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1.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 504-513, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977367

ABSTRACT

Despite the availability of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Korea, need remains for pangenotypic regimens that can be used in the presence of hepatic impairment, comorbidities, or prior treatment failure. We investigated the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir–velpatasvir and sofosbuvir–velpatasvir–voxilaprevir for 12 weeks in HCV-infected Korean adults. Methods: This Phase 3b, multicenter, open-label study included 2 cohorts. In Cohort 1, participants with HCV genotype 1 or 2 and who were treatment-naive or treatment-experienced with interferon-based treatments, received sofosbuvir–velpatasvir 400/100 mg/day. In Cohort 2, HCV genotype 1 infected individuals who previously received an NS5A inhibitor-containing regimen ≥ 4 weeks received sofosbuvir–velpatasvir–voxilaprevir 400/100/100 mg/day. Decompensated cirrhosis was an exclusion criterion. The primary endpoint was SVR12, defined as HCV RNA < 15 IU/mL 12 weeks following treatment. Results: Of 53 participants receiving sofosbuvir–velpatasvir, 52 (98.1%) achieved SVR12. The single participant who did not achieve SVR12 experienced an asymptomatic Grade 3 ASL/ALT elevation on day 15 and discontinued treatment. The event resolved without intervention. All 33 participants (100%) treated with sofosbuvir–velpatasvir–voxilaprevir achieved SVR 12. Overall, sofosbuvir–velpatasvir and sofosbuvir–velpatasvir–voxilaprevir were safe and well tolerated. Three participants (5.6%) in Cohort 1 and 1 participant (3.0%) in Cohort 2 had serious adverse events, but none were considered treatment-related. No deaths or grade 4 laboratory abnormalities were reported. Conclusions: Treatment with sofosbuvir–velpatasvir or sofosbuvir–velpatasvir–voxilaprevir was safe and resulted in high SVR12 rates in Korean HCV patients.

2.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 166-176, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967550

ABSTRACT

Background@#/Aim: To evaluate the applicability of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) treatment with doxorubicin drug-eluting beads (DEBs) in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with portal vein invasion (PVI). @*Methods@#This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board and informed consent was obtained from all participants. A total of 30 HCC patients with PVI received DEB-TACE between 2015 and 2018. The following parameters were evaluated: complications during DEB-TACE, abdominal pain, fever, and laboratory outcomes, including liver function change. Overall survival (OS), time to progression (TTP), and adverse events were also analyzed and assessed. @*Results@#DEBs measuring 100–300 μm in diameter were loaded with doxorubicin (150 mg per procedure). There were no complications during DEB-TACE and no significant differences in the levels of prothrombin time, serum albumin, or total bilirubin at follow-up compared to baseline. The median TTP was 102 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 42–207 days) and the median OS was 216 days (95% CI, 160–336 days). Three patients (10%) had severe adverse reactions, including transient acute cholangitis (n=1), cerebellar infarction (n=1), and pulmonary embolism (n=1), but no treatment-related death occurred. @*Conclusions@#DEB-TACE may be a therapeutic option for advanced HCC patients with PVI.

3.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e216-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001106

