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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719635

ABSTRACT

Most diabetic patients experience diabetic mellitus (DM) urinary bladder dysfunction. A number of studies evaluate bladder smooth muscle contraction in DM. In this study, we evaluated the change of bladder smooth muscle contraction between normal rats and DM rats. Furthermore, we used pharmacological inhibitors to determine the differences in the signaling pathways between normal and DM rats. Rats in the DM group received an intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin and measured blood glucose level after 14 days to confirm DM. Bladder smooth muscle contraction was induced using acetylcholine (ACh, 10⁻⁴ M). The materials such as, atropine (a muscarinic receptor antagonist), U73122 (a phospholipase C inhibitor), DPCPX (an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist), udenafil (a PDE5 inhibitor), prazosin (an α₁-receptor antagonist), papaverine (a smooth muscle relaxant), verapamil (a calcium channel blocker), and chelerythrine (a protein kinase C inhibitor) were pre-treated in bladder smooth muscle. We found that the DM rats had lower bladder smooth muscle contractility than normal rats. When prazosin, udenafil, verapamil, and U73122 were pre-treated, there were significant differences between normal and DM rats. Taken together, it was concluded that the change of intracellular Ca²⁺ release mediated by PLC/IP3 and PDE5 activity were responsible for decreased bladder smooth muscle contractility in DM rats.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Animals , Atropine , Blood Glucose , Calcium Channels , Humans , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Muscle, Smooth , Papaverine , Prazosin , Protein Kinase C , Rats , Receptor, Adenosine A1 , Receptors, Muscarinic , Streptozocin , Type C Phospholipases , Urinary Bladder , Verapamil
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761790

ABSTRACT

Hydrogen sulfide is well-known to exhibit anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective activities, and also has protective effects in the liver. This study aimed to examine the protective effect of hydrogen sulfide in rats with hepatic encephalopathy, which was induced by mild bile duct ligation. In this rat model, bile ducts were mildly ligated for 26 days. Rats were treated for the final 5 days with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). NaHS (25 µmol/kg), 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, or silymarin (100 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally once per day for 5 consecutive days. Mild bile duct ligation caused hepatotoxicity and inflammation in rats. Intraperitoneal NaHS administration reduced levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, which are indicators of liver disease, compared to levels in the control mild bile duct ligation group. Levels of ammonia, a major causative factor of hepatic encephalopathy, were also significantly decreased. Malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, catalase, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were measured to confirm antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors with neurotoxic activity were assessed for subunit NMDA receptor subtype 2B. Based on these data, NaHS is suggested to exhibit hepatoprotective effects and guard against neurotoxicity through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Ammonia , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Bile Ducts , Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium , Catalase , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Hydrogen Sulfide , Inflammation , Ligation , Liver , Liver Diseases , Malondialdehyde , Models, Animal , N-Methylaspartate , Necrosis , Peroxidase , Rats , Silymarin , Sodium
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727866

ABSTRACT

Bladder dysfunction is a common complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). However, there have been a few studies evaluating bladder smooth muscle contraction in DM in the presence of pharmacological inhibitors. In the present study, we compared the contractility of bladder smooth muscle from normal rats and DM rats. Furthermore, we utilized pharmacological inhibitors to delineate the mechanisms underlying bladder muscle differences between normal and DM rats. DM was established in 14 days after using a single injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Bladder smooth muscle contraction was induced electrically using electrical field stimulation consisting of pulse trains at an amplitude of 40 V and pulse duration of 1 ms at frequencies of 2–10 Hz. In this study, the pharmacological inhibitors atropine (muscarinic receptor antagonist), U73122 (phospholipase C inhibitor), DPCPX (adenosine A₁ receptor antagonist), udenafil (PDE5 inhibitor), prazosin (α₁-receptor antagonist), verapamil (calcium channel blocker), and chelerythrine (protein kinase C inhibitor) were used to pretreat bladder smooth muscles. It was found that the contractility of bladder smooth muscles from DM rats was lower than that of normal rats. In addition, there were significant differences in percent change of contractility between normal and DM rats following pretreatment with prazosin, udenafil, verapamil, and U73122. In conclusion, we suggest that the decreased bladder muscle contractility in DM rats was a result of perturbations in PLC/IP₃-mediated intracellular Ca²⁺ release and PDE5 activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Atropine , Diabetes Mellitus , Muscle, Smooth , Phosphotransferases , Prazosin , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Streptozocin , Type C Phospholipases , Urinary Bladder , Verapamil
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727503

