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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 28-40, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966499

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Tropomyosin receptor kinase (TRK) inhibitors are approved for the treatment of neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase (NTRK) fusion-positive tumors. The detection of NTRK fusion using a validated method is required before therapeutic application. An interlaboratory comparison study of next-generation sequencing (NGS)–based NTRK gene fusion detection with validated clinical samples was conducted at six major hospitals in South Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 18 samples, including a positive standard reference and eight positive and nine negative clinical samples, were validated using the VENTANA pan-TRK (EPR17341) and TruSight Oncology 500 assays. These samples were then tested using four different NGS panels currently being used at the six participating institutions. @*Results@#NTRK fusions were not detected in any of the nine negative clinical samples, demonstrating 100% specificity in all six participating institutions. All assays showed 100% analytical sensitivity to identify the NTRK fusion status in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples, although with variable clinical sensitivity. False-negative results were due to low tumor purity, poor RNA quality, and DNA-based sequencing panel. The RNA-based targeted NGS assay showed an overall high success rate of identifying NTRK fusion status in FFPE samples. @*Conclusion@#This study is the first to test the proficiency of NGS-based NTRK detection in South Korea with the largest participating institutions. RNA-based NGS assays to detect NTRK fusions can accurately characterize fusion transcripts if sufficient RNA of adequate quality is available. The comparative performance data will support the implementation of targeted NGS-based sequencing assays for NTRK fusion detection in routine diagnostics.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1134-1143, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999811

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) improve response rate and survival. However, most patients eventually develop resistance. This study aimed to identify the role of CD73 in EGFR-mutant NSCLC and explore whether CD73 inhibition may serve as a therapeutic strategy in NSCLC patients with acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs. @*Materials and Methods@#We evaluated the prognostic role of CD73 expression in EGFR-mutant NSCLC using tumor samples from a single institution. We silenced CD73 in EGFR-TKI–resistant cell lines using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting CD73 and also transfected a vector alone as a negative control. Using these cell lines, cell proliferation and viability assays, immunoblot assays, cell cycle analysis, colony-forming assays, flow cytometry, and apoptosis analysis were performed. @*Results@#High expression of CD73 was associated with shorter survival in patients with metastatic EGFR-mutant NSCLC treated with first-generation EGFR-TKI. CD73 inhibition synergistically inhibited cell viability with first-generation EGFR-TKI treatment compared with the negative control. When CD73 inhibition and EGFR-TKI treatment were combined, G0/G1 cell cycle arrest was induced through the regulation of p21 and cyclin D1. In addition, the apoptosis rate was increased in CD73 shRNA-transfected cells treated with EGFR-TKI. @*Conclusion@#High expression of CD73 adversely affects the survival of patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC. The study demonstrated that inhibiting CD73 in EGFR-TKI–resistant cell lines resulted in increased apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, which overcame the acquired resistance to first-generation EGFR-TKIs. Further research is needed to determine whether blocking CD73 plays a therapeutic role in EGFR-TKI–resistant patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 452-467, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976705

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#NUT carcinoma (NC) is a solid tumor caused by the rearrangement of NUTM1 that usually develops in midline structures, such as the thorax. No standard treatment has been established despite high lethality. Thus, we investigated whether targeting the junction region of NUTM1 fusion breakpoints could serve as a potential treatment option for NC. @*Materials and Methods@#We designed and evaluated a series of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the junction region of BRD4-NUTM1 fusion (B4N), the most common form of NUTM1 fusion. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction using the blood of patients was also tested to evaluate the treatment responses by the junction sequence of the B4N fusion transcripts. @*Results@#As expected, the majority of NC fusion types were B4N (12 of 18, 67%). B4N fusion-specific siRNA treatment on NC cells showed specific inhibitory effects on the B4N fusion transcript and fusion protein without affecting the endogenous expression of the parent genes, resulting in decreased relative cell growth and attenuation of tumor size. In addition, the fusion transcript levels in platelet-rich-plasma samples of the NC patients with systemic metastasis showed a negative correlation with therapeutic effect, suggesting its potential as a measure of treatment responsiveness. @*Conclusion@#This study suggests that tumor-specific sequences could be used to treat patients with fusion genes as part of precision medicine for a rare but deadly disease.