ABSTRACT

Background@#Rituximab occasionally induces reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in patients with resolved HBV, at times with fatal consequences. The optimal duration of prophylactic antiviral therapy in this situation is unclear. We aimed to investigate the difference in HBV reactivation according to the duration of prophylactic tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in patients with resolved HBV and receiving rituximab. @*Methods@#A multicenter, randomized, open-label, prospective study was conducted in hepatitis B surface antigen-negative and anti-HBc-positive non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients treated with rituximab-based chemotherapy. A total of 90 patients were randomized and received prophylactic TDF from the initiation of rituximab until 6 months (the 6-month group) or 12 months (the 12-month group) after the completion of rituximab. The primary outcome was the difference in HBV reactivation and the secondary outcomes were the difference in hepatitis flare and adverse events between the two groups. @*Results@#In an intention to treat (ITT) analysis, HBV reactivation occurred in 1 of 43 patients (2.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41–12%) at a median of 13.3 months in the 6-month group and 2 of 41 patients (4.9%; 95% CI, 1.4–16%) at a median of 13.7 months in the 12-month group. In a per protocol (PP) analysis, HBV reactivation occurred in 1 of 18 patients (5.6%; 95% CI, 0.99–26%) at 13.3 months in the 6-month group and 1 of 13 patients (7.7%; 95% CI, 1.4–33%) at 9.7 months in the 12-month group. The cumulative incidence of HBV reactivation was not significantly different between the two groups in ITT and PP analyses (P = 0.502 and 0.795, respectively). The occurrence of adverse events was not significantly different between the two groups in ITT (9.3% in the 6-month group, 22.0% in the 12-month group, P = 0.193) and PP analyses (5.6% in the 6-month group, 7.7% in the 12-month group, P > 0.999). @*Conclusion@#Prophylactic TDF up to 6 months after completion of rituximab-based chemotherapy is sufficient in terms of the efficacy and safety of reducing HBV reactivation in patients with resolved HBV.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02585947

4.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 794-809, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999979

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Our recent study suggested that antiviral treatment may reduce the incidence of NHL in CHB patients. This study compared the prognoses of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients receiving antiviral treatment and HBV-unassociated DLBCL patients. @*Methods@#This study comprised 928 DLBCL patients who were treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) at two referral centers in Korea. All patients with CHB received antiviral treatment. Time-to-progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) were the primary and secondary endpoints, respectively. @*Results@#Among the 928 patients in this study, 82 were hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive (the CHB group) and 846 were HBsAg-negative (the non-CHB group). The median follow-up time was 50.5 months (interquartile range [IQR]=25.6–69.7 months). Multivariable analyses showed longer TTP in the CHB group than the non-CHB group both before inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]=0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.29–0.82, p=0.007) and after IPTW (aHR=0.42, 95% CI=0.26–0.70, p<0.001). The CHB group also had a longer OS than the non-CHB group both before IPTW (HR=0.55, 95% CI=0.33–0.92, log-rank p=0.02) and after IPTW (HR=0.53, 95% CI=0.32–0.99, log-rank p=0.02). Although liver-related deaths did not occur in the non-CHB group, two deaths occurred in the CHB group due to hepatocellular carcinoma and acute liver failure, respectively. @*Conclusions@#Our findings indicate that HBV-associated DLBCL patients receiving antiviral treatment have significantly longer TTP and OS after R-CHOP treatment than HBV-unassociated DLBCL patients.

5.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 763-778, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999973

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Transarterial radioembolization (TARE) has shown promising results in treating advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT). However, whether TARE can provide superior or comparable outcomes to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) in patients with HCC and PVTT remains unclear. We compared the outcomes of TARE and TKI therapy in treatment-naïve patients with locally advanced HCC and segmental or lobar PVTT. @*Methods@#This multicenter study included 216 patients initially treated with TARE (n=124) or TKI (sorafenib or lenvatinib; n=92) between 2011 and 2021. Baseline characteristics were balanced using propensity score matching (PSM) or inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). The secondary outcomes included progression-free survival (PFS) and objective response rate (ORR). @*Results@#In the unmatched cohort, the median OS of the TARE and TKI groups were 28.2 and 7.2 months, respectively (p<0.001), and the TARE group experienced significantly and independently longer OS compared to the TKI group (adjusted hazard ratio=0.41, 95% confidence interval=0.28–0.60, p<0.001). Similar results were observed in the study cohorts balanced with IPTW (p=0.003) or PSM (p=0.004). Although PFS was comparable between the two groups, the TARE group showed a trend of prolonged PFS in a subpopulation of patients with Vp1 or Vp2 PVTT (p=0.052). In the matched cohorts, the ORR of the TARE group was 53.0–56.7%, whereas that of the TKI group was 12.3–15.0%. @*Conclusions@#For patients with advanced HCC with segmental or lobar PVTT and well-preserved liver function, TARE may provide superior OS compared to sorafenib or lenvatinib.