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated the protective action of glucuronopyranoside flavonoids (QGC, AGC, LGC) on gastritis in rats. QGC, AGC and omeprazole decreased the gastric volume significantly, and each ID50 was 0.75, 0.54 and 8.5 mg/kg, respectively, thus the order of potency was AGC, QGC and omeprazole. They also decreased acid output, and each ID50 was 7.81, 0.58 and 6.71 mg/kg, respectively, thus the order of potency was AGC, omeprazole and QGC. They inhibited gastritis induced by indomethacin, and it recovered significantly by increasing the GSH levels in gastritis. The gastric MPO activity in the gastritis group increased more than in the normal group. QGC, LGC, or AGC administration reduced moderately the MPO activity in a dose-dependent manner. This study demonstrated that AGC, QGC, or LGC showed potent efficacy on the gastritis, by preventing oxidative stress. These results suggest that QGC, AGC, or LGC have gastroprotective effect in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Flavonoids , Gastritis , Indomethacin , Lipid Peroxidation , Omeprazole , Oxidative Stress , Rats
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727494

ABSTRACT

This study investigated effect of extract containing quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside from Rumex Aquaticus Herba (ECQ) against chronic gastritis in rats. To produce chronic gastritis, the animals received a daily intra-gastric administration of 0.1 ml of 0.15% iodoacetamide (IA) solution for 7 days. Daily exposure of the gastric mucosa to IA induced both gastric lesions and significant reductions of body weight and food and water intake. These reductions recovered with treatment with ECQ for 7 days. ECQ significantly inhibited the elevation of the malondialdehyde levels and myeloperoxidase activity, which were used as indices of lipid peroxidation and neutrophil infiltration. ECQ recovered the level of glutathione, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and expression of SOD-2. The increased levels of total NO concentration and iNOS expression in the IA-induced chronic gastritis were significantly reduced by treatment with ECQ. These results suggest that the ECQ has a therapeutic effect on chronic gastritis in rats by inhibitory actions on neutrophil infiltration, lipid peroxidation and various steps of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight , Drinking , Gastric Mucosa , Gastritis , Glutathione , Iodoacetamide , Lipid Peroxidation , Malondialdehyde , Neutrophil Infiltration , Peroxidase , Quercetin , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species , Rumex , Superoxide Dismutase
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728303

ABSTRACT

In this study, we focused to identify whether eupatilin (5,7-dihydroxy-3',4',6-trimethoxyflavone), an extract from Artemisia argyi folium, prevents H2O2-induced injury of cultured feline esophageal epithelial cells. Cell viability was measured by the conventional MTT reduction assay. Western blot analysis was performed to investigate the expression of 5-lipoxygenase by H2O2 treatment in the absence and presence of inhibitors. When cells were exposed to 600 microM H2O2 for 24 hours, cell viability was decreased to 40%. However, when cells were pretreated with 25~150 microM eupatilin for 12 hours, viability was significantly restored in a concentration-dependent manner. H2O2-treated cells were shown to express 5-lipoxygenase, whereas the cells pretreated with eupatilin exhibited reduction in the expression of 5-lipoxygenase. The H2O2-induced increase of 5-lipoxygenase expression was prevented by SB202190, SP600125, or NAC. We further demonstrated that the level of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) was also reduced by eupatilin, SB202190, SP600125, NAC, or nordihydroguaiaretic acid (a lipoxygenase inhibitor) pretreatment. H2O2 induced the activation of p38MAPK and JNK, this activation was inhibited by eupatilin. These results indicate that eupatilin may reduce H2O2-induced cytotoxicity, and 5-lipoxygenase expression and LTB4 production by controlling the p38 MAPK and JNK signaling pathways through antioxidative action in feline esophageal epithelial cells.


Subject(s)
Anthracenes , Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase , Artemisia , Blotting, Western , Cell Survival , Epithelial Cells , Flavonoids , Hydrogen , Hydrogen Peroxide , Imidazoles , Leukotriene B4 , Lipoxygenase , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Masoprocol , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Pyridines
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728189

ABSTRACT

We investigated inhibitory effects of extract containing quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside (ECQ) extracted from Rumex Aquaticus Herba on indomethacin-induced gastric damage in Rats. Gastritis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats (200~220 g) by oral administration of indomethacin at a dose of 40 mg/kg. One hour before administration of indomethacin, animals were orally pretreated with ECQ at doses of 0.3, 1, 3 or 10 mg/kg. Six hours after indomethacin administration, the rats were sacrificed and the stomach was excised and opened along the greater curvature, and the surface area of gastric lesion was measured using optical microscope. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured by ELISA. Western blot analysis was performed to detect protein expression of SOD-2. Linear hemorrhagic mucosal lesions were observed in the stomach 6 hours after oral administration of indomethacin. Pretreatment with ECQ significantly reduced the severity of the lesions in a dose-dependent manner. It also inhibited the reductions in SOD and CAT activities and SOD expression by the indomethacin-induced gastric damage. In addition, the pretreatment with ECQ significantly suppressed the elevation of the MPO activity and the MDA levels induced by indomethacin. These results suggest that ECQ has the inhibitory effects via antioxidative action against indomethacin-induced gastritis in rats.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Blotting, Western , Catalase , Cats , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Gastritis , Humans , Indomethacin , Male , Malondialdehyde , Peroxidase , Quercetin , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rumex , Stomach , Superoxide Dismutase
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