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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925191

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Despite the usefulness of pterional craniotomy (PC), its cosmetic outcome is questionable. Electrocautery (EC) causes injuries to adjacent structures, and it could be a factor that affects the cosmetic outcome. Evaluation of cosmetic outcome is difficult because it is often determined by patient’s subjective criteria. The objective of this study is to compare the cosmetic outcome after EC versus non-electrocautery (NEC) dissection of the temporalis muscle for PC by analyzing long-term follow-up data determined from both physician and patient’s aspects. @*Methods@#Patients at follow-ups between January 2014 and April 2021 after PCs were enrolled. The keyhole (KH) site, the inferior margin of the temporal line of the frontal bone (ITL), the mid-temporal (mid-T) area, and the posterior incision line (PIL) were inspected by a physician to check the presence of depressions. Patient’s cosmetic satisfaction was categorized into satisfactory, intermediate, or unsatisfactory by a survey. The presence of osteolysis was checked from the radiological images. Patients were classified into two groups; one with EC dissection and another with NEC retrograde dissection using a double-ended dissector. @*Results@#The incidences of depression at the mid-T area and osteolysis were higher in the EC group (p=0.001, p<0.001). The percentage of satisfactory cosmetic outcome was lower in the EC group (p=0.002). The presences of depression at the mid-T area and osteolysis were related with lower rate of satisfactory outcomes (p<0.001, p<0.001). @*Conclusions@#NEC dissection causes less destruction to adjacent structures and brings better cosmetic outcome after PC.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915429

ABSTRACT

Background@#Acute ischemic stroke is a time-sensitive disease. Emergency medical service (EMS) prehospital notification of potential patients with stroke could play an important role in improving the in-hospital medical response and timely treatment of patients with acute ischemic stroke. We analyzed the effects of FASTroke, a mobile app that EMS can use to notify hospitals of patients with suspected acute ischemic stroke at the prehospital stage. @*Methods@#We conducted a retrospective observational study of patients diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke at 5 major hospitals in metropolitan Daegu City, Korea, from February 2020 to January 2021. The clinical conditions and time required for managing patients were compared according to whether the EMS employed FASTroke app and further compared the factors by dividing the patients into subgroups according to the preregistration received by the hospitals when using FASTroke app. @*Results@#Of the 563 patients diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke, FASTroke was activated for 200; of these, 93 were preregistered. The FASTroke prenotification showed faster door-tocomputed-tomography times (19 minutes vs. 25 minutes, P < 0.001), faster door-to-intravenousthrombolysis times (37 minutes vs. 48 minutes, P < 0.001), and faster door-to-endovascularthrombectomy times (82 minutes vs. 119 minutes, P < 0.001). The time was further shortened when the preregistration was conducted simultaneously by the receiving hospital. @*Conclusion@#The FASTroke app is an easy and useful tool for prenotification as a regional stroke care system in the metropolitan area, leading to reduced transport and acute ischemic stroke management time and more reperfusion treatment. The effect was more significant when the preregistration was performed jointly.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913767

ABSTRACT

A 25-year-old female presented with a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. She had no previous history of seizures. A brain magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed a solitary enhancing mass in the right fronto-parietal cortex. During surgery, the mass was noted to be pure cortical with no connection to the ventricular lining. The tumor was completely resected. After surgery, the patient had no further seizures. The biopsy result showed a supratentorial ependymoma, which was C11orf95-RELA-fusionpositive.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831020

ABSTRACT

A 69-year-old male presented with a week of worsening headache, mild dizziness and left side weakness,and the radiological work-up of his brain displayed an enhancing mass on the right frontal lobe.The tumor was totally resected. The patient was initially diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme. Hisneurologic symptoms recovered after surgery. He underwent adjuvant radiotherapy with concurrent temozolomide.Approximately 7 months after surgery, the patient complained of epigastric pains. AbdominalCT scan showed multiple hepatic metastasis and multiple lymphadenopathy. Chest CT andTorso positron emission tomography-CT scans for additional metastasis study revealed multiple metastaticlesions in the right lung, left pleura, liver, lymph nodes, bones, and muscles. Percutaneous liverbiopsy was performed, and associated pathology was consistent with sarcomatous component. Afterliver biopsy, brain tumor pathology was reviewed, which revealed typical gliomatous and sarcomatouscomponents. The patient was therefore diagnosed with metastatic gliosarcoma. The patient was in aseptic condition with aggravated pleural effusion. The patient died 9 months after the diagnosis of primarygliosarcoma.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917986