6.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 425-472, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937328

ABSTRACT

The global burden of chronic liver disease (CLD) is substantial. Due to the limited indication of and accessibility to antiviral therapy in viral hepatitis and lack of effective pharmacological treatment in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the beneficial effects of antidiabetics and non–antidiabetics in clinical practice have been continuously investigated in patients with CLD. In this narrative review, we focused on non-antidiabetic drugs, including ursodeoxycholic acid, silymarin, dimethyl4,4’-dimethoxy-5,6,5’,6’-dimethylenedixoybiphenyl-2,2’-dicarboxylate, L-ornithine L-aspartate, branched chain amino acids, statin, probiotics, vitamin E, and aspirin, and summarized their beneficial effects in CLD. Based on the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory properties, and regulatory functions in glucose or lipid metabolism, several non–antidiabetic drugs have shown beneficial effects in improving liver histology, aminotransferase level, and metabolic parameters and reducing risks of hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality, without significant safety concerns, in patients with CLD. Although the effect as the centerpiece management in patients with CLD is not robust, the use of these non-antidiabetic drugs might be potentially beneficial as an adjuvant or combined treatment strategy.

7.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1974-1984, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918185

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to compare the efficacy between no-touch (NT) radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and conventional RFA using twin internally cooled wet (TICW) electrodes in the bipolar mode for the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). @*Materials and Methods@#In this single-center, two-arm, parallel-group, prospective randomized controlled study, we performed a 1:1 random allocation of eligible patients with HCCs to receive NT-RFA or conventional RFA between October 2016 and September 2018. The primary endpoint was the cumulative local tumor progression (LTP) rate after RFA. Secondary endpoints included technical conversion rates of NT-RFA, intrahepatic distance recurrence, extrahepatic metastasis, technical parameters, technical efficacy, and rates of complications. Cumulative LTP rates were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier analysis and the Cox proportional hazard regression model. Considering conversion cases from NT-RFA to conventional RFA, intentionto-treat and as-treated analyses were performed. @*Results@#Enrolled patients were randomly assigned to the NT-RFA group (37 patients with 38 HCCs) or the conventional RFA group (36 patients with 38 HCCs). Among the NT-RFA group patients, conversion to conventional RFA occurred in four patients (10.8%, 4/37). According to intention-to-treat analysis, both 1- and 3-year cumulative LTP rates were 5.6%, in the NT-RFA group, and they were 11.8% and 21.3%, respectively, in the conventional RFA group (p = 0.073, log-rank). In the as-treated analysis, LTP rates at 1 year and 3 years were 0% and 0%, respectively, in the NT-RFA group sand 15.6% and 24.5%, respectively, in the conventional RFA group (p = 0.004, log-rank). In as-treated analysis using multivariable Cox regression analysis, RFA type was the only significant predictive factor for LTP (hazard ratio = 0.061 with conventional RFA as the reference, 95% confidence interval = 0.000–0.497; p = 0.004). There were no significant differences in the procedure characteristics between the two groups. No procedure-related deaths or major complications were observed. @*Conclusion@#NT-RFA using TICW electrodes in bipolar mode demonstrated significantly lower cumulative LTP rates than conventional RFA for small HCCs, which warrants a larger study for further confirmation.

8.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 346-359, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889955

