two groups. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, a 16-week acarbose add-on therapy to metformin and sitagliptin, effectively lowered HbA1c without significant adverse events. Acarbose might be a good choice as a third-line therapy in addition to metformin and sitagliptin in Korean subjects with T2DM who have predominant postprandial hyperglycemia and a high carbohydrate intake.


Subject(s)
Acarbose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glucagon , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Incidence , Insulin , Korea , Meals , Metformin , Sitagliptin Phosphate
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763124

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The optimal cytotoxic regimens have not been established for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who develop disease progression on first-line epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a multi-center randomized phase II trial to compare the clinical outcomes between pemetrexed plus cisplatin combination therapy followed by maintenance pemetrexed (PC) and pemetrexed monotherapy (P) after failure of first-line EGFR-TKI. The primary objective was progression-free survival (PFS), and secondary objectives included overall response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and safety and toxicity profiles. RESULTS: A total of 96 patientswere randomized, and 91 patientswere treated at 14 centers in Korea. The ORR was 34.8% (16/46) for the PC arm and 17.8% (8/45) for the P arm (p=0.066). With 23.4 months of follow-up, the median PFS was 5.4 months in the PC arm and 6.4 months in the P arm (p=0.114). The median OS was 17.9 months and 15.7 months in PC and P arms, respectively (p=0.787). Adverse events ≥ grade 3 were reported in 12 patients (26.1%) in the PC arm and nine patients (20.0%) in the P arm (p=0.491). The overall time trends of HRQOL were not significantly different between the two arms. CONCLUSION: The outcomes of pemetrexed therapy in NSCLC patients with disease progression after firstline EGFR-TKI might not be improved by adding cisplatin.


Subject(s)
Arm , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Cisplatin , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Epidermal Growth Factor , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Korea , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Pemetrexed , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Quality of Life , ErbB Receptors , Tyrosine
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715056

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Most patients with head trauma require brain computed tomography (CT) in the emergency department. However, the requirement for facial CT remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of brain CT alone for detection of facial fractures and its ability to determine the requirement for additional facial CT. METHODS: This retrospective multicenter study was conducted in two tertiary hospitals in Seoul, Republic of Korea, between January 2014 and December 2015. Data were collected from the medical records of adult patients (aged over 18 years) who had undergone both brain and facial CT on the same day as their presentation to the emergency department with blunt trauma to the head and face. The same radiologist analyzed all brain and facial CT images. RESULTS: Eight hundred and sixty patients (668 men, 192 women; mean age 48.60±18.2 years) were identified to have had facial fractures. There was a statistically significant predominance of men but not of any particular age group. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of brain CT were 83.72%, 98.87%, 97.17%, 92.92%, and 94.08%, respectively. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that brain CT has high diagnostic value for detection of upper facial bone fractures with high accuracy and can aid emergency physicians when determining the requirement for additional facial CT.


Subject(s)
Adult , Brain , Craniocerebral Trauma , Diagnosis , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Facial Bones , Female , Head , Humans , Male , Medical Records , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seoul , Skull , Tertiary Care Centers
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715055

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Several abbreviated versions of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) have been developed and are widely used in clinical settings. In this study, we provide evidence supporting the use of abbreviated versions of AUDIT by comparing the utility of various abbreviated versions and determining cut-off values for the population of South Korea. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 4th to 6th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. After calculating the whole AUDIT score, we applied the cut-off value of at-risk drinking proposed by the World Health Organization and divided the study sample into normal and at-risk drinking groups. Receiver operating characteristic curves were drawn for AUDIT-3rd question (Q3) alone, AUDIT-quantity and frequency (QF), AUDIT-consumption (C), AUDIT-4, and AUDIT-primary clinic (PC), and optimal cut-off values were obtained for each group. RESULTS: A total of 46,450 subjects were analyzed. The at-risk drinking group comprised 29.2% of all subjects. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of the abbreviated versions of AUDIT increased from 0.954 to 0.991 as the number of questions increased from one to four. The differences in AUROC between the abbreviated versions of AUDIT were statistically significant. The most appropriate cut-off values for AUDIT-Q3 alone, AUDIT-QF, AUDIT-C, AUDIT-4, and AUDIT-PC for adults over age 19 were 2, 4, 5, 6, and 4 points, respectively. CONCLUSION: As the number of items analyzed increased from one to four items, the AUROC increased to a statistically significant level. Cut-off values for abbreviated versions of AUDIT are similar in South Korea to other countries.