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Burr hole trephination is a common treatment for chronic subdural hematoma, intracranial hematoma, and intraventricular hematoma due to its effective drainage of hematoma, minimal invasiveness and short operation time. However, cosmetic complications such as scalp depression can occur. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of an allogenic acellular dermal matrix (ADM) to prevent scalp depression at the burr hole site. @*Methods@#A retrospective analysis was performed with 75 cases in 66 patients who were treated with burr hole trephination from January 2018 to December 2019. These cases divided into 2 groups; based on the method used to cover the burr hole site: Gelfoam packing only (GPO) and ADM. The degree of the scalp depression was measured from the more recent follow-up brain computed tomography scan. @*Results@#There was a significant difference in the degree of scalp depression between GPO and ADM groups (p=0.003). No significant correlation between patient's age and the degree of scalp depression (GPO: p=0.419, ADM: p=0.790). There were no wound infection complication in either group. @*Conclusion@#ADM is a suitable material to prevent scalp depression after burr hole trephination.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739666

ABSTRACT

Supratentorial extraventricular anaplastic ependymoma (SEAE) in adults is a relatively rare intracranial tumor. Because of the very low prevalence, only a few cases have been reported. According to a recent study, SEAE is associated with a poor prognosis and there is no definite consensus on optimal treatment. We report a case of an adult SEAE patient who had no recurrence until seven years after a gross total resection (GTR) followed by conventional radiotherapy. A 42-year-old male had a persistent mild headache, left facial palsy, dysarthria, and left hemiparesis. Preoperative neuroimaging revealed an anaplastic astrocytoma or supratentorial ependymoma in the right frontal lobe. A GTR was performed, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. Histologic and immunohistochemical results revealed anaplastic ependymoma. After seven years of initial therapy, a regular follow-up MRI showed a 3-cm-sized partially cystic mass in the same area as the initial tumor. The patient underwent a craniotomy, and a GTR was performed. Histopathologic examination revealed recurrence of the SEAE. External radiotherapy was performed. The patient has been stable without any disease progression or complications for 12 months since the surgery for recurrent SEAE.


Subject(s)
Adult , Astrocytoma , Consensus , Craniotomy , Disease Progression , Dysarthria , Ependymoma , Facial Paralysis , Follow-Up Studies , Frontal Lobe , Headache , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Neuroimaging , Paresis , Prevalence , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence , Supratentorial Neoplasms
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714856

ABSTRACT

Dural arteriovenous fistula (D-AVF) at the foramen magnum is an extremely rare disease entity. It produces venous hypertension, and can lead to progressive cervical myelopathy thereafter. On the other hand, the venous hypertension may lead to formation of a venous varix, and it can rarely result in an abrupt onset of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) when the venous varix is ruptured. The diagnosis of D-AVF at the foramen magnum as a cause of SAH may be difficult due to its low incidence. Furthermore, when the D-AVF is fed solely by the ascending pharyngeal artery (APA), it may be missed if the external carotid angiography is not performed. The outcome could be fatal if the fistula is unrecognized. Herein, we report on a rare case of SAH caused by ruptured venous varix due to D-AVF at the foramen magnum fed solely by the APA. A review of relevant literatures is provided, and the treatment modalities and outcomes are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Arteries , Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations , Diagnosis , Fistula , Foramen Magnum , Hand , Hypertension , Incidence , Rare Diseases , Spinal Cord Diseases , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Varicose Veins
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713927

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Patients with traumatic acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) often require surgical treatment. Among patients who primarily underwent craniotomy for the removal of hematoma, some consequently developed aggressive intracranial hypertension and brain edema, and required secondary decompressive craniectomy (DC). To avoid reoperation, we investigated factors which predict the requirement of DC by comparing groups of ASDH patients who did and did not require DC after craniotomy. METHODS: The 129 patients with ASDH who underwent craniotomy from September 2007 to September 2017 were reviewed. Among these patients, 19 patients who needed additional DC (group A) and 105 patients who underwent primary craniotomy only without reoperation (group B) were evaluated. A total of 17 preoperative and intraoperative factors were analyzed and compared statistically. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to compare these factors. RESULTS: Five factors showed significant differences between the two groups. They were the length of midline shifting to maximal subdural hematoma thickness ratio (magnetization transfer [MT] ratio) greater than 1 (p 1, IVH, and TICH on preoperative brain computed tomography images, intraoperative signs of intracranial hypertension, brain edema, and bleeding tendency were identified as factors indicating that DC would be required. The necessity for preemptive DC must be carefully considered in patients with such risk factors.