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Besifovir dipivoxil maleate (BSV), an acyclic nucleotide phosphonate, shows potent antiviral activity against hepatitis B virus. Our previous 48-week trial revealed that BSV has comparable antiviral efficacy to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and better safety profiles in terms of improved renal and bone safety. This extension study evaluated the prolonged efficacy and safety of BSV in treatment-naive chronic hepatitis B patients. @*Methods@#Patients continued to participate in an open-label BSV study after an initial 48-week double-blind comparison of BSV and TDF treatment. The antiviral efficacy and drug safety was evaluated up to 192 weeks in two groups: patients continuing BSV treatment (BSV-BSV) and patients switching from TDF to BSV after 48 weeks (TDF-BSV). @*Results@#Among 197 patients receiving randomized treatments, 170 (86%) entered the open-label phase and 152 (77%) entered the 192-week extension study. Virological response rates over 192 weeks were 92.50% and 93.06% in the BSV-BSV and TDF-BSV groups, respectively (P=0.90). Hepatitis B envelop antigen seroconversion and alanine aminotransferase normalization rates were similar between the groups (P=0.75 and P=0.36, respectively). There were no drug-resistant mutations to BSV. Bone mineral density and renal function were well preserved in the BSV-BSV group, whereas these initially worsened then recovered after switching therapy in the TDF-BSV group. @*Conclusions@#BSV maintained potent antiviral efficacy after 192 weeks and showed no evidence of drug resistance. BSV was safe, well tolerated, and effective in patients who switched from TDF to BSV. Trial Registration Number: NCT01937806 (date: 10 Sep 2013).

9.
Gut and Liver ; : 895-903, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914355

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (G/P) is the first pan-genotypic direct-acting antiviral combination therapy approved in Korea. An integrated analysis of five phase II and III trials was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of G/P in Korean patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. @*Methods@#The study analyzed pooled data on Korean patients with HCV infection enrolled in the ENDURANCE 1 and 2, SURVEYOR II part 4 and VOYAGE I and II trials, which evaluated the efficacy and safety of 8 or 12 weeks of G/P treatment. The patients were either treatment-naïve or had received sofosbuvir or interferon-based treatment. Efficacy was evaluated by assessing the rate of sustained virologic response at 12 weeks posttreatment (SVR12). Safety was evaluated by monitoring adverse events (AEs) and laboratory assessments. @*Results@#The analysis included 265 patients; 179 (67.5%) were HCV treatment-naïve, and most patients were either subgenotype 1B (48.7%) or 2A (44.5%). In the intention-to-treat population, 262 patients (98.9%) achieved SVR12. Three patients did not achieve SVR12: one had virologic failure and two had non-virologic failures. Most AEs were grade 1/2; eight patients (3.0%) expe-rienced at least one grade ≥3 AE. No serious AEs related to G/P treatment were reported, and grade ≥3 hepatic laboratory abnormalities were rare (0.8%). @*Conclusions@#G/P therapy was highly efficacious and well tolerated in Korean patients with HCV infection, with most patients achieving SVR12. The safety profile was comparable to that observed in a pooled analysis of a global pan-genotypic population of patients with HCV infection who received G/P.

10.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1658-1670, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902497

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To assess the two-year treatment outcomes of chemoembolization with drug-eluting embolics (DEE) for nodular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). @*Materials and Methods@#This study was a prospective, multicenter, registry-based, single-arm trial conducted at five university hospitals in Korea. Patients were recruited between May 2011 and April 2013, with a target population of 200. A DC Bead loaded with doxorubicin was used as the DEE agent. Patients were followed up for two years. Per-patient and perlesion tumor response analysis, per-patient overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) analysis, and per-lesion tumor control analysis were performed. @*Results@#The final study population included 152 patients, with 207 target lesions for the per-lesion analysis. At one-month, six-month, one-year, and two-year per-patient assessments, complete response (CR) rates were 40.1%, 43.0%, 33.3%, and 19.6%, respectively. The objective response (OR) rates were 91.4%, 55.4%, 35.1%, and 19.6%, respectively. The cumulative two-year OS rate was 79.7%. The cumulative two-year PFS rate was 22.4% and the median survival was 9.3 months. In multivariable analysis, the Child-Pugh score (p = 0.019) was an independent predictor of OS, and tumor multiplicity (p < 0.001), tumor size (p = 0.020), and Child-Pugh score (p = 0.006) were independent predictors of PFS. In per-lesion analysis, one-month, six-month, one-year and two-year CR rates were 57.5%, 58.5%, 45.2%, and 33.3%, respectively, and the OR rates were 84.1%, 65.2%, 46.6%, and 33.3%, respectively. The cumulative two-year per-lesion tumor control rate was 36.2%, and the median time was 14.1 months. The Child-Pugh score (p < 0.001) was the only independent predictor of tumor control. Serious adverse events were reported in 11 patients (7.2%). @*Conclusion@#DEE chemoembolization for nodular HCCs in the Korean population showed acceptable survival, tumor response, and safety profiles after a two-year follow-up. Good liver function (Child-Pugh score A5) was a key predictor of per-patient OS, PFS, and per-lesion tumor control.