4.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 32-39, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915805

ABSTRACT

Background@#Primary adrenal (PA) diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was previously reported as an aggressive subset of DLBCL, but its genetic features were not sufficiently characterized. From our previous study of DLBCL with programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) gene alterations, we focused on PD-L1 gene alterations in PA-DLBCL with clinicopathologic implications. @*Methods@#We performed fluorescence in situ hybridization for PD-L1 gene translocation and amplification in PA-DLBCL (n = 18) and comparatively analyzed clinicopathologic characteristics with systemic non-adrenal (NA)-DLBCL (n = 90). @*Results@#PA-DLBCL harbored distinctive features (vs. NADLBCL), including high international prognostic index score (3–5) (72% [13/18] vs. 38% [34/90], p = .007), poor Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score (≥ 2) (47% [7/15] vs. 11% [10/90], p = .003), elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (78% [14/18] vs. 51% [44/87], p = .035) and MUM1 expression (87% [13/15] vs. 60% [54/90], p = .047). Moreover, PA-DLBCL showed frequent PD-L1 gene alterations (vs. NA-DLBCL) (39% [7/18] vs. 6% [5/86], p = .001), including translocation (22% [4/18] vs. 3% [3/87], p = .016) and amplification (17% [3/18] vs. 2% [2/87], p = .034). Within the PA-DLBCL group, PD-L1 gene–altered cases (vs. non-altered cases) tended to have B symptoms (p = .145) and elevated LDH (p = .119) but less frequent bulky disease (≥ 10 cm) (p = .119). In the survival analysis, PA-DLBCL had a poor prognosis for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) (vs. NA-DLBCL; p = .014 and p = .004). Within the PA-DLBCL group, PD-L1 translocation was associated with shorter OS and PFS (p < .001 and p = .012). @*Conclusions@#PA-DLBCL is a clinically aggressive and distinct subset of DLBCL with frequent PD-L1 gene alterations. PD-L1 gene translocation was associated with poor prognosis in PA-DLBCL.

5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 140-149, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913828

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Epidermal growth factor receptor kinase domain duplication (EGFR-KDD) is a rare and poorly understood oncogenic mutation in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to investigate the acquired resistance mechanism of EGFR-KDD against EGFR-TKIs. @*Materials and Methods@#We identified EGFR-KDD in tumor tissue obtained from a patient with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma and established the patient-derived cell line SNU-4784. We also established several EGFR-KDD Ba/F3 cell lines: EGFR-KDD wild type (EGFR-KDDWT), EGFR-KDD domain 1 T790M (EGFR-KDDD1T), EGFR-KDD domain 2 T790M (EGFR-KDDD2T), and EGFR-KDD both domain T790M (EGFR-KDDBDT). We treated the cells with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and performed cell viability assays, immunoblot assays, and ENU (N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea) mutagenesis screening. @*Results@#In cell viability assays, SNU-4784 cells and EGFR-KDDWT Ba/F3 cells were sensitive to 2nd generation and 3rd generation EGFR TKIs. In contrast, the T790M-positive EGFR-KDD Ba/F3 cell lines (EGFR-KDDT790M) were only sensitive to 3rd generation EGFR TKIs. In ENU mutagenesis screening, we identified the C797S mutation in kinase domain 2 of EGFR-KDDBDT Ba/F3 cells. Based on this finding, we established an EGFR-KDD domain 1 T790M/domain 2 cis-T790M+C797S (EGFR-KDDT/T+C) Ba/F3 model, which was resistant to EGFR TKIs and anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody combined with EGFR TKIs. @*Conclusion@#Our study reveals that the T790M mutation in EGFR-KDD confers resistance to 1st and 2nd generation EGFR TKIs, but is sensitive to 3rd generation EGFR TKIs. In addition, we identified that the C797S mutation in kinase domain 2 of EGFR-KDDT790M mediates a resistance mechanism against 3rd generation EGFR TKIs.