Subject(s)
Brain , Brain Edema , Cerebral Hemorrhage, Traumatic , Craniotomy , Decompressive Craniectomy , Hematoma , Hematoma, Subdural , Hematoma, Subdural, Acute , Hemorrhage , Humans , Intracranial Hypertension , Multivariate Analysis , Reoperation , Risk Factors
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-144506

ABSTRACT

A basilar artery dissection (BAD) is an extremely rare disease. It can lead to hemorrhage or infarction involving the brain stem, and is often associated with grave outcome. However, little is known about the pathophysiology of BAD, and its proper managements are yet in controversy. Herein, we report on two rare cases of basilar artery dissection from strenuous physical effort; one from sexual intercourse and another from defecation. The treatment modalities and the outcomes are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Basilar Artery , Brain Stem , Coitus , Defecation , Hemorrhage , Infarction , Physical Exertion , Rare Diseases
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-144499

ABSTRACT

A basilar artery dissection (BAD) is an extremely rare disease. It can lead to hemorrhage or infarction involving the brain stem, and is often associated with grave outcome. However, little is known about the pathophysiology of BAD, and its proper managements are yet in controversy. Herein, we report on two rare cases of basilar artery dissection from strenuous physical effort; one from sexual intercourse and another from defecation. The treatment modalities and the outcomes are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Basilar Artery , Brain Stem , Coitus , Defecation , Hemorrhage , Infarction , Physical Exertion , Rare Diseases
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-122134

ABSTRACT

Although the Codman-Hakim programmable valve is one of most popular shunt systems used in the clinical practice for the treatment of hydrocephalus, malfunctions related with this system have been also reported which lead to underdrainage or overdrainage of the cerebrospinal fluid. While obstruction of the ventricular catheter by tissue materials or hematoma and catheter disconnection are relatively common, the malfunction of the valve itself is rare. Herein, we report on a rare case of shunt overdrainage caused by displacement of the pressure control cam after pressure adjustment. A 57-year-old female, who underwent a ventriculoperitoneal shunt eight years ago, experienced aggravating symptoms of shunt overdrainage after pressure adjustment. Displacement of the pressure control cam was revealed on the X-ray, and a shunt revision was performed. The purpose of this report is to provide a working knowledge of the valve structure and to enhance the ability to interpret the valve setting on an X-ray for diagnosis of valve malfunction.


Subject(s)
Catheters , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts , Diagnosis , Equipment Failure , Female , Hematoma , Humans , Hydrocephalus , Middle Aged , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-39566

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the usefulness of ultrasonographic measurement of hyoid bone movement during swallowing. METHODS: Fifty-two patients who had swallowing dysfunction were enrolled in this study. When a patient swallowed 5 mL of water while maintaining an upright sitting position, hyoid bone movement during swallowing was measured with ultrasonography. Recorded images were analyzed to measure the maximum change in hyoid bone displacement. Mandible was used as reference point to calculate hyoid bone displacement. The farthest distance from resting position and the nearest distance during swallowing were measured and their differences were recorded. Participants also underwent videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS). Based on penetration-aspiration scale (PAS), they were grouped to non-aspirators (PAS 1), penetrators (PAS 2-5), or aspirators (PAS 6-8). Measured hyoid bone displacements by submental ultrasonography were compared among groups. RESULTS: The mean hyoid bone displacement in non-aspirators group (n=21, 15.9±2.7 mm) was significantly (p<0.05) greater than that in penetrators group (n=20, 11.5±2.8 mm) or aspirators group (n=11, 8.0±1.0 mm). Hyoid bone displacement below 13.5 mm as a cutoff point for detecting penetration or aspiration had a sensitivity and specificity of 83.9% and 81.0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Submental ultrasonographic evaluation was well correlated with PAS measured by VFSS. Therefore, submental ultrasonographic evaluation could be a useful screening tool for dysphagic patients.


Subject(s)
Deglutition , Deglutition Disorders , Humans , Hyoid Bone , Mandible , Mass Screening , Sensitivity and Specificity , Ultrasonography , Water
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-205819

ABSTRACT

Multiple methods and materials are available for bone defect reconstruction. Bone graft substitute is one of the materials used for reconstruction of bone defect and have been widely used recently. This report describes some cases about complications related to GeneX(R) which is introduced as mixture of calcium sulfate and beta-tricalcium phosphate at manufacturer's official web site. It informed of 3 patients who suffered wound inflammation, serous cyst after using GeneX(R) for reconstructing skull defect.