Subject(s)
Adult , Alcohol-Related Disorders , Alcoholism , Drinking , Humans , Korea , Nutrition Surveys , ROC Curve , World Health Organization
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714801

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Several abbreviated versions of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) have been developed and used widely in clinical settings. This paper provides evidence supporting the use of abbreviated versions of AUDIT by comparing the utility of various abbreviated versions and determining the cut-off values for the population of South Korea. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 4th to 6th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. After calculating the whole AUDIT score, the cut-off value of at-risk drinking proposed by the World Health Organization was applied and the study sample was divided into normal and at-risk drinking groups. Receiver operating characteristic curves were drawn for the AUDIT-3rd question (Q3) alone, AUDIT-quantity and frequency (QF), AUDIT-consumption (C), AUDIT-4, and AUDIT-primary clinic (PC), and the optimal cut-off values were obtained for each group. RESULTS: A total of 46,450 subjects were analyzed. The at-risk drinking group comprised 29.2% of all subjects. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of the abbreviated versions of AUDIT increased from 0.954 to 0.991 as the number of questions was increased from one to four. The differences in the AUROC between the abbreviated versions of AUDIT were statistically significant. The most appropriate cut-off values for AUDIT-Q3 alone, AUDIT-QF, AUDIT-C, AUDIT-4, and AUDIT-PC for adults over age 19 were 2, 4, 5, 6, and 4 points, respectively. CONCLUSION: As the number of items analyzed increased from one to four, the AUROC increased to a statistically significant level. The cut-off values for the abbreviated versions of AUDIT were similar in South Korea to other countries.


Subject(s)
Adult , Alcohol-Related Disorders , Alcoholism , Drinking , Humans , Korea , Nutrition Surveys , ROC Curve , World Health Organization
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740075

ABSTRACT

Periodontitis is generally a chronic disorder characterized by breakdown of tooth-supporting tissues, producing dentition loss. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), a Gram-negative anaerobic rod, is one of the major pathogens associated with periodontitis. Neutrophils are first line defense cells in the oral cavity that play a significant role in inflammatory response. Xylitol is a known anti-caries agent and has anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we conducted experiments to evaluate anti-inflammatory effects of xylitol on P. gingivalis infected neutrophils for possible usage in prevention and treatment of periodontal infections. P. gingivalis was intraperitoneally injected and peritoneal lavage was collected for cytokine determination. For in vitro study, neutrophils were collected from mouse peritoneal cells after zymosan injection or bone marrow cells. Neutrophils were stimulated with live P. gingivalis and ELISA was used to determine the effect of xylitol on P. gingivalis induced cytokine production. IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α concentration and neutrophil population in the peritoneal lavage was increased in P. gingivalis-infected mouse. Peritoneal cells infected with live P. gingivalis revealed significantly increased production of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α at multiplicity of infection of 10. Neutrophils from bone marrow and peritoneal lavage revealed increased production of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Xylitol significantly mitigated P. gingivalis induced cytokine production in neutrophils. Findings indicate that xylitol is an anti-inflammatory agent in neutrophils infected with live P. gingivalis, that suggests its use in periodontitis management.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Marrow , Bone Marrow Cells , Dentition , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Mice , Mouth , Neutrophils , Periodontitis , Peritoneal Lavage , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Porphyromonas , Xylitol , Zymosan
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740062

ABSTRACT

Radiotherapy (RT) is a mainstay in the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). For locally advanced HCSCC, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) benefits HCSCC patients in terms of better survival and loco-regional control. In this study, we evaluated changes in oral microbiota in patients, who received CCRT for head and neck cancer. Oral rinsed samples were weekly collected before and during CCRT and at 4 weeks following treatment from HNSCC patients, who had received 70 Gy of radiation delivered to the primary sites for over 7 weeks and concurrent chemotherapy. Oral microbiota changes in three patients were analyzed by next-generation sequencing using 16S rRNA 454 pyrosequencing. On an average, 15,000 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained from each sample. All sequences fell into 11 different bacterial phyla. During early CCRT, the microbial diversity gradually decreased. In a patient, who did not receive any antibiotics during the CCRT, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phylum. During the early CCRT, proteobacteria gradually decreased while Firmicutes increased. During the late CCRT, firmicutes gradually decreased while Bacteroides and Fusobacteria increased. In all the patients, yellow complex showed a gradual decrease, while orange and red complex showed a gradual increase during the CCRT. At 4 weeks after CCRT, the recovery of oral microbiota diversity was limited. During CCRT, there was a gradual increase in major periodontopathogens in association with the deterioration of the oral hygiene. Henceforth, it is proposed that understanding oral microbiota shift should provide better information for the development of effective oral care programs for patients receiving CCRT for HNSCC.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteroides , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Chemoradiotherapy , Citrus sinensis , Drug Therapy , Epithelial Cells , Firmicutes , Fusobacteria , Genes, rRNA , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Head , Humans , Microbiota , Neck , Oral Hygiene , Proteobacteria , Radiotherapy
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-653057

