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1.
Allergy, Asthma & Respiratory Disease ; : 167-179, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999256

ABSTRACT

Asthma is an allergic disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the airways, leading to bronchoconstriction and excessive mucus production with symptoms of dyspnea, wheezing, and cough. It involves various underlying mechanisms such as eosinophilic, neutrophilic, mixed, and pauci-cellular, exercise-induced, occupational, and obesity-related asthma. Asthma is a mostly reversible condition involving several cells and cytokines, leading to chronic airway inflammatory responses, and showing the diversity in asthma phenotypes and complexity. Recent advancements using single-cell RNA sequencing allow distinguishing and analyzing RNA sequences at each cellular level within complex and heterogeneous cell groups. This method has also been applied to study asthma mechanisms, enabling us to predict intercellular interactions triggering asthma and identifying cellular changes characterized by specific molecular-cellular phenotypes. In our study, according to the PRISMA (preferred reporting items from systematic review and meta-analysis) guidelines, we systematically reviewed trends in asthma-related immune and structural cell research using single cell RNA sequencing, highlighting potential therapeutic interventions, and pinpointing opportunities for novel biomarker discovery.

2.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e56-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967426

ABSTRACT

Background@#Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are escalating, and their socioeconomic burden is increasing. However, large-scale prospective studies investigating ADRs during hospitalization are rare in Korea. We prospectively investigated the incidence, characteristics, and economic burden of ADRs in hospitalized patients based on electronic medical records (EMRs). @*Methods@#Among patients admitted to three hospitals from October 2016 to October 2017, 5,000 patients were randomly selected and prospectively observed during hospitalization.Research nurses monitored and detected patients who had symptoms, signs, or laboratory findings suspicious for ADRs using an EMR-based detection protocol. Next, allergy and ADR specialists reviewed the medical records to determine the relationship between adverse reactions and drugs. Cases in which a causal relationship was certain, probable/likely, or possible were included in the ADR cases. Clinically meaningful ADR cases or those leading to prolonged hospitalization were defined as significant ADRs. @*Results@#ADRs occurred in 510 (10.2%) patients. The mean length of hospital stay was approximately 5 days longer in patients with ADRs. Opioids accounted for the highest percentage of total ADRs. Significant ADRs were observed in 148 (3.0%) patients. Antibiotics accounted for the highest percentage of significant ADRs. Drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) occurred in 88 (1.8%) patients. Antibiotics accounted for the highest percentage of DHRs. The average medical expenses for one day of hospitalization per patient were highest in significant ADRs, followed by non-significant ADRs, and non-ADRs. @*Conclusion@#ADRs in hospitalized patients are an important clinical issue, resulting in a substantial socioeconomic burden. EMR-based strategy could be a useful tool for ADR monitoring and early detection.

3.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 225-235, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902267

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#In Korea, medications are available by prescription from a physician, or can be purchased over-the-counter (OTC) without a prescription. Education regarding both prescribed and OTC drugs is important to minimize side effects and avoid drug abuse. The risk of side effects due to polypharmacy is increasing due to the growing number of elderly patients with comorbidities. @*Methods@#There are various clinical guidelines for physicians, but it is difficult for patients and their caregivers to find published guidelines regarding drug use. In this regard, experts from nine subspecialties of internal medicine, geriatric medicine, and guideline development methodology formed a working group to develop guidelines for safe drug use under the Clinical Practice Guidelines Committee of the Korean Association of Internal Medicine. @*Results@#The main contents of this guideline are 1) safe and effective drug administration, 2) the proper use of analgesics (acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), 3) the proper use of tranquilizers and sleeping pills to prevent drug abuse, 4) points to be aware of when taking multiple medications. @*Conclusions@#The guidelines were developed for patients and their caregivers to understand the general principles and precautions for drug use, including commonly used painkillers, mood stabilizers, sleeping pills, and polypharmacy. These guidelines could also be used as educational materials for physicians, nurses, and healthcare workers to educate patients and their caregivers.

4.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 447-455, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875469

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Recent evidence suggests an association between allergic sensitization and metabolic markers. However, this association has rarely been examined in the elderly. Retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP-4) is a recently identified adipokine that acts on the muscle and liver affecting insulin sensitivity. We evaluated the association between metabolic parameters and allergic sensitization in the elderly. @*Methods@#We analysed the database of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging cohort study conducted during 2005 to 2006. Atopy was identified by inhalant allergen skin prick test. Metabolic conditions were assessed using anthropometric indices and serum biomarkers such as fasting glucose, lipid, adiponectin, and RBP-4. @*Results@#Among the 854 elderly subjects, 17.2% had atopy. Plasma RBP-4 levels were significantly higher in the atopic elderly than nonatopic elderly (p = 0.003). When RBP-4 percentiles were categorized as under three groups, the prevalence of atopy and current rhinitis increased significantly with percentiles of RBP-4 levels (p = 0.019 and p = 0.007, respectively). Log RBP-4 was associated with atopy (odds ratio [OR], 4.10; p = 0.009) and current rhinitis (OR, 2.73; p = 0.014), but not with current asthma (OR, 1.17; p = 0.824). Higher RBP-4 level in atopic elderly was also observed in current rhinitis patients. Atopy, but not current rhinitis, showed significant relationships with log RBP-4 levels in multivariate analyses adjusted for other metabolic markers including body mass index. @*Conclusions@#RBP-4 positively associated with atopy in the general elderly population irrespective of other metabolic markers.

5.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 225-235, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894563

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#In Korea, medications are available by prescription from a physician, or can be purchased over-the-counter (OTC) without a prescription. Education regarding both prescribed and OTC drugs is important to minimize side effects and avoid drug abuse. The risk of side effects due to polypharmacy is increasing due to the growing number of elderly patients with comorbidities. @*Methods@#There are various clinical guidelines for physicians, but it is difficult for patients and their caregivers to find published guidelines regarding drug use. In this regard, experts from nine subspecialties of internal medicine, geriatric medicine, and guideline development methodology formed a working group to develop guidelines for safe drug use under the Clinical Practice Guidelines Committee of the Korean Association of Internal Medicine. @*Results@#The main contents of this guideline are 1) safe and effective drug administration, 2) the proper use of analgesics (acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), 3) the proper use of tranquilizers and sleeping pills to prevent drug abuse, 4) points to be aware of when taking multiple medications. @*Conclusions@#The guidelines were developed for patients and their caregivers to understand the general principles and precautions for drug use, including commonly used painkillers, mood stabilizers, sleeping pills, and polypharmacy. These guidelines could also be used as educational materials for physicians, nurses, and healthcare workers to educate patients and their caregivers.

6.
Immune Network ; : e19-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890871

ABSTRACT

Clinical and molecular phenotypes of asthma are complex. The main phenotypes of adult asthma are characterized by eosinophil and/or neutrophil cell dominant airway inflammation that represent distinct clinical features. Upper and lower airways constitute a unique system and their interaction shows functional complementarity. Although human upper airway contains various indigenous commensals and opportunistic pathogenic microbiome, imbalance of this interactions lead to pathogen overgrowth and increased inflammation and airway remodeling. Competition for epithelial cell attachment, different susceptibilities to host defense molecules and antimicrobial peptides, and the production of proinflammatory cytokine and pattern recognition receptors possibly determine the pattern of this inflammation. Exposure to environmental factors, including infection, air pollution, smoking is commonly associated with asthma comorbidity, severity, exacerbation and resistance to anti-microbial and steroid treatment, and these effects may also be modulated by host and microbial genetics. Administration of probiotic, antibiotic and corticosteroid treatment for asthma may modify the composition of resident microbiota and clinical features. This review summarizes the effect of some environmental factors on the upper respiratory microbiome, the interaction between host-microbiome, and potential impact of asthma treatment on the composition of the upper airway microbiome.

7.
Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons ; : 445-453, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916026

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Periodontitis is the most common chronic disease that causes tooth loss and is related to systemic diseases such as cardiovascular dis-ease and diabetes. An objective indicator of the current activity of periodontitis is necessary. Soluble forms of the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (sRAGE) are markers that reflect the status of inflammatory diseases. In this study, the relationship between sRAGE and periodontitis was analyzed to determine whether it can be used to diagnose the current state of periodontitis. @*Patients and Methods@#Eighty-four patients without any systemic diseases were diagnosed with periodontitis using three classifications of periodontitis. Demographics and oral examination data such as plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP) index, and probing pocket depth (PPD) were analyzed according to each classification. In addition, correlation and partial correlation between sRAGE and the values indicating periodontitis were analyzed. @*Results@#In each classification, the level of sRAGE tended to decrease if periodontitis was present or severe, but this change was not statistically significant. sRAGE and periodontitis-related variables exhibited a weak correlation, among which the BOP index showed a relatively strong negative cor-relation (ρ=–0.20). Based on this, on analyzing the correlation between the BOP index and sRAGE in the group with more severe periodontitis (PPD≥5 mm group, severe group of AAP/CDC [American Academy of Periodontology/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention], periodontitis group of López), the correlation further increased (ρ=–0.23, –0.40, –0.50). Partial correlation analysis of the sRAGE and BOP index showed a stronger negative correlation (ρ=–0.36, –0.55, –0.45). @*Conclusion@#sRAGE demonstrated a tendency to decrease upon increased severity of periodontitis according to the classifications used. Above all, the correlation with the BOP index, which reflects the current state of periodontitis, was higher in the group with severe periodontitis. This indicates that the current status of periodontitis can be diagnosed through sRAGE.

8.
Allergy, Asthma & Respiratory Disease ; : 225-230, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913322

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Adverse transfusion reactions (ATRs) are unfavorable reactions to the transfused unit, and the severity may be different among individuals, depending upon the type of reactions and the patient’s susceptibility. It is necessary to operate and manage a systematic monitoring system to minimize these ATRs and increase the safety. This study was conducted to evaluate clinical features of transfusion-related adverse events and morbidities. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed transfusion data from electronic medical records during the recent 3 years (April 2017 to April 2020) at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. The electronic search strategy was applied to search for the type of blood products prescribed and identify symptoms that occurred during transfusion as recorded in the nursing chart which is based on the International Classification for Nursing Practice. @*Results@#A total of 18,772 people were transfused during the study period. A total of 524 people were reported as suspected ATRs, of whom 466 were finally confirmed. Red blood cell was the most frequent culprit blood product (59.9%), followed by apheresis platelet (25.1%), fresh frozen plasma (10.1%), and platelet (4.9%). Clinical symptoms included fever (54.9%), urticaria and itching (34.7%), chillness and shivering (21.9%), and chest discomfort (6.0%), dyspnea (5.3%), cold sweating (3.8%), hypotension (2.1%), and palpitations (1.9%). The severity of ATRs were mild (91.8%), moderate (7.1%), and severe (1.1%). @*Conclusion@#ATRs are mostly mild, but life-threatening reactions may occur. Physicians should be aware of various features of ATRs to appropriately recognize and treat such patients.

9.
Allergy, Asthma & Respiratory Disease ; : 245-248, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913319

ABSTRACT

Anaphylaxis is an acute serious systemic allergic reaction that can lead to death, requiring immediate diagnosis and treatment. In particular, food is the most common cause in children, adolescents, and young adults. In addition to physical contact between food and skin, anaphylaxis can also be induced by exposure other than ingestion, such as inhalation of aerosolized food proteins. Korean males undergo medical screening prior to a compulsory military service. A history of possible food allergy requires referral to a specialized allergy clinic. A 19-year-old male patient enlisted in the military was referred to the allergy clinic for an oral provocation test. It was confirmed that anaphylaxis was caused not only by walnut intake, but also by skin contact or by inhaling walnut particles. We report the case with the literature review.

10.
Allergy, Asthma & Respiratory Disease ; : 180-183, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913308

ABSTRACT

Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by genetic deficiency or decreased function of C1-esterase inhibitor. It is characterized by swelling of subcutaneous and submucosal tissues of the extremities, gastrointestinal tract, and upper airways which can be life-threatening. Thus, early recognition and treatment of the disease are important. Short- and longterm prophylaxes are used to decrease the severity and frequency of attacks. Icatibant is a selective bradykinin B2-receptor antagonist, earlier treatment of acute attacks and hospital admission. The authors present a case of 47-year-old woman who was diagnosed with type II HAE, danazol as a long term. Her symptoms improved dramatically after drug treatment. The unpredictability and recurrence of HAE attacks could have a negative impact on social life and quality of life. This case shows that timely and proper treatment could improve quality of life and reduce morbidity and mortality. (