11.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 346-359, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897659

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Besifovir dipivoxil maleate (BSV), an acyclic nucleotide phosphonate, shows potent antiviral activity against hepatitis B virus. Our previous 48-week trial revealed that BSV has comparable antiviral efficacy to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and better safety profiles in terms of improved renal and bone safety. This extension study evaluated the prolonged efficacy and safety of BSV in treatment-naive chronic hepatitis B patients. @*Methods@#Patients continued to participate in an open-label BSV study after an initial 48-week double-blind comparison of BSV and TDF treatment. The antiviral efficacy and drug safety was evaluated up to 192 weeks in two groups: patients continuing BSV treatment (BSV-BSV) and patients switching from TDF to BSV after 48 weeks (TDF-BSV). @*Results@#Among 197 patients receiving randomized treatments, 170 (86%) entered the open-label phase and 152 (77%) entered the 192-week extension study. Virological response rates over 192 weeks were 92.50% and 93.06% in the BSV-BSV and TDF-BSV groups, respectively (P=0.90). Hepatitis B envelop antigen seroconversion and alanine aminotransferase normalization rates were similar between the groups (P=0.75 and P=0.36, respectively). There were no drug-resistant mutations to BSV. Bone mineral density and renal function were well preserved in the BSV-BSV group, whereas these initially worsened then recovered after switching therapy in the TDF-BSV group. @*Conclusions@#BSV maintained potent antiviral efficacy after 192 weeks and showed no evidence of drug resistance. BSV was safe, well tolerated, and effective in patients who switched from TDF to BSV. Trial Registration Number: NCT01937806 (date: 10 Sep 2013).

12.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1658-1670, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894793

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To assess the two-year treatment outcomes of chemoembolization with drug-eluting embolics (DEE) for nodular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). @*Materials and Methods@#This study was a prospective, multicenter, registry-based, single-arm trial conducted at five university hospitals in Korea. Patients were recruited between May 2011 and April 2013, with a target population of 200. A DC Bead loaded with doxorubicin was used as the DEE agent. Patients were followed up for two years. Per-patient and perlesion tumor response analysis, per-patient overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) analysis, and per-lesion tumor control analysis were performed. @*Results@#The final study population included 152 patients, with 207 target lesions for the per-lesion analysis. At one-month, six-month, one-year, and two-year per-patient assessments, complete response (CR) rates were 40.1%, 43.0%, 33.3%, and 19.6%, respectively. The objective response (OR) rates were 91.4%, 55.4%, 35.1%, and 19.6%, respectively. The cumulative two-year OS rate was 79.7%. The cumulative two-year PFS rate was 22.4% and the median survival was 9.3 months. In multivariable analysis, the Child-Pugh score (p = 0.019) was an independent predictor of OS, and tumor multiplicity (p < 0.001), tumor size (p = 0.020), and Child-Pugh score (p = 0.006) were independent predictors of PFS. In per-lesion analysis, one-month, six-month, one-year and two-year CR rates were 57.5%, 58.5%, 45.2%, and 33.3%, respectively, and the OR rates were 84.1%, 65.2%, 46.6%, and 33.3%, respectively. The cumulative two-year per-lesion tumor control rate was 36.2%, and the median time was 14.1 months. The Child-Pugh score (p < 0.001) was the only independent predictor of tumor control. Serious adverse events were reported in 11 patients (7.2%). @*Conclusion@#DEE chemoembolization for nodular HCCs in the Korean population showed acceptable survival, tumor response, and safety profiles after a two-year follow-up. Good liver function (Child-Pugh score A5) was a key predictor of per-patient OS, PFS, and per-lesion tumor control.