ABSTRACT

Spinal cord infarction is a rare condition and is easily misdiagnosed owing to its initial non-specific manifestation. We report a case of a 77–year-old man who presented with chest pain and upper back pain initially, and was misdiagnosed with a myocardial infarction. Four hours after admission, he complained of numbness in his entire left leg below the knee, with rapid deterioration of neurological symptoms. After 9 hours, loss of sensation progressed up to the T4 dermatome, strength of both lower extremities deteriorated to grade 0, and decrease in anal tone and deep tendon reflex was observed. Initial magnetic resonance imaging findings were normal; however, a signal change occurred 3 days after symptom onset. When patients present with acute chest pain and neurologic symptoms, the possibility of ischemic cardiac disease as well as any neurological manifestations must be investigated. Emergency physicians must remember the value of serial physical examinations.


Subject(s)
Back Pain , Chest Pain , Emergencies , Heart Diseases , Humans , Hypesthesia , Infarction , Knee , Leg , Lower Extremity , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Ischemia , Neurologic Manifestations , Physical Examination , Reflex, Stretch , Sensation , Spinal Cord Ischemia , Spinal Cord
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-108658

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Although Angelica keiskei (AK) has widely been utilized for the purpose of general health improvement among Asian, its functionality and mechanism of action. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effect of ethanol extract of AK (AK-Ex) on acute hepatotoxicity induced by acetaminophen (AAP) in HepG2 human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cells and HepaRG human hepatic progenitor cells. MATERIALS/METHODS: AK-Ex was prepared HepG2 and HepaRG cells were cultured with various concentrations and 30 mM AAP. The protective effects of AK-Ex against AAP-induced hepatotoxicity in HepG2 and HepaRG cells were evaluated using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, flow cytometry, and Western blotting. RESULTS: AK-Ex, when administered prior to AAP, increased cell growth and decreased leakage of LDH in a dose-dependent manner in HepG2 and HepaRG cells against AAP-induced hepatotoxicity. AK-Ex increased the level of Bcl-2 and decreased the levels of Bax, Bok and Bik decreased the permeability of the mitochondrial membrane in HepG2 cells intoxicated with AAP. AK-Ex decreased the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and the activation of caspase-9, -7, and -3. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that AK-Ex downregulates apoptosis via intrinsic and extrinsic pathways against AAP-induced hepatotoxicity. We suggest that AK could be a useful preventive agent against AAP-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen , Angelica , Apoptosis , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Blotting, Western , Caspase 9 , Ethanol , Flow Cytometry , Functional Food , Hep G2 Cells , Hepatocytes , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Liver , Mitochondrial Membranes , Permeability , Stem Cells
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-61404

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Activated charcoal (AC) has been widely used as a universal antidote. Currently, emergency medical centers in Korea cannot administer AC due to discontinuation of the supply of commercial ready-mixed AC suspension. This study was conducted to investigate the proportion of emergency medical centers that administer AC to poisoning patients and provide basic information for emergency physicians and toxicologists. METHODS: A prospective telephone survey of all of the included emergency medical institutions was conducted. The type of emergency medical institution, average annual number of patients admitted to the emergency department, annual average number of patients who were poisoned and whether the hospital currently utilizes gastric lavage and administration of AC were determined. RESULTS: AC was administered to poisoning patients in 40% of regional emergency medical centers, 59.3% of local emergency medical centers, and 45.9% of local emergency medical rooms. Overall, 37% of total emergency medical institutions did not administer AC due to discontinuation of the commercial ready-mixed AC suspension. Additionally, 77% of emergency physicians in institutions without AC knew AC is necessary for poisoning patients. The rate of vomiting experienced by the medical staff according to types of charcoal showed that the average rate of vomiting was 33% for commercial ready-mixed activated charcoal suspension and 51% for self-prepared charcoal powder (p=0.02). CONCLUSION: AC should be secured promptly in emergency medical institutions. Before the supply of commercial ready-mixed AC suspension becomes again it is essential to develop a standardized regimen for self-preparation of charcoal powder and to educate emergency physicians and toxicologists to its use.