Subject(s)
Bone Substitutes , Calcium Sulfate , Humans , Inflammation , Postoperative Complications , Skull , Transplants , Wounds and Injuries
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34161

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Pterional craniotomy (PC) using myocutaneous (MC) flap is a simple and efficient technique; however, due to subsequent inferior displacement (ID) of the temporalis muscle, it can cause postoperative deformities of the muscle such as depression along the inferior margin of the temporal line of the frontal bone (DTL) and muscular protrusion at the inferior portion of the temporal fossa (PITF). Herein, we introduce a simple method for reconstruction of the temporalis muscle using a contourable strut plate (CSP) and evaluate its efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients at follow-ups between January 2014 and October 2014 after PCs were enrolled in this study. Their postoperative deformities of the temporalis muscle including ID, DTL, and PITF were evaluated. These PC cases using MC flap were classified according to two groups; one with conventional technique without CSP (MC Only) and another with reconstruction of the temporalis muscle using CSP (MC + CSP). Statistical analyses were performed for comparison between the two groups. RESULTS: Lower incidences of ID of the muscle (p < 0.001), DTL (p < 0.001), and PITF (p = 0.001) were observed in the MC + CSP than in the MC Only group. The incidence of acceptable outcome was markedly higher in the MC + CSP group (p < 0.001). ID was regarded as a causative factor for DTL and PITF (p < 0.001 in both). CONCLUSION: Reconstruction of the temporalis muscle using CSP after MC flap is a simple and efficient technique, which provides an outstanding outcome in terms of anatomical restoration of the temporalis muscle.


Subject(s)
Congenital Abnormalities , Craniotomy , Depression , Follow-Up Studies , Frontal Bone , Humans , Incidence , Myocutaneous Flap
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199640

ABSTRACT

Posturographic examination is commonly used by clinicians to evaluate standing balance. Because it is perfomed with double leg standing, it cannot sensitively detect the minor balance problem like functional ankle instability. This study aims to evaluate the test retest reliability of the single leg balance test using Tetrax posturography and its correlation with modified star excursion balance test (mSEBT). 30 healthy participants (16 male, 14 female, mean age 26.3+/-3.3) were volunteered for this study. We manufactured a specially designed wood plate to assess their single leg standing balance. It was set on each of the 4 force plates of Tetrax posturography (Sunlight Medical Ltd., Ramat Gan, Israel). Stability index were measured based on each single leg stance. Participants performed the single leg balance test on Tetrax posturography in three different times, and they also performed the mSEBT. The test retest reliability of stability index measured by Tetrax posturography was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient, and its correlation with the normalized composite distance of mSEBT was assessed by Pearson correlation coefficient. The single leg balance test using Tetrax posturography showed good test retest reliability. There was a negative correlation between the stability index of Tetrax posturography and the normalized composite distance of mSEBT, based on right and left leg stance, respectively. These findings suggest that Tetrax posturography is a useful and reliable tool for single leg balance assessment.


Subject(s)
Ankle , Ankle Injuries , Female , Humans , Leg , Male , Postural Balance , Proprioception , Wood
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-162345

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous anterior cerebral artery (ACA) dissection, although extremely rare, is often associated with severe morbidity and mortality. It could lead to cerebral hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, or, rarely, combination of hemorrhage and ischemia due to hemodynamic changes. Prompt and accurate diagnosis is essential for determining the appropriate management. However, the optimal treatment for ACA dissection remains controversial. Herein, we report on two rare cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by ACA dissection; a case presenting with simultaneous SAH and infarction without aneurysmal formation and another case presenting with SAH with fusiform aneurysmal formation. A review of the related literature is provided, and optimal treatments for each type of dissection are suggested.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Anterior Cerebral Artery , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Diagnosis , Hemodynamics , Hemorrhage , Infarction , Ischemia , Mortality , Stroke , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155966

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although burr hole trephination is a safe and effective surgical option to treat patients with chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH), it often results in a small but undesirable scalp depression from burr hole defect. This study is to evaluate the efficacy of titanium burr hole cover (BHC) for reconstruction of skull defects in these patients. METHODS: A hundred and ninety-six cases of burr hole trephinations for CSDHs between January 2009 and December 2013 were assigned into two groups; Gelfoam packing only (GPO) and reconstruction using titanium BHC group, according to the modalities of burr hole reconstructions. The incidences and depths of scalp depressions and incidences of postoperative complications such as infections or instrument failures were analyzed in both groups. We also conducted telephone surveys to evaluate the cosmetic and functional outcomes from patient's aspect. RESULTS: Significantly lower incidence (p<0.0001) and smaller mean depth (p<0.0001) of scalp depressions were observed in BHC than GPO group. No statistical differences were seen in postoperative infection rates (p=0.498) between the two groups. There were no instrument failures in BHC group. According to the telephone surveys, 73.9% of respondents with scalp depressions had cosmetic inferiority complexes and 62.3% experienced functional handicaps during activities of daily life. CONCLUSION: Titanium BHC is highly effective for reconstruction of skull defect after burr hole trephination of CSDH, and provides excellent cosmetic and functional outcomes without significant complications.