6.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 173-186, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938128

ABSTRACT

Lymphocyte-rich effusions represent benign reactive process or neoplastic condition. Involvement of lymphoproliferative disease in body cavity is not uncommon, and it often causes diagnostic challenge. In this review, we suggest a practical diagnostic approach toward lymphocyte-rich effusions, share representative cases, and discuss the utility of ancillary tests. Cytomorphologic features favoring neoplastic condition include high cellularity, cellular atypia/pleomorphism, monomorphic cell population, and frequent apoptosis, whereas lack of atypia, polymorphic cell population, and predominance of small T cells usually represent benign reactive process. Involvement of non-hematolymphoid malignant cells in body fluid should be ruled out first, followed by categorization of the samples into either small/medium-sized cell dominant or large-sized cell dominant fluid. Small/medium-sized cell dominant effusions require ancillary tests when either cellular atypia or history/clinical suspicion of lymphoproliferative disease is present. Large-sized cell dominant effusions usually suggest neoplastic condition, however, in the settings of initial presentation or low overall cellularity, ancillary studies are helpful for more clarification. Ancillary tests including immunocytochemistry, in situ hybridization, clonality test, and next-generation sequencing can be performed using cytologic preparations. Throughout the diagnostic process, proper review of clinical history, cytomorphologic examination, and application of adequate ancillary tests are key elements for successful diagnosis.

7.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 92-96, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926154

ABSTRACT

Microsatellite instability-high/deficient mismatch repair (MSI-H/dMMR) status has been approved as a tissue-agnostic biomarker for immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy in patients with solid tumors. We report the case of an MSI-H/dMMR diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) identified by targeted gene sequencing (TGS). A 90-year-old female who presented with vaginal bleeding and a large mass in the upper vagina was diagnosed with germinal center-B-cell-like DLBCL, which recurred at the uterine cervix at 9 months after chemotherapy. Based on TGS of 121 lymphoma-related genes and the LymphGen algorithm, the tumor was classified genetically as DLBCL of EZB subtype. Mutations in multiple genes, including frequent frameshift mutations, were detected by TGS and further suggested MSI. The MSI-H/dMMR and loss of MLH1 and PMS2 expression were determined in MSI-fragment analysis, MSI real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemical tests. This case demonstrates the potential diagnostic and therapeutic utility of lymphoma panel sequencing for DLBCL with MSI-H/dMMR.

8.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 975-984, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903674

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, a validated predictive biomarker for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, is reported to change over time. This poses challenges during clinical application in non-small cell lung cancer. @*Methods@#This study included patients with non-small cell lung cancer who underwent surgery or biopsy and evaluation of PD-L1 expression in tumor cells via immunohistochemistry more than twice. We set the threshold of PD-L1 positivity to 10% and categorized patients into four groups according to changes in PD-L1 expression. Clinicopathologic information was collected from medical records. Statistical analyses, including Fisher’s exact test and log-rank test, were performed. @*Results@#Of 109 patients, 38 (34.9%) and 45 (41.3%) had PD-L1 positivity in archival and recent samples, respectively. PD-L1 status was maintained in 78 (71.6%) patients, but changed in 31 (28.4%), with 19 (17.4%) from negative to positive. There were no significant differences in characteristics between patients who maintained PD-L1 negativity and whose PD-L1 status changed from negative to positive. Patients harboring PD-L1 positivity in either archival or recent samples achieved better responses (p = 0.129) and showed longer overall survival than those who maintained PD-L1 negativity when they received immune checkpoint inhibitors after platinum failure (median overall survival 14.4 months vs. 4.93 months; hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.20 to 0.93). @*Conclusions@#PD-L1 status changed in about one-fourth of patients. PD-L1 positivity in either archival or recent samples was predictive of better responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Therefore, archival samples could be used for assessment of PD-L1 status. The need for new biopsies should be decided individually.

9.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 975-984, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895970

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, a validated predictive biomarker for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, is reported to change over time. This poses challenges during clinical application in non-small cell lung cancer. @*Methods@#This study included patients with non-small cell lung cancer who underwent surgery or biopsy and evaluation of PD-L1 expression in tumor cells via immunohistochemistry more than twice. We set the threshold of PD-L1 positivity to 10% and categorized patients into four groups according to changes in PD-L1 expression. Clinicopathologic information was collected from medical records. Statistical analyses, including Fisher’s exact test and log-rank test, were performed. @*Results@#Of 109 patients, 38 (34.9%) and 45 (41.3%) had PD-L1 positivity in archival and recent samples, respectively. PD-L1 status was maintained in 78 (71.6%) patients, but changed in 31 (28.4%), with 19 (17.4%) from negative to positive. There were no significant differences in characteristics between patients who maintained PD-L1 negativity and whose PD-L1 status changed from negative to positive. Patients harboring PD-L1 positivity in either archival or recent samples achieved better responses (p = 0.129) and showed longer overall survival than those who maintained PD-L1 negativity when they received immune checkpoint inhibitors after platinum failure (median overall survival 14.4 months vs. 4.93 months; hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.20 to 0.93). @*Conclusions@#PD-L1 status changed in about one-fourth of patients. PD-L1 positivity in either archival or recent samples was predictive of better responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Therefore, archival samples could be used for assessment of PD-L1 status. The need for new biopsies should be decided individually.

10.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 139-144, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874901

ABSTRACT

Rare cases of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) with concomitant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) translocation have been reported. However, their clonal and evolutional relationship remains unclear. We report a case of early-stage EGFR-mutated LUAD with a focal concomitant EGFR/ALK alteration. A 63-year-old male underwent lobectomy to remove a 1.9-cm-sized lung nodule, which was diagnosed with EGFR-mutated LUAD. ALK immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed focal positivity within the part of the tumor characterized by lepidic pattern, also confirmed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). Targeted next-generation sequencing was performed separately on the ALK IHC/FISH-positive and -negative areas. EGFR L833V/L858R mutations were detected in both areas, whereas EML4 (echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4)-ALK translocations was confirmed only in the ALK IHC/FISH-positive area, suggesting the divergence of an EGFR/ALK co-altered subclone from the original EGFR-mutant clone. Our study suggests that concurrent alterations of EGFR and ALK can arise via divergent tumor evolution, even in the relatively early phases of tumorigenesis.

11.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 253-257, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834565

ABSTRACT

Follicular lymphoma (FL) with hyaline-vascular Castleman disease (FL-HVCD)-like features is a rare morphologic variant, with fewer than 20 cases in the literature. Herein, we report a case of FL-HVCD in a 37-year-old female who presented with isolated neck lymph node enlargement. The excised lymph node showed features reminiscent of HVCD, including regressed germinal centers (GCs) surrounded by onion skin-like mantle zones, lollipop lesions composed of hyalinized blood vessels penetrating into regressed GCs, and hyalinized interfollicular stroma. In addition, focal areas of abnormally conglomerated GCs composed of homogeneous, small centrocytes with strong BCL2, CD10, and BCL6 expression were observed, indicating partial involvement of the FL. Several other lymphoid follicles showed features of in situ follicular neoplasia. Based on the observations, a diagnosis of FL-HVCD was made. Although FLHVCD is very rare, the possibility of this variant should be considered in cases resembling CD. Identification of abnormal, neoplastic follicles and ancillary immunostaining are helpful for proper diagnosis.

12.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 57-61, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741208

ABSTRACT

Primary central nervous system lymphoma of T-cell origin (T-PCNSL) is rare, and its clinicopathological features remain unclear. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma of γδ T-cell origin is an aggressive lymphoma mainly involving extranodal sites. Here, we report a case of γδ T-PCNSL involving the intramedullary spinal cord and presenting with paraplegia. A 75-year-old Korean woman visited the hospital complaining of back pain and lower extremity weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multifocal enhancing intramedullary nodular lesions in the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord. An enhancing nodular lesion was observed in the periventricular white matter of the lateral ventricle in the brain. There were no other abnormalities in systemic organs or skin. Laminectomy and tumor removal were performed. The tumor consisted of monomorphic, medium-to-large atypical lymphocytes with pale-to-eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were CD3(+), TCRβF1(-), TCRγ(+), CD30(-), CD4(-), CD8(-), CD56(+), TIA1(+), granzyme B(+), and CD103(+). Epstein-Barr virus in situ was negative. This case represents a unique T-PCNSL of γδ T-cell origin involving the spinal cord.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Back Pain , Brain , Central Nervous System , Cytoplasm , Granzymes , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Laminectomy , Lateral Ventricles , Lower Extremity , Lymphocytes , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, T-Cell , Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Paraplegia , Skin , Spinal Cord Diseases , Spinal Cord , T-Lymphocytes , White Matter
13.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1116-1124, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919139

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Although crizotinib is standard chemotherapy for advanced anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), clinical factors affecting progression-free survival (PFS) have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical factors affecting PFS of crizotinib and develop a prognostic model for advanced ALK-positive NSCLC.@*METHODS@#Clinicopathologic features of patients enrolled in PROFILE 1001, 1005, 1007, and 1014 (training cohort) were reviewed. We conducted multivariate Cox analysis for PFS and overall survival (OS) in the training cohort (n = 159) and generated a proportional hazards model based on significant clinicopathologic factors, and then validated the model in an independent validation cohort (n = 40).@*RESULTS@#In the training cohort, the objective response rate was 81.5%. Median PFS and OS from the start of crizotinib were 12.4 and 31.3 months, respectively. Multivariate Cox analysis showed poor performance status, number of metastatic organs (≥ 3), and no response to crizotinib independently associated shorter PFS. Based on a score derived from these three factors, median PFS and OS of patients with one or two factors were significantly shorter compared to those without these factors (median PFS, 22.4 months vs. 10.5 months vs. 6.5 months; median OS, not reached vs. 29.1 months vs. 11.8 months, respectively; p < 0.001 for each group). This model also had validated in an independent validation cohort.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Performance status, number of metastatic organs, and response to crizotinib affected PFS of crizotinib in ALK-positive NSCLC. Based on these factors, we developed a simple and useful prediction model for PFS.

14.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1313-1323, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Since patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) have favorable outcomes after treatment, treatment de-escalation for these patients is being actively investigated. However, not all HPV-positive HNSCCs are curable, and some patients have a poor prognosis. The purpose of this study was to identify poor prognostic factors in patients with HPV-positive HNSCC.@*METHODS@#Patients who received a diagnosis of HNSCC and tested positive for HPV from 2000 to 2015 at a single hospital site (n = 152) were included in this retrospective analysis. HPV typing was conducted using the HPV DNA chip assay or liquid bead microarray system. Expression of p16 in the tumors was assessed by immunohistochemistry. To determine candidate factors associated with overall survival (OS), univariate and multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed.@*RESULTS@#A total of 152 patients with HPV-positive HNSCC were included in this study; 82.2% were male, 43.4% were current or former smokers, and 84.2% had oropharyngeal cancer. By univariate analysis, old age, performance status ≥ 1, non-oropharyngeal location, advanced T classification (T3–4), and HPV genotype 18 were significantly associated with poor OS. By multivariable analysis, performance status ≥ 1 and non-oropharyngeal location were independently associated with shorter OS (hazard ratio [HR], 4.36, p = 0.015; HR, 11.83, p = 0.002, respectively). Furthermore, HPV genotype 18 positivity was also an independent poor prognostic factor of OS (HR, 10.87, p < 0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Non-oropharyngeal cancer, poor performance status, and HPV genotype 18 were independent poor prognostic factors in patients with HPV-positive HNSCC. Patients with these risk factors might not be candidates for de-escalation treatment.

15.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 885-893, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919028

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#This study was to evaluate the clinical significance of infusion-related reaction (IRR) of rituximab in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients who received R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) as a first-line chemotherapy.@*METHODS@#The medical records of 326 patients diagnosed with DLBCL were re trospectively analyzed. Both doctor's progress records and nursing records were reviewed. IRR was graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria.@*RESULTS@#IRR was not associated with overall survival (OS) or progression-free survival (PFS) of DLBCL patients as compared to those who did not have IRR (OS: median 78.0 months vs. 69.0 months, p = 0.700; PFS: median 65.4 months vs. 64.0 months, p = 0.901). IRR grade did not affect OS or PFS. B symptoms was independently associated with IRR (hazard ratio [HR], 1.850; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.041 to 3.290; p = 0.036). Further, bone marrow involvement was independently associated with re-IRR (HR, 4.904; 95% CI, 0.767 to 3.118; p = 0.029).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Our study shows that IRR of rituximab is not associated with OS or PFS of DLBCL patients who received R-CHOP. Furthermore, our study suggests a need for more careful observation for IRR in patients with B symptoms or bone marrow involvement.

16.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 285-288, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762325

ABSTRACT

An inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a solid tumor of unknown etiology frequently affecting children and young adults and commonly affecting the lung or orbital region. We present a case involving a 41-year-old man who had an IMT combined with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in the retroperitoneum. He presented with only pain in the right lower abdomen without accompanying symptoms; a retroperitoneal mass was found on computed tomography. The tumor had invaded the end of the ileum and was attached to the omentum, so mass excision could not be performed. The tumor was completely excised surgically and had histological features diagnostic of an IMT. Histologic findings of the omentum were positive for Ziehl-Nielsen staining for acid-fast bacilli and for a positive polymerase chain reaction for M. tuberculosis. The patient had no apparent immune disorder. These findings made this case exceptional because IMTs, which are mostly due to atypical mycobacteria, have been found mainly in immunocompromised patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Humans , Young Adult , Abdomen , Ileum , Immune System Diseases , Immunocompromised Host , Inflammation , Lung , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Myofibroblasts , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria , Omentum , Orbit , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Tuberculosis
17.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1231-1240, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763157

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the resistance of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)‒positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to ALK inhibitors and the programmed cell death-1/programmed cell death–ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway, we evaluated alterations in PD-L1 following acquisition of resistance to ALK inhibitors in ALK-positive lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We established ALK inhibitor-resistant cell lines (H3122CR1, LR1, and CH1) by exposing the parental H3122 ALK-translocated NSCLC cell line to ALK inhibitors. Then, the double-resistant cell lines H3122CR1LR1 and CR1CH1 were developed by exposing the H3122CR1 to other ALK inhibitors. We compared the alterations in PD-L1 expression levels using western blotting, flow cytometry, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We also investigated gene expression using RNA sequencing. The expression of PD-L1 in the tumors from 26 ALK-positive metastatic NSCLC patients (11 ALK inhibitor-naïve and 15 ALK inhibitor-resistant patients) was assessed by immunohistochemistry and analyzed. RESULTS: PD-L1 was expressed at higher levels in ALK inhibitor-resistant cell lines than in the ALK inhibitor-naïve parental cell line at the total protein, surface protein, and mRNA levels. Furthermore, PD-L1 expression in the double-resistant cell lines was much higher than that in the single resistant cell lines. RNA sequencing demonstrated that expression of immune-related genes were largely involved in ALK inhibitor resistance. The mean value of the PD-L1 H-score was 6.5 pre-treatment and 35.0 post-treatment, and the fold difference was 5.42 (p=0.163). CONCLUSION: PD-L1 expression increased following acquisition of ALK inhibitor resistance in ALK-positive NSCLC cell lines and tumors.