13.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 179-188, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875265

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to prospectively compare the efficacy, safety, and mid-term outcomes of dual-switching monopolar (DSM) radiofrequency ablation (RFA) to those of conventional single-switching monopolar (SSM) RFA in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). @*Materials and Methods@#This single-center, two-arm, parallel-group, randomized controlled study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients upon enrollment. A total of 80 patients with 94 HCC nodules were randomized into either the DSM-RFA group or SSM-RFA group in a 1:1 ratio, using a blocked randomization method (block size 2). The primary endpoint was the minimum diameter of the ablation zone per unit time.The secondary endpoints included other technical parameters, complication rate, technique efficacy, and 2-year clinical outcomes. @*Results@#Significantly higher ablation energy per unit time was delivered to the DSM-RFA group than to the SSM-RFA group (1.7 ± 0.2 kcal/min vs. 1.2 ± 0.3 kcal/min; p< 0.001). However, no significant differences were observed between the two groups for the analyzed variables, including primary endpoint, regarding size of the ablation zone and ablation time. Major complication rates were 4.9% in the DSM-RFA group and 2.6% in the SSM-RFA group (p = 1.000). The 2-year local tumor progression (LTP) rates of the HCC nodules treated using DSM-RFA and SSM-RFA were 8.5% and 4.7%, respectively (p = 0.316).The 2-year LTP-free survival rates of patients in the DSM-RFA and SSM-RFA groups were 90.0% and 94.4%, respectively (p = 0.331), and the 2-year recurrence-free survival rates were 54.9% and 75.7%, respectively (p = 0.265). @*Conclusion@#Although DSM-RFA using a separable clustered electrode delivers higher ablation energy than SSM-RFA, its effectiveness failed to show superiority over SSM-RFA in the treatment of HCC.

14.
Gut and Liver ; : 755-764, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833177

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The risk for colonoscopic postpolypec-tomy bleeding (PPB) in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) remains unclear. We determined the incidence and risk factors for colonoscopic PPB in patients with CLD, espe-cially those with liver cirrhosis. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with CLD who un-derwent colonoscopic polypectomy at Seoul National Univer-sity Hospital between 2011 and 2014. The study endpoints were immediate and delayed PPB. @*Results@#A total of 1,267 consecutive patients with CLD were included in the study. Im-mediate PPB occurred significantly more often in the ChildPugh (CP) B or C cirrhosis group (17.5%) than in the CP-A (6.3%) and chronic hepatitis (4.6%) groups (p10 mm in size (p=0.010). @*Conclusions@#Patients with CP-B or C cirrhosis had an increased risk for bleeding fol-lowing colonoscopic polypectomy.