Subject(s)
Surveys and Questionnaires , Depression , Gelatin Sponge, Absorbable , Hematoma, Subdural, Chronic , Humans , Incidence , Postoperative Complications , Scalp , Skull , Telephone , Titanium , Treatment Outcome , Trephining
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-12570

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) with good initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score 13-15 is generally regarded as a mild head injury. However, the risk increases when significant amount of hematoma with midline shift exists. This study is to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients with good neurological scores in spite of significant amounts of ASDH, and to compare the outcomes according to the treatment modalities. METHODS: Sixty patients with initial GCS score 13-15 in spite of significant amounts of ASDH and midline shifts were enrolled. They were divided into groups according to age, sex, side of location, initial GCS score, midline shift, and hematoma thickness. According to the therapeutic modalities, early craniotomy and initially conserved groups were identified, and initially conserved group was further classified into persistently conserved and delayed operation groups. The outcomes were measured by Glasgow Outcome Scale. RESULTS: Initial GCS score was a significant factor that influenced the final outcome (p=0.001). The outcomes were good in both early craniotomy and initially conserved groups without significant differences (p=0.268). Fifteen of initially conserved 49 patients underwent delayed operations from neurological deteriorations, but the outcomes were good without significant differences from persistently conserved group (p=0.481). CONCLUSION: Initial GCS score is an important factor that influences the clinical outcome. These patients can be conserved under close observations without early preventive craniotomies if no deteriorations are seen in the acute stage. Only those with delayed deteriorations may require simple operations such as burr hole trephinations which still guarantee good outcomes.


Subject(s)
Craniocerebral Trauma , Craniotomy , Glasgow Coma Scale , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Hematoma , Hematoma, Subdural, Acute , Humans
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-61522

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Keyhole craniotomy is a modification of pterional craniotomy that allows for use of a minimally invasive approach toward cerebral aneurysms. Currently, mini-pterional (MPKC) and supraorbital keyhole craniotomies (SOKC) are commonly used. In this study, we measured and compared the geometric configurations of surgical exposure provided by MPKC and SOKC. METHODS: Nine patients underwent MPKC and four underwent SOKC. Their postoperative contrast-enhanced brain computed tomographic scans were evaluated. The transverse and longitudinal diameters and areas of exposure were measured. The locations of the anterior communicating artery, bifurcation of the middle cerebral artery (MCAB), and the internal carotid artery (ICA) terminal were identified, and the working angles and depths for these targets were measured. RESULTS: No significant differences in the transverse diameters of exposure were observed between MPKC and SOKC. However, the longitudinal diameters and the areas were significantly larger, by 1.5 times in MPKC. MPKC provided larger operable working angles for the targets. The angles by MPKC, particularly for the MCAB, reached up to 1.9-fold of those by SOKC. Greater working depths were required in order to reach the targets by SOKC, and the differences were the greatest in the MCAB by 1.6-fold. CONCLUSION: MPKC provides larger exposure than SOKC with a similar length of skin incision. MPKC allows for use of a direct transsylvian approach, and exposes the target in a wide working angle within a short distance. Despite some limitations in exposure, SOKC is suitable for a direct subfrontal approach, and provides a more anteromedial and basal view. MCAB and posteriorly directing ICA terminal aneurysms can be good candidates for MPKC.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Arteries , Brain , Carotid Artery, Internal , Craniotomy , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm , Middle Cerebral Artery , Skin
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-207521

ABSTRACT

Infraoptic anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is an extremely rare congenital anomaly. This anomalous artery usually arises from the intradural internal carotid artery (ICA) near the level of the ophthalmic artery (OA) or rarely from the extradural ICA. This anomaly frequently harbors a cerebral aneurysm, and may involve other coexisting vascular anomalies. In the case of this anomaly, surgical treatment of the aneurysm at the proximal ACA or anterior communicating artery (ACoA) may sometimes be difficult, because the veiled proximal ACA by the optic nerve would make proximal control inconvenient and the vertical midline segment of the proximal ACA would frequently form a superiorly directing aneurysm with a relatively high position. We report on an extremely rare case of a ruptured aneurysm at the infraoptic azygous ACA, possibly having an extradural origin, accompanied by contralateral ICA agenesis, and also introduce a feasible method for treatment by Y-stent assisted coil embolization.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Aneurysm, Ruptured , Anterior Cerebral Artery , Arteries , Carotid Artery, Internal , Intracranial Aneurysm , Ophthalmic Artery , Optic Nerve
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