Subject(s)
Charcoal , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Gastric Lavage , Humans , Korea , Medical Staff , Poisoning , Prospective Studies , Telephone , Vomiting
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-60398

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine self-management status, nutritional knowledge, barrier factors in dietary management and needs of nutritional management program for women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). METHODS: A total of 100 women with GDM were recruited from secondary and tertiary hospitals in Seoul. The questionnaire composed of general characteristics, status of self-management, dietary habits, nutrition knowledge, barrier factors in dietary management, needs for nutrition information contents and nutritional management programs. Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. All data were statistically analyzed using student's t-test and chi-square test using SAS 9.3. RESULTS: About 35% of the subjects reported that they practiced medical nutrition and exercise therapy for GDM control. The main sources of nutrition information were ‘internet (50.0%)’ and ‘expert advice (45.0%)’. More than 70% of the subjects experienced nutrition education. The mean score of nutrition knowledge was 7.5 point out of 10, and only about half of the subjects were reported to be correctly aware of some questions such as ‘the cause of ketosis’, ‘the goal of nutrition management for GDM’, ‘the importance of sugar restriction on breakfast’. The major obstructive factors in dietary management were ‘eating more than planned when dining out’, ‘finding the appropriate menu when dining out’. The preferred nutrition information contents in developing management program were ‘nutritional information of food’, ‘recommended food by major nutrients’, ‘the relationship between blood glucose and food’, ‘tips on menu selection at eating out’. The subjects reported that they need management program such as ‘example of menu by calorie prescription’, ‘recommended weight gain guide’, ‘meal recording and dietary assessment’, ‘expert recommendation’, ‘sharing know-how’. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results of this study, it is necessary to develop a program that provide personalized information by identifying the individual characteristics of the subjects and expert feedback function through various information and nutrition information contents that can be used in real life.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Diabetes, Gestational , Eating , Education , Exercise Therapy , Female , Feeding Behavior , Humans , Needs Assessment , Nutritional Status , Pregnancy , Self Care , Seoul , Tertiary Care Centers , Weight Gain
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1160-1169, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-15477

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to identify and to functionally characterize genetic variants in ST3GAL5 and ST8SIA1 in Korean patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genetic analyses were conducted using DNA samples from TAO patients (n=50) and healthy subjects (n=48) to identify TAO-specific genetic variants of ST3GAL5 or ST8SIA1. The effect of each genetic variant on the transcription or expression of these genes was examined. Additionally, correlations between functional haplotypes of ST3GAL5 or ST8SIA1 and clinical characteristics of the patients were investigated. RESULTS: Six promoter variants and one nonsynonymous variant of ST3GAL5 were identified, and four major promoter haplotypes were assembled. Additionally, three promoter variants and two major haplotypes of ST8SIA1 were identified. All ST3GAL5 and ST8SIA1 variants identified in TAO patients were also found in healthy controls. Promoter activity was significantly decreased in three promoter haplotypes of ST3GAL5 and increased in one promoter haplotype of ST8SIA1. Transcription factors activating protein-1, NKX3.1, and specificity protein 1 were revealed as having roles in transcriptional regulation of these haplotypes. The nonsynonymous variant of ST3GAL5, H104R, did not alter the expression of ST3GAL5. While no differences in clinical characteristics were detected in patients possessing the functional promoter haplotypes of ST3GAL5, exophthalmic values were significantly lower in patients with the ST8SIA1 haplotype, which showed a significant increase in promoter activity. CONCLUSION: These results from genotype-phenotype analysis might suggest a possible link between the ST8SIA1 functional promoter haplotype and the clinical severity of TAO. However, further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted.


Subject(s)
DNA , Exophthalmos , Graves Ophthalmopathy , Haplotypes , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Korea , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Sample Size , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sialyltransferases , Transcription Factors , Troleandomycin
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL