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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e9-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967428

ABSTRACT

Background@#We evaluated the household secondary attack rate (SAR) of the omicron and delta severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants, according to the vaccination status of the index case and household contacts; further, in vaccinated index cases, we evaluated the effect of the antibody levels on household transmission. @*Methods@#A prospective cross-sectional study of 92 index cases and 197 quarantined household contacts was performed. Tests for SARS-CoV-2 variant type and antibody level were conducted in index cases, and results of polymerase chain reaction tests (during the quarantine period) were collected from contacts. Association of antibody levels in vaccinated index cases and SAR was evaluated by multivariate regression analysis. @*Results@#The SAR was higher in households exposed to omicron variant (42%) than in those exposed to delta variant (27%) (P = 0.040). SAR was 35% and 23% for unvaccinated and vaccinated delta variant exposed contacts, respectively. SAR was 44% and 41% for unvaccinated and vaccinated omicron exposed contacts, respectively. Booster dose immunisation of contacts or vaccination of index cases reduced SAR of vaccinated omicron variant exposed contacts. In a model with adjustment, anti-receptor-binding domain antibody levels in vaccinated index cases were inversely correlated with household transmission of both delta and omicron variants.Neutralising antibody levels had a similar relationship. @*Conclusion@#Immunisation of household members may help to mitigate the current pandemic.

2.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e117-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976933

ABSTRACT

Background@#The largest outbreak of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 occurred at a preschool in South Korea from June 12 to 29, 2020. This study aimed to analyze the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of EHEC infection in this outbreak. @*Methods@#Epidemiological investigation was performed on all 184 children and 19 workers at the preschool using a standard questionnaire to assess symptoms, food intake, attendance, and special activity history. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of confirmed cases was performed to determine genetic relevance. @*Results@#During this outbreak, 103 children were affected, whereas only one infection was identified in adults. Of the 103 pediatric patients, 85 had symptoms (82.5%), including diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloody stool, fever, and vomiting. Thirty-two patients (31.1%) were hospitalized, 15 (14.6%) were diagnosed with hemolytic uremic syndrome, and 4 (3.9%) received dialysis treatment. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis identified 4 genotypes with high genetic relevance (92.3%). Epidemiological investigation revealed that this outbreak might have occurred from ingesting foods stored in a refrigerator with a constant temperature above 10°C, which was conducive to bacterial growth. Despite several measures after outbreak recognition, new infections continued to appear. Therefore, the preschool was forced to close on June 19 to prevent further person-to-person transmission. @*Conclusion@#Our findings from the response to the largest outbreak will help prepare countermeasures against future EHEC outbreak.

3.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e191-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938070

ABSTRACT

Background@#The Korea National Antimicrobial Use Analysis System (KONAS), a benchmarking system for antimicrobial use in hospitals, provides Korean Standardized Antimicrobial Administration Ratio (K-SAAR) for benchmarking. This article describes K-SAAR predictive models to enhance the understanding of K-SAAR, an important benchmarking strategy for antimicrobial usage in KONAS. @*Methods@#We obtained medical insurance claims data for all hospitalized patients aged ≥ 28 days in all secondary and tertiary care hospitals in South Korea (n = 347) from January 2019 to December 2019 from the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service. Modeling was performed to derive a prediction value for antimicrobial use in each institution, which corresponded to the denominator value for calculating K-SAAR. The prediction values of antimicrobial use were modeled separately for each category, for all inpatients and adult patients (aged ≥ 15 years), using stepwise negative binomial regression. @*Results@#The final models for each antimicrobial category were adjusted for different significant risk factors. In the K-SAAR models of all aged patients as well as adult patients, most antimicrobial categories included the number of hospital beds and the number of operations as significant factors, while some antimicrobial categories included mean age for inpatients, hospital type, and the number of patients transferred from other hospitals as significant factors. @*Conclusion@#We developed a model to predict antimicrobial use rates in Korean hospitals, and the model was used as the denominator of the K-SAAR.