11.
Immune Network ; : e19-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898575

ABSTRACT

Clinical and molecular phenotypes of asthma are complex. The main phenotypes of adult asthma are characterized by eosinophil and/or neutrophil cell dominant airway inflammation that represent distinct clinical features. Upper and lower airways constitute a unique system and their interaction shows functional complementarity. Although human upper airway contains various indigenous commensals and opportunistic pathogenic microbiome, imbalance of this interactions lead to pathogen overgrowth and increased inflammation and airway remodeling. Competition for epithelial cell attachment, different susceptibilities to host defense molecules and antimicrobial peptides, and the production of proinflammatory cytokine and pattern recognition receptors possibly determine the pattern of this inflammation. Exposure to environmental factors, including infection, air pollution, smoking is commonly associated with asthma comorbidity, severity, exacerbation and resistance to anti-microbial and steroid treatment, and these effects may also be modulated by host and microbial genetics. Administration of probiotic, antibiotic and corticosteroid treatment for asthma may modify the composition of resident microbiota and clinical features. This review summarizes the effect of some environmental factors on the upper respiratory microbiome, the interaction between host-microbiome, and potential impact of asthma treatment on the composition of the upper airway microbiome.

12.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 563-578, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896615

ABSTRACT

Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is defined as the occurrence of spontaneous wheals, angioedema, or both for >6 weeks in the absence of specific causes. It is a common condition associated with substantial disease burden both for affected individuals and societies in many countries, including Korea. CSU frequently persists for several years and requires high-intensity treatment; therefore, patients experience deteriorations in quality of life and medication-associated complications. During the last decade, there have been major advances in the pharmacological treatment of CSU and there is an outstanding need for evidence-based guidelines that reflect clinical practice in Korea. The guidelines reported here represent a joint initiative of the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the Korean Dermatological Association, and aim to provide evidence-based guidance for the management of CSU in Korean adults and children. In Part 1, disease definition, guideline scope and development methodology as well as evidence-based recommendations on the use of antihistamines and corticosteroids are summarized.

13.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e72-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892117

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#There could be a gap between asthma management guidelines and current practice. We evaluated the awareness of and compliance with asthma management guidelines, and the internal and external barriers to compliance, for the first time in Korea.@*METHODS@#From March to September of 2012, 364 physicians treating asthma patients at primary, secondary, and tertiary teaching hospitals were enrolled. They completed a questionnaire on the awareness of and compliance with asthma management guidelines, and the barriers and alternatives to their implementation.@*RESULTS@#Of the 364 physicians, 79.1% were men and 56.9% were primary care physicians. The mean age was 40.5 ± 11.2 years. Most of them were aware of asthma management guidelines (89.3%). However, only a portion (11.0%) of them complied with the guidelines for asthma. Pulmonary function tests for diagnosis of asthma were performed by 20.1% of all physicians and 9.2% of primary care physicians, and by 9.9% of all physicians and 5.8% of primary care physicians for monitoring. Physicians stated that ‘asthma monitoring’ was the most difficult part of the guidelines, followed by ‘environmental control and risk factors.’ Only 39.6% (31.9% of the primary care physicians) prescribed an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) as the first-line treatment for persistent asthma. The internal barriers were physician's preference for oral medications, difficulty in use even with inhaler training, and concern over ICS side effects. The external barriers were possible rejection of medical reimbursement by health insurance, refusal by the patient, cost, and a poor environment for teaching the patient how to use the inhaler. Alternatives proposed by physicians to implement asthma management guidelines were to improve medical reimbursement policies and the level of awareness of such guidelines.@*CONCLUSION@#Compliance with the asthma management guidelines, including ICS prescription, is low despite the awareness of the guidelines. It is necessary to develop a strategy to overcome the internal and external barriers.

14.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 563-578, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888911

ABSTRACT

Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is defined as the occurrence of spontaneous wheals, angioedema, or both for >6 weeks in the absence of specific causes. It is a common condition associated with substantial disease burden both for affected individuals and societies in many countries, including Korea. CSU frequently persists for several years and requires high-intensity treatment; therefore, patients experience deteriorations in quality of life and medication-associated complications. During the last decade, there have been major advances in the pharmacological treatment of CSU and there is an outstanding need for evidence-based guidelines that reflect clinical practice in Korea. The guidelines reported here represent a joint initiative of the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the Korean Dermatological Association, and aim to provide evidence-based guidance for the management of CSU in Korean adults and children. In Part 1, disease definition, guideline scope and development methodology as well as evidence-based recommendations on the use of antihistamines and corticosteroids are summarized.