15.
Gut and Liver ; : 368-376, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833147

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections put patients at risk of serious liver disease and adversely affects patient quality of life (QoL). MOSAIC (International Multicenter Prospective Observational Study to Evaluate the Epidemiology, Humanistic and Economic Outcomes of Treatment for Chronic Hepatitis C Virus) was a prospective, non-interventional, international, multicenter study that aimed to describe the epidemiology of the infection, the impact of the infection on health-related QoL (HRQoL) and daily activities, and healthcare resource use related to HCV and treatment. Here, we present the results on HRQoL and daily activity impairment in consecutively enrolled South Korean patients treated with interferon (IFN)-containing regimens prospectively followed for up to 48 weeks. @*Methods@#General HRQoL, HCV-specific HRQoL, perceived health state, and work/general activity impairments were measured using the EuroQoL 5-dimension 5-level (EQ-5D-5L), HCV patient-reported outcomes (HCV-PRO), EQ-5D Visual Analog Scale, and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaires, respectively. @*Results@#Thirty-three of the 100 enrolled patients initiated IFN-based treatment, with an intended duration of 24 weeks for 20 patients and 48 weeks for 12 patients; this information was missing for one patient. Fourteen patients (42.4%) prematurely withdrew. After treatment initiation, IFN-treated patients showed a trend towards deterioration of both general (baseline: 0.87±0.103, week 4: 0.77±0.153) and HCV-specific (baseline: 76.2±19.5, week 4: 68.2±22.3) HRQoL. The scores recovered somewhat towards the end of treatment (EOT) (0.84±0.146 for EQ-5D-5L and 70.8±21.9 for HCV-PRO). The perceived health state and work/general activity impairment displayed similar temporal patterns. @*Conclusions@#Initiating IFN-based treatment prompted some deterioration in general and HCV-related HRQoL, accompanied by impaired daily activities and most work productivity measures; however, the HRQoL and productivity scores improved towards the EOT. HRQoL impairment upon treatment initiation likely contributed to treatment discontinuation.

16.
Gut and Liver ; : 377-386, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833146

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Patients with an intermediate stage of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represent a highly heterogeneous population; therefore, many models have been proposed to predict the survival of these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic performance of a novel subclassification for tumors classified as Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage B using the Model to Estimate Survival in Ambulatory HCC patients (MESIAH). @*Methods@#This analysis was based on 377 patients with HCC treated at Seoul National University Hospital (training cohort) and 189 patients at the Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital (validation cohort). Four subclassification systems were tested: MESIAH; original BCLC B subclassification (B1, B2, B3, and B4); modified model A (B1, B2, and B3+B4); and modified model B (B1, B2+B3, and B4). @*Results@#Median survival progressively decreased from stage B1 through stages B2 to B3 according to the new MESIAH subclassification (p<0.001). Moreover, significantly different survival among contiguous stages was observed. In the multivariable Cox regression, the MESIAH subclassification was an independent predictor of overall survival (p<0.001). In terms of discrimination and calibration, MESIAH performed better than the original BCLC B subclassification, modified model A and modified model B. @*Conclusions@#The MESIAH model would be an effective tool for stratifying heterogeneous BCLC stage B cancer, and the ability of this model to predict survival is better than that of the other previously proposed models.

17.
Gut and Liver ; : 225-231, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833142

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Renal toxicity is a concern in patients with chronic hepatitis B taking nucleotide analogues, such as adefovir (ADV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). We sought to determine the long-term renal effects of nucleotide analogue treatment versus entecavir (ETV) treatment. @*Methods@#In this retrospective single-center study, we selected 87 patients who were treated with ADV and subsequently with TDF from June 2008 to December 2013. ETV-treated patients were matched by treatment duration. We analyzed the creatinine increase over 0.5 mg/dL, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decrease over 25%, phosphorus decrease under 2.0 mg/dL, and dose reduction of antiviral agents. @*Results@#The median follow-up period was 60.0 months for both groups. The incidence of liver cirrhosis was higher in the ADVTDF group than in the ETV group (32.2% vs 74.7%, p<0.01).Creatinine increased in both groups during follow-up, but the difference was not significant (5.7% and 2.3%, p=0.44). In addition, GFR decreased more often in the ADV-TDF group than in the ETV group (31.0% and 14.9%, p=0.01). After multivariate Cox regression analysis, ADV-TDF treatment was significantly associated with a GFR decrease over 25% (hazard ratio, 2.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.08 to 4.10; p=0.03) after adjusting for the baseline GFR decrease. @*Conclusions@#Patients taking nucleotide analogues had a significantly higher number of renal events than did those taking ETV. Clinicians should be aware of the development of renal toxicity in this patient population. Further long-term studies are warranted.