4.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 103-111, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901190

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The number of elderly patients in Korea has been on the rise recently, and hence the number of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) elderly patients is also rising. The causes of cardiac arrest for the elderly vary, and, it is difficult to predict the recovery of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in OHCA patients. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to ascertain the predictive value of arterial blood gas analysis (ABGA) results in achieving ROSC in the elderly. @*Methods@#A retrospective analysis of emergency department patients with OHCA was performed at the Kangwon National University Hospital, Korea from 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2019. The initial ABGA results were compared between two patient groups, those who had achieved a return of spontaneous circulation and those who had not. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to elucidate the factors associated with ROSC. @*Results@#Overall, 229 OHCA patients were included in the final analysis. The lactate level was independently related to ROSC. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was plotted to obtain the best cutoff value. The lactate level <9.85 mmol/L showed the largest area under the ROC curve (AUC) to predict ROSC (AUC, 0.666; 95% confidence interval, 0.588-0.743). Multiple regression analysis was performed using the cutoff value, which was a lactate level of 9.85 (odds ratio, 2.907; 95% confidence interval, 1.432-5.902; P=0.003). @*Conclusion@#The ABGA results during the cardiopulmonary resuscitation of OHCA patients, showed that the lactate level was an independent factor associated with ROSC. The lactate cutoff value was 9.85 mmol/L.

5.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 103-111, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893486

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The number of elderly patients in Korea has been on the rise recently, and hence the number of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) elderly patients is also rising. The causes of cardiac arrest for the elderly vary, and, it is difficult to predict the recovery of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in OHCA patients. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to ascertain the predictive value of arterial blood gas analysis (ABGA) results in achieving ROSC in the elderly. @*Methods@#A retrospective analysis of emergency department patients with OHCA was performed at the Kangwon National University Hospital, Korea from 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2019. The initial ABGA results were compared between two patient groups, those who had achieved a return of spontaneous circulation and those who had not. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to elucidate the factors associated with ROSC. @*Results@#Overall, 229 OHCA patients were included in the final analysis. The lactate level was independently related to ROSC. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was plotted to obtain the best cutoff value. The lactate level <9.85 mmol/L showed the largest area under the ROC curve (AUC) to predict ROSC (AUC, 0.666; 95% confidence interval, 0.588-0.743). Multiple regression analysis was performed using the cutoff value, which was a lactate level of 9.85 (odds ratio, 2.907; 95% confidence interval, 1.432-5.902; P=0.003). @*Conclusion@#The ABGA results during the cardiopulmonary resuscitation of OHCA patients, showed that the lactate level was an independent factor associated with ROSC. The lactate cutoff value was 9.85 mmol/L.

6.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 432-446, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916547

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Predicting the incidence of emergency patients can be very important for the efficient use of emergency medical resources and the deployment of 119 centers in a pre-hospital setting. The study was conducted to analyze the occurrence of emergency patients using geographic information systems in a pre-hospital setting in Korea. @*Methods@#The basic data used in this study were collected from the 119 centers in Chuncheon-si, Korea, under the firefighting headquarters in Gangwon-do from January 2012 to December 2016. @*Results@#The total number of patients transferred by 119 paramedics was 72,362. Of these, 9,904 (14.7%) were emergency patients; 519 (0.7%) had cardiovascular diseases; 383 (0.5%) had cerebrovascular diseases; 3,043 (4.2%) were trauma patients; 58,413 (80.7%) were non-emergency patients. The occurrence of emergency diseases was slightly lower in the Hyoja-dong area, and it was slightly higher in the area of the outskirts of the city. The incidence of heart disease was low in the Hyoja-dong and Nam-myeon areas, but the incidence of heart disease was highly observed in other areas. The number of trauma patients was 1,265 (41.6%) in the outskirts of the city, a suburban area, showing a relatively higher incidence than other emerging diseases. @*Conclusion@#The deployment of ambulances in Chuncheon-si should be carried out considering demographic characteristics and patient occurrence.