15.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 72-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816658

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There could be a gap between asthma management guidelines and current practice. We evaluated the awareness of and compliance with asthma management guidelines, and the internal and external barriers to compliance, for the first time in Korea.METHODS: From March to September of 2012, 364 physicians treating asthma patients at primary, secondary, and tertiary teaching hospitals were enrolled. They completed a questionnaire on the awareness of and compliance with asthma management guidelines, and the barriers and alternatives to their implementation.RESULTS: Of the 364 physicians, 79.1% were men and 56.9% were primary care physicians. The mean age was 40.5 ± 11.2 years. Most of them were aware of asthma management guidelines (89.3%). However, only a portion (11.0%) of them complied with the guidelines for asthma. Pulmonary function tests for diagnosis of asthma were performed by 20.1% of all physicians and 9.2% of primary care physicians, and by 9.9% of all physicians and 5.8% of primary care physicians for monitoring. Physicians stated that ‘asthma monitoring’ was the most difficult part of the guidelines, followed by ‘environmental control and risk factors.’ Only 39.6% (31.9% of the primary care physicians) prescribed an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) as the first-line treatment for persistent asthma. The internal barriers were physician's preference for oral medications, difficulty in use even with inhaler training, and concern over ICS side effects. The external barriers were possible rejection of medical reimbursement by health insurance, refusal by the patient, cost, and a poor environment for teaching the patient how to use the inhaler. Alternatives proposed by physicians to implement asthma management guidelines were to improve medical reimbursement policies and the level of awareness of such guidelines.CONCLUSION: Compliance with the asthma management guidelines, including ICS prescription, is low despite the awareness of the guidelines. It is necessary to develop a strategy to overcome the internal and external barriers.

16.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): 8-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785457

ABSTRACT

There are geographical, regional, and ethnic differences in the phenotypes and endotypes of patients with drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) in different parts of the world. In Asia, aspects of drug hypersensitivity of regional importance include IgE-mediated allergies and T-cell-mediated reactions, including severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), to beta-lactam antibiotics, antituberculous drugs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and radiocontrast agents. Delabeling of low-risk penicillin allergy using direct oral provocation tests without skin tests have been found to be useful where the drug plausibility of the index reaction is low. Genetic risk associations of relevance to Asia include human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B*1502 with carbamazepine SCAR, and HLA-B*5801 with allopurinol SCAR in some Asian ethnic groups. There remains a lack of safe and accurate diagnostic tests for antituberculous drug allergy, other than relatively high-risk desensitization regimes to first-line antituberculous therapy. NSAID hypersensitivity is common among both adults and children in Asia, with regional differences in phenotype especially among adults. Low dose aspirin desensitization is an important therapeutic modality in individuals with cross-reactive NSAID hypersensitivity and coronary artery disease following percutaneous coronary intervention. Skin testing allows patients with radiocontrast media hypersensitivity to confirm the suspected agent and test for alternatives, especially when contrasted scans are needed for future monitoring of disease relapse or progression, especially cancers.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Humans , Allopurinol , Anaphylaxis , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Asia , Asian People , Aspirin , Asthma , Carbamazepine , Cicatrix , Contrast Media , Coronary Artery Disease , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Drug Hypersensitivity , Ethnicity , Hypersensitivity , Penicillins , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Phenotype , Recurrence , Skin Tests
17.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): 10-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785455

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Anniversaries and Special Events , Asia , Hypersensitivity
18.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): 11-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785454