18.
Gut and Liver ; : 477-485, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833120

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Prognostic models are lacking for patients with recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following surgical resection. This study devised and validated a new hepatoma arterial-embolization prognostic (HAP) score optimized for use in patients undergoing treatment with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for recurrence subsequent to surgical resection of HCC. @*Methods@#Training cohort (n=424) and validation cohort (n=350) patients with recurrent HCC after resection treated with TACE between 2003 and 2016 were enrolled. Cox regression and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analyses were used to identify risk factors for survival and to calculate the predictive performance of risk scores, respectively. @*Results@#The median age of the study population was 59.2 years. α-Fetoprotein >400 ng/mL (hazard ratio [HR]=1.815), serum albumin ≤3.5 g/dL (HR=1.966), tumor number ≥2 (HR=1.425), tumor size >5 cm at resection or recurrence (HR=1.356), segmental portal vein invasion at resection or recurrence (HR=2.032), and time from resection to recurrence ≤1 years (HR=1.849) independently predicted survival (all p<0.05). The postoperative HAP (pHAP) model based on the rounded HRs of these variables showed an AUC of 0.723 for predicting survival at 3 years, which was significantly higher than AUCs of other HAP-based models, including HAP, modified HAP, and modified HAP-II scores (0.578-0.621) (all p<0.05). The accuracy of pHAP was maintained in the entire cohort (n=774; AUC=0.776 at 3 years). @*Conclusions@#A new pHAP score optimized for patients treated with TACE due to recurrent HCC after resection showed acceptable accuracy and was externally validated. Further studies of means by which to select treatment options other than TACE for high-risk patients according to pHAP scores are warranted.

19.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 529-539, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832290

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have a poor prognosis due to the lack of effective systemic therapies. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a pivotal event in tumor progression, during which cancer cells acquire invasive properties. In this study, we investigated the effects of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors, including LY294002 and idelalisib, on the EMT features of HCC cells in vitro. @*Methods@#Human HCC cell lines, including Huh-BAT and HepG2, were used in this study. Cell proliferation was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, and cell cycle distributions were evaluated using a flow cytometer by propidium iodide staining. Immunofluorescence staining, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblotting were performed to detect EMT-associated changes. @*Results@#PI3K inhibitors suppressed the proliferation and invasion of HCC cells and deregulated the expression of EMT markers, as indicated by increased expression of E-cadherin, an epithelial marker, and decreased expression of N-cadherin, a mesenchymal marker, and Snail, a transcription factor implicated in EMT regulation. Furthermore, LY294002 and idelalisib inhibited the phosphorylation of GSK-3β and induced the nuclear translocation of GSK-3β, which corresponded to the downregulation of Snail and β-catenin expressions in Huh-BAT and HepG2 cells. @*Conclusions@#The inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling decreases Snail expression by enhancing the nuclear translocation of GSK-3β, which suppresses EMT in HCC cells, suggesting the potential clinical application of PI3K inhibitors for HCC treatment.

20.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 328-339, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832254

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Several treatment options are currently available for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) failing previous sorafenib treatment. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of regorafenib and nivolumab in these patients. @*Methods@#Consecutive HCC patients who received regorafenib or nivolumab after failure of sorafenib treatment were included. Primary endpoint was overall survival (OS) and secondary endpoints were time to progression, tumor response rate, and adverse events. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) using the propensity score was conducted to reduce treatment selection bias. @*Results@#Among 150 study patients, 102 patients received regorafenib and 48 patients received nivolumab. Median OS was 6.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.0–10.8) months for regorafenib and 5.9 (95% CI, 3.7–8.1) months for nivolumab (P=0.77 by log-rank test). In multivariable analysis, nivolumab was associated with prolonged OS (vs. regorafenib: adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.54; 95% CI, 0.30–0.96; P=0.04). Time to progression was not significantly different between groups (nivolumab vs. regorafenib: aHR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.51–1.30; P=0.48). HRs were maintained after IPTW. Objective response rates were 5.9% and 16.7% in patients treated with regorafenib and nivolumab, respectively (P=0.04). @*Conclusions@#After sorafenib failure, the use of nivolumab may be associated with improved OS and better objective response rate as compared to using regorafenib.

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