7.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 52-57, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874312

ABSTRACT

Fumonisin B1 (FB1) structurally resembles sphingolipids and interferes with their metabolism leading to sphingolipid dysregulation. We questioned if FB1 could exacerbate liver or kidney toxicities in glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1) and catalase (Cat) knockout mice. While higher serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and sphinganine (Sa) were measured in Gpx1/Cat knockout mice (Gpx1/Cat KO) than wild type mice after 5 days of FB1 treatment, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), sphingosine-1 phosphate (So-1-P), and sphinganine-1 phosphate (Sa-1-P) were found to be relatively low. Although Sa was highly elevated in Gpx1/Cat KO mice and wild mice, lower levels of So and Sa were found in both the kidney and liver tissues of Gpx/Cat KO mice than wild type mice after FB1 treatment. Paradoxically, FB1-induced cellular apoptosis and necrosis were hastened under oxidative stress in Gpx1/Cat KO mice.

8.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 241-249, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889008

ABSTRACT

Background@#Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile is an important pathogen that causes diarrhea in people who take antibiotics. The recent status of C. difficile infection is not wellknown in Korea. @*Methods@#The long-term trend of C. difficile infection in Korean hospitals was analyzed using a nationwide sample cohort. The data also included sociodemographic characteristics, disease severity, and healthcare facilities. C. difficile infection was defined by the prescription of oral vancomycin or all metronidazole prescriptions under C. difficile infectious disease code (A047). @*Results@#The rate of C. difficile infection has steadily increased from 0.030% in 2006 to 0.317% in 2015. The increased rate correlated to age (0.033% for 80 years of age) and the Charlson comorbidity index score (0.048% for zero versus 0.378% for three or more points). It differed by the type of medical institution (0.270 % at referral hospitals versus 0.056 % at general hospitals and mental hospitals). @*Conclusion@#The rate of C. difficile infection in Korea is significant in patients with advanced age and disease severity. The results show that C. difficile infection trend has been increasing steadily in Korea.

9.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e241-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831528

ABSTRACT

In 2019, a project designed to develop a system for measuring and comparing antibiotic usage in hospitals was launched in Korea. As part of this project, we developed a means to classify antibiotic usage in Korean hospitals using a modified Delphi method. In results, the following categories of antibiotic classification were accepted for use in Korean hospitals: 1) broad-spectrum antibacterial agents predominantly used for hospital-onset infections in adults, 2) broad-spectrum antibacterial agents predominantly used for community-acquired infections in adults, 3) antibacterial agents predominantly used for resistant gram-positive infections in adults, 4) narrow-spectrum beta-lactam agents in adults, 5) antibacterial agents predominantly used for extensive antibiotic resistant gram-negative bacteria in adults, and 6) total antibacterial agents.

10.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 23-38, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834914

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study examined the characteristics of the patients taking poison intentionally at the pre-hospital stage to prevent it at the community level. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the data that had been reported to fire stations from January 2017 to December 2018. This data included sex, age, occupation, the season of the year, time, place, methods, alcohol ingestion, transferred to the hospital or not, and we examined how taking poison had an effect on the suicide success rate. @*Results@#The subjects were a total of 1,356 patients who had been reported to fire stations due to intentionally taking poison. Forty-five point five percent of them were male, and 54.5% were female. The most common method of intentional taking poison was sedatives (58.3%), followed by pesticides (24.6%), antidepressants (19.0%), and other methods (12.6%). The home place was preferred more than any other places. The suicide success rate was 2.1% in males and 1.4% in females. For the age groups, those patients 40-64 years old tried taking poison much more than the other age groups. In the aspect of the season of the year, summer was the highest season for taking poison, at 30.3%. The daytime was more preferred than the night time. @*Conclusion@#In this study, we analyzed the characteristics of the pre-hospital intentional poisoning cases according to gender, age, occupation, season of the year, time, and between the transferred and the untransferred groups. Efforts should be made in cooperation with the community to prevent suicide attempts by intentionally taking poison.