ABSTRACT

Air pollution, climate change, and reduced biodiversity are major threats to human health with detrimental effects on a variety of chronic noncommunicable diseases in particular respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The extent of air pollution both outdoor and indoor air pollution and climate change including global warming is increasing-to alarming proportions particularly in the developing world especially rapidly industrializing countries worldwide. In recent years, Asia has experienced rapid economic growth and a deteriorating environment and increase in allergic diseases to epidemic proportions. Air pollutant levels in many Asian countries especially in China and India are substantially higher than are those in developed countries. Moreover, industrial, traffic-related, and household biomass combustion, indoor pollutants from chemicals and tobacco are major sources of air pollutants, with increasing burden on respiratory allergies. Here we highlight the major components of outdoor and indoor air pollutants and their impacts on respiratory allergies associated with asthma and allergic rhinitis in the Asia-Pacific region. With Asia-Pacific comprising more than half of the world's population there is an urgent need to increase public awareness, highlight targets for interventions, public advocacy and a call to action to policy makers to implement policy changes towards reducing air pollution with interventions at a population-based level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Administrative Personnel , Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Air Pollution, Indoor , Allergy and Immunology , Asia , Asian People , Asthma , Biodiversity , Biomass , Cardiovascular Diseases , China , Climate Change , Climate , Consumer Advocacy , Developed Countries , Economic Development , Family Characteristics , Global Warming , Hypersensitivity , India , Rhinitis, Allergic , Nicotiana
19.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 714-722, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831861

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Teicoplanin can be used as an alternative to vancomycin when treating beta-lactam-resistant gram-positive bacterial infections. Both vancomycin and teicoplanin are associated with relatively high rates of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), including hypersensitivity reactions. There is limited data on teicoplanin-vancomycin cross-reactivity. This study examined the incidence of teicoplanin ADRs and risk factors for cross-reactivity between vancomycin and teicoplanin. @*Methods@#We analyzed the incidence of teicoplanin ADRs in a retrospective study of 304 newly teicoplanin-exposed, immunocompetent, hospitalized patients at a single Korean Medical Center between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2015. @*Results@#Among 304 patients, 238 (78.3%) experienced vancomycin-associated ADRs prior to their teicoplanin exposure and 58 (19.1%) experienced teicoplanin- associated ADRs, which were mostly hypersensitivity reactions without acute kidney injury. The incidence of teicoplanin ADRs was higher in patients who previously experienced vancomycin-related ADRs (23.1% vs. 5.3%, p < 0.001). History of drug allergy was a statistically significant risk factor of teicoplanin ADRs. The incidence of teicoplanin ADRs significantly increased in patients with multiple organ involvement in vancomycin hypersensitivity reactions. @*Conclusions@#Teicoplanin should be administered with caution and clinicians must consider the risk factors of cross-reaction when prescribing teicoplanin to individuals with a history of vancomycin hypersensitivity.

20.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e72-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899821

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#There could be a gap between asthma management guidelines and current practice. We evaluated the awareness of and compliance with asthma management guidelines, and the internal and external barriers to compliance, for the first time in Korea.@*METHODS@#From March to September of 2012, 364 physicians treating asthma patients at primary, secondary, and tertiary teaching hospitals were enrolled. They completed a questionnaire on the awareness of and compliance with asthma management guidelines, and the barriers and alternatives to their implementation.@*RESULTS@#Of the 364 physicians, 79.1% were men and 56.9% were primary care physicians. The mean age was 40.5 ± 11.2 years. Most of them were aware of asthma management guidelines (89.3%). However, only a portion (11.0%) of them complied with the guidelines for asthma. Pulmonary function tests for diagnosis of asthma were performed by 20.1% of all physicians and 9.2% of primary care physicians, and by 9.9% of all physicians and 5.8% of primary care physicians for monitoring. Physicians stated that ‘asthma monitoring’ was the most difficult part of the guidelines, followed by ‘environmental control and risk factors.’ Only 39.6% (31.9% of the primary care physicians) prescribed an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) as the first-line treatment for persistent asthma. The internal barriers were physician's preference for oral medications, difficulty in use even with inhaler training, and concern over ICS side effects. The external barriers were possible rejection of medical reimbursement by health insurance, refusal by the patient, cost, and a poor environment for teaching the patient how to use the inhaler. Alternatives proposed by physicians to implement asthma management guidelines were to improve medical reimbursement policies and the level of awareness of such guidelines.@*CONCLUSION@#Compliance with the asthma management guidelines, including ICS prescription, is low despite the awareness of the guidelines. It is necessary to develop a strategy to overcome the internal and external barriers.

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