Subject(s)
Humans , B7-H1 Antigen , Blotting, Western , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Cell Line , Drug Resistance , Flow Cytometry , Gene Expression , Immunohistochemistry , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Lymphoma , Parents , Phosphotransferases , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Sequence Analysis, RNA
18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 202-210, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713102

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Previous retrospective studies suggest that anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) mutation-positive (ALK+) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients are sensitive to pemetrexed. To determine its efficacy, we retrospectively evaluated clinical outcomes of pemetrexed-based chemotherapy in patients with ALK+ NSCLC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 126 patients with advanced, ALK+ NSCLC who received first-line cytotoxic chemotherapy. We compared response, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) rates according to chemotherapy regimens. Furthermore, we evaluated intracranial time to tumor progression (TTP) and proportion of ALK+ cells as prognostic factors. RESULTS: Forty-eight patients received pemetrexed-based chemotherapy, while 78 received other regimens as first-line treatment. The pemetrexed-based chemotherapy group showed superior overall response (44.7% vs. 14.3%, p < 0.001) and disease control (85.1% vs. 62.3%, p=0.008) rates. The pemetrexed-based chemotherapy group also exhibited longer PFS (6.6 months vs. 3.8 months, p < 0.001); OS rates were not significantly different. The lack of exposure to second-generation ALK inhibitors and intracranial metastasis on initial diagnosis were independent negative prognostic factors of OS. Intracranial TTP was similar between the treatment groups (32.7 months vs. 35.7 months, p=0.733). Patients who harbored a greater number of ALK+ tumor cells (≥70%) showed prolonged OS on univariate analysis (not reached vs. 44.8 months, p=0.041), but not on multivariate analysis (hazard ratio: 0.19, 95% confidence interval: 0.03–1.42; p=0.106). CONCLUSION: Pemetrexed-based regimens may prolong PFS in patients with ALK+ NSCLC as a first-line treatment, but are not associated with prolonged OS. Exposure to second-generation ALK inhibitors may improve OS rates in patients with ALK+ NSCLC.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Disease-Free Survival , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Mutation , Pemetrexed/therapeutic use , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
19.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 224-241, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-38102

ABSTRACT

Molecular pathologic testing plays an important role for the diagnosis, prognostication and decision of treatment strategy in lymphoproliferative disease. Here, we briefly review the molecular tests currently used for lymphoproliferative disease and those which will be implicated in clinical practice in the near future. Specifically, this guideline addresses the clonality test for B- and T-cell proliferative lesions, molecular cytogenetic tests for malignant lymphoma, determination of cell-of-origin in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and molecular genetic alterations incorporated in the 2016 revision of the World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms. Finally, a new perspective on the next-generation sequencing for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic purpose in malignant lymphoma will be summarized.


Subject(s)
Classification , Cytogenetics , Diagnosis , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Lymphoproliferative Disorders , Molecular Biology , Pathology, Molecular , T-Lymphocytes , World Health Organization
20.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 518-526, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72545

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential prognostic factors in patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 68 patients who underwent curative surgery and had available tissue were enrolled in this study. Their medical records and pathologic slides were reviewed and immunohistochemistry for basic fibroblast growth factor, fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 2, FGFR3, c-kit, Myb proto-oncogene protein, platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and Ki-67 was performed. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed for determination of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: In univariate analyses, primary site of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus (p=0.022) and Ki-67 expression of more than 7% (p=0.001) were statistically significant factors for poor DFS. Regarding OS, perineural invasion (p=0.032), high expression of VEGF (p=0.033), and high expression of Ki-67 (p=0.007) were poor prognostic factors. In multivariate analyses, primary site of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus (p=0.028) and high expression of Ki-67 (p=0.004) were independent risk factors for poor DFS, and high expression of VEGF (p=0.011) and Ki-67 (p=0.011) showed independent association with poor OS. CONCLUSION: High expression of VEGF and Ki-67 were independent poor prognostic factors for OS in ACC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenoids , Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic , Disease-Free Survival , Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 , Immunohistochemistry , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Nasal Cavity , Prognosis , Proto-Oncogenes , Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor , Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor , Risk Factors , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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