11.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 58-65, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834910

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study analyzed the characteristics of people who attempted suicide that resulted in deaths as compared to that of the suicide survivors. @*Methods@#This study included 799 suicide attempts that occurred from March 1, 2015, to March 31, 2019 at the emergency department of the university hospital in a city of around 300,000 people. Suicide attempts were classified into the survivor and death groups, and the characteristics of each group were compared. The suicide deaths due to re-attempts were also analyzed. @*Results@#There were more males than females in the death groups. There was a high proportion of people aged 50 or older in the death groups. Hanging, carbon monoxide poisoning, and jumping from great heights were the most commonly used methods of suicide in the death groups. In the selected death group, psychiatric symptom, physical illness, and economic problem among the suicidal causes and depressive disorder among the psychiatric diagnoses were factors that increase the risk of suicide death. Sixty-three point four percent of the survival groups and 52.5% of the selected deaths had not received psychiatric care. On the analysis of suicide deaths due to re-attempts, the average number of suicide attempts was 2.45±0.9. The time from the first suicide attempt to the last suicide attempt was 13.8±10.4 months. @*Conclusion@#If it is necessary to make a treatment decision for a suicide attempt in a limited time, such as the case of treating a suicide attempter who visits an emergency department, it is necessary to consider the characteristic factors of the death attempts of suicidal people.

12.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 698-704, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833322

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#With changing fungal epidemiology and azole resistance in Aspergillus species, identifying fungal species and susceptibility patterns is crucial to the management of aspergillosis and mucormycosis. The objectives of this study were to evaluate performance of panfungal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples in the identification of fungal species and in the detection of azole-resistance mutations in the Aspergillus fumigatus cyp51A gene at a South Korean hospital. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 75 FFPE specimens with a histopathological diagnosis of aspergillosis or mucormycosis were identified during the 10-year study period (2006–2015). After deparaffinization and DNA extraction, panfungal PCR assays were conducted on FFPE samples for fungal species identification. The identified fungal species were compared with histopathological diagnosis. On samples identified as A. fumigatus, sequencing to identify frequent mutations in the cyp51A gene [tandem repeat 46 (TR46), L98H, and M220 alterations] that confer azole resistance was performed. @*Results@#Specific fungal DNA was identified in 31 (41.3%) FFPE samples, and of these, 16 samples of specific fungal DNA were in accord with a histopathological diagnosis of aspergillosis or mucormycosis; 15 samples had discordant histopathology and PCR results. No azole-mediating cyp51A gene mutation was noted among nine cases of aspergillosis. Moreover, no cyp51A mutations were identified among three cases with history of prior azole use. @*Conclusion@#Panfungal PCR assay with FFPE samples may provide additional information of use to fungal species identification. No azole-resistance mediating mutations in the A. fumigatus cyp51A gene were identified among FFPE samples during study period.

13.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 241-249, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896712

ABSTRACT

Background@#Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile is an important pathogen that causes diarrhea in people who take antibiotics. The recent status of C. difficile infection is not wellknown in Korea. @*Methods@#The long-term trend of C. difficile infection in Korean hospitals was analyzed using a nationwide sample cohort. The data also included sociodemographic characteristics, disease severity, and healthcare facilities. C. difficile infection was defined by the prescription of oral vancomycin or all metronidazole prescriptions under C. difficile infectious disease code (A047). @*Results@#The rate of C. difficile infection has steadily increased from 0.030% in 2006 to 0.317% in 2015. The increased rate correlated to age (0.033% for 80 years of age) and the Charlson comorbidity index score (0.048% for zero versus 0.378% for three or more points). It differed by the type of medical institution (0.270 % at referral hospitals versus 0.056 % at general hospitals and mental hospitals). @*Conclusion@#The rate of C. difficile infection in Korea is significant in patients with advanced age and disease severity. The results show that C. difficile infection trend has been increasing steadily in Korea.

14.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 164-168, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762470

ABSTRACT

Active surveillance culture (ASC) can help detect hidden reservoirs, but the routine use of ASC for extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is controversial in an endemic situation. We aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (EBSL-Kpn) colonization among intensive care unit (ICU)-admitted patients. Prospective screening of ESBL-Kpn colonization was performed for ICU-admitted patients within 48 hours for two months. A perirectal swab sample was inoculated on MacConkey agar supplemented with 2 µg/mL ceftazidime. ESBL genotype was determined by PCR-sequencing, and clonal relatedness was evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The risk factors of ESBL-Kpn colonization were evaluated. The ESBL-Kpn colonization rate among the 281 patients at ICU admission was 6.4% (18/281), and bla(CTX-M-15) was detected in all isolates. ESBL producers also showed resistance to fluoroquinolone (38.9%, 7/18). All isolates had the same ESBL genotype (bla(CTX-M-15)) and a highly clustered PFGE pattern, suggesting cross-transmission without a documented outbreak. In univariate analysis, the risk factor for ESBL-Kpn colonization over the control was the length of hospital stay (odds ratio=1.062; P=0.019). Routine use of ASC could help control endemic ESBL–Kpn for ICU patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Agar , Ceftazidime , Colon , Critical Care , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Enterobacteriaceae , Genotype , Intensive Care Units , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Klebsiella , Length of Stay , Mass Screening , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
15.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 209-215, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785399

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae poses a critical threat to public health, rapid detection of carbapenemase genes is urgently required for prompt initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy and infection control. We evaluated the performance of Xpert Carba-R v.2 (Cepheid, USA) compared with that of culture-based conventional PCR.METHODS: Using the results of 5,479 consecutive clinical rectal swabs, discrepant analysis (enriched culture followed by PCR) was performed for all discordant samples (N=100), which were Carba-R v.2-positive and culture-negative.RESULTS: Among the samples, 206 carbapenemase genes (3.6%) were detected by Carba-R v.2. The sensitivity and specificity were 95.0% and 98.1%, respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 49.0% and 99.9%, respectively. Following discrepant analysis, the PPV increased to 73.5% and the low PPV (8.1%) of the 86 non-KPC improved to 48.8%. Among the 105 discrepancies, NDM was the most frequently observed (N=56), followed by KPC (N=26), VIM (N=10), IMP (N=8), OXA-48 (N=5). The threshold cycle values between discordant vs. concordant and resolved groups were significantly different (P<0.001).CONCLUSIONS: Carba-R v.2 is a rapid and sensitive method for detecting carbapenemase-encoding genes compared with culture-based conventional PCR. Most of our discrepant results were non-KPC genes. Thus, the clinical significance of the non-KPC positive cases detected by Carba-R v.2 should be investigated. This assay would be useful for deciding whether to isolate pre-exposed patients in hospital settings, based on the high specificity and NPV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Enterobacteriaceae , Infection Control , Korea , Methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Public Health , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 170-178, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786530

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Annual influenza vaccination is the best strategy to prevent healthcare-associated influenza transmission. Influenza vaccination rates among healthcare workers (HCWs) vary by country, region, and year. We investigated the influenza vaccination rates for HCWs during the 2017–2018 influenza season in South Korea, where a non-mandatory vaccination campaign was conducted.METHODS: We retrospectively investigated factors affecting the influenza vaccination rate among HCWs during the 2017–2018 influenza season in three tertiary hospitals in Goyang City, where the non-mandatory influenza vaccination program is conducted.RESULTS: Consequently, 6,994 of 7,180 HCWs (97%) were included, and the overall vaccination rate was 85%. Nurses had the highest rate with 92%, followed by health technicians (88%), physicians (84%), and non-medical HCWs (79%, P<0.001). Vaccination rates differed, depending on the frequency of contact with patients in the non-medical HCWs (frequent contact vs. less-frequent contact; 90% vs. 73%, P<0.001).CONCLUSIONS: The influenza vaccination rate among HCWs during the 2017–2018 influenza season in Korea was 85%, which is among the highest rates compared with previously reported non-mandatory vaccination rates in other countries. The vaccination rate may vary depending on the HCW's occupational characteristics, including the extent of contact with the patient. Therefore, a multifaceted strategy is needed to increase the vaccination rate of HCWs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Delivery of Health Care , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Korea , Mass Vaccination , Retrospective Studies , Seasons , Tertiary Care Centers , Vaccination
17.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 687-698, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719085

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the characteristics of suicidal attempters, including pre-hospital patients and those who visited the emergency department. METHODS: Suicidal attempters who had been reported to the 119 call center were selected between July 2015 and June 2016. Sex, age, place, methods of suicidal attempt, season, time, and suicide success rate were reviewed in the fire center records. RESULTS: A total 961 suicide attempters were enrolled. Among them, 53.6% were males who had an approximately 2.6 times higher mortality than that of females (9.2%). The most preferred place to commit suicide was the home in both sexes (68.0% in male, 82.8% in female) and the most preferred methods was drug intoxication, particularly pesticide. The method with the highest mortality was hanging and the lowest was self-harm. The season of the highest mortality was spring. The success of suicide and the time variation were similar. Most of the un-transferred patients also selected fatal suicide attempts compared to transfer patients. CONCLUSION: Unlike previous studies, this study includes information on un-transferred patients. Overall, the probability of death was highest as more than 50 years men chose hanging as a method, which had an influence on the un-transferred patients group.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Service, Hospital , Fires , Methods , Mortality , Seasons , Suicide , Treatment Refusal
18.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 28-35, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715235

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the present study, the prevalence and risk factors for acquisition of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in intensive care unit (ICU) settings without outbreak in the situation of widespread sequence type (ST) 131 ESBL-producing E. coli in a Korean community was investigated. METHODS: Consecutive and prospective screening of ESBL-producing E. coli colonization was performed in all patients admitted to surgical or medical ICUs within 48 hours for two months. ESBL genotype was determined based on PCR and sequencing. PCR for O16-ST131/O25-ST131 was performed for all ESBL producers. Clinical information was obtained from a review of electronic medical record to determine the risk factors for ESBL-producing E. coli colonization. RESULTS: The colonization rate of ESBL-producing E. coli at ICU admission was 14.9% (42/281). CTX-M-15 (N=15), CTX-M-14 (N=12), and CTX-M-27 (N=10) were commonly detected using PCR of ESBL genes. Approximately half (45.2%, 19/42) of ESBL producers were ST131 clone with 14 ST131-O25 and 5 ST131-O16. In univariate analysis, independent risk factor for acquisition of ESBL-producing E. coli compared with controls was ICU type (odds ratio, 2.05; P < 0.032); however, site of acquisition, previous antibiotic use, and hospital stay were not significant risk factors. CONCLUSION: In this study, the colonization of ESBL-producing E. coli at ICU admission without outbreak was frequent and it could be an infection source, regardless of acquisition site. We recommend routine use of ASC to control endemic ESBL-producing E. coli considering the wide distribution of ST131-ESBL-producing E. coli in the Korean community.


Subject(s)
Humans , Clone Cells , Colon , Electronic Health Records , Escherichia coli , Escherichia , Genotype , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Mass Screening , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
20.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 247-255, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713549

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance is becoming one of the greatest challenges to public health worldwide. Infections by antimicrobial-resistant organisms could result in the failure of treatment, increased medical costs, prolonged hospital stays, and an increased socioeconomic burden. Antimicrobial usage in Korea remains heavy, even after much effort to reduce their use. According to the Korean antimicrobial resistance surveillance system, the resistance rates of many bacteria are increasing. The resistance rate of Acinetobacter baumannii to imipenem in Korea increased to 85% in 2015, representing a major public threat. The reports of increased carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae are worrisome. More importantly, some carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae may result from the production of carbapenemases, which break down carbapenems. There are relatively few treatment options for extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Most reports are retrospective observational studies. Because there are little published data from randomized controlled trials, more data assessing antimicrobial treatment for extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are needed to make treatment recommendations.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , Bacteria , Carbapenems , Drug Resistance , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae , Epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Imipenem , Korea , Length of Stay , Public Health , Retrospective Studies
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