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1.
Intestinal Research ; : 420-432, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000600

ABSTRACT

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a progressive cholestatic, inflammatory, and fibrotic disease that is strongly associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). PSC-IBD represents a unique disease entity and patients with this disease have an increased risk of malignancy development, such as colorectal cancer and cholangiocarcinoma. The pathogenesis of PSC-IBD involves genetic and environmental factors such as gut dysbiosis and bile acids alteration. However, despite the advancement of disease characteristics, no effective medical therapy has proven to have a significant impact on the prognosis of PSC. The treatment options for patients with PSC-IBD do not differ from those for patients with PSC alone. Potential candidate drugs have been developed based on the pathogenesis of PSC-IBD, such as those that target modulation of bile acids, inflammation, fibrosis, and gut dysbiosis. In this review, we summarize the current medical treatments for PSC-IBD and the status of new emerging therapeutic agents.

2.
Intestinal Research ; : 137-147, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967007

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We investigated the real-world effectiveness and safety of ustekinumab (UST) as induction treatment for Koreans with Crohn’s disease (CD). @*Methods@#CD patients who started UST were prospectively enrolled from 4 hospitals in Korea. All enrolled patients received intravenous UST infusion at week 0 and subcutaneous UST injection at week 8. Clinical outcomes were assessed using Crohn’s Disease Activity Index (CDAI) scores at weeks 8 and 20 among patients with active disease (CDAI ≥150) at baseline. Clinical remission was defined as a CDAI <150, and clinical response was defined as a reduction in CDAI ≥70 points from baseline. Safety and factors associated with clinical remission at week 20 were also analyzed. @*Results@#Sixty-five patients were enrolled between January 2019 and December 2020. Among 49 patients with active disease at baseline (CDAI ≥150), clinical remission and clinical response at week 8 were achieved in 26 (53.1%) and 30 (61.2%) patients, respectively. At week 20, 27 (55.1%) and 35 (71.4%) patients achieved clinical remission and clinical response, respectively. Twenty-seven patients (41.5%) experienced adverse events, with serious adverse events in 3 patients (4.6%). One patient (1.5%) stopped UST therapy due to poor response. Underweight (body mass index <18.5 kg/m2) (odds ratio [OR], 0.085; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.014–0.498; P=0.006) and elevated C-reactive protein at baseline (OR, 0.133; 95% CI, 0.022–0.823; P=0.030) were inversely associated with clinical remission at week 20. @*Conclusions@#UST was effective and well-tolerated as induction therapy for Korean patients with CD.

3.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 233-243, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939071

ABSTRACT

Colonic diverticulosis is one of the most common conditions of the digestive system and patients generally remain asymptomatic. However, about 20% of patients develop symptomatic diverticular disease such as acute diverticulitis or diverticular hemorrhage, and these have become a huge burden on healthcare systems worldwide. Recent understanding of the pathophysiology of diverticulosis and diverticular disease suggests the role of multiple factors including genetic and environment. Based on this understanding, a preventive strategy to reduce the risk factors of diverticulosis and diverticular disease is highly recommended. The diagnosis of the acute diverticulitis relies on imaging modalities such as an abdominal-pelvic CT scan together with symptoms and signs. Treatment of diverticular disease should be individualized and include modification of lifestyle, use of antibiotics, and surgery. Recent guidelines recommend pursuing less aggressive treatment for patients with acute diverticulitis. This review will provide an overview of both the existing and evolving understanding regarding colonic diverticulosis and diverticular disease and can help clinicians in the management of their patients with diverticular disease.

4.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 85-92, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939055

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Recently, 1-L polyethylene glycol-ascorbic acid (PEG-Asc) has been used to reduce the volume of preparation agents in colonoscopy. This clinical trial aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of two types of 1-L PEG-Asc (CleanViewAL ® [Tae Joon Pharmaceutical Company, Seoul, Korea] and Plenvu ® [Norgine, Harefield, United Kingdom]) in average-aged adults. @*Methods@#This study was a prospective, randomized, non-inferiority, open-label, phase 4 clinical trial. The primary endpoint was the efficacy evaluated using the Boston bowel preparation scale (BBPS), and the secondary endpoint was clinical safety. @*Results@#In total, 173 patients were assigned to either the CleanViewAL ® (n=84) or Plenvu ® (n=89) group. Overall cleansing successes of 97.6% (82/84) and 98.8% (88/89) were achieved in the CleanViewAL ® group and in the Plenvu ® group, respectively, showing that CleanViewAL ® has similar bowel cleansing efficacy to Plenvu ® (95% CI, -0.052 to 0.027; p=0.207). The total BBPS score was 8.67±1.00 and 8.70±0.76 in the CleanViewAL ® group and Plenvu ® group, respectively (p=0.869). The most common adverse symptom was nausea, and no adverse symptoms requiring hospitalization were reported in either group. There were no cases of critical hypernatremia and liver dysfunction exceeding the common terminology criteria for adverse events grade I. An overall satisfaction score (scale of 1 to 10) showed no difference between the two groups (p=0.289). However, the CleanViewAL ® group showed a higher taste satisfaction score (scale of 1 to 5) than the Plenvu ® group (CleanViewAL ® : 2.90±0.91, Plenvu ® : 2.60±0.86, p=0.028). @*Conclusions@#Both types of 1-L PEG-Asc, CleanViewAL ® and Plenvu ® , are effective and safe bowel cleansing agents in average-aged adults. CleanViewAL ® was preferred in terms of taste satisfaction.

5.
Intestinal Research ; : 321-328, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937723

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Nutritional status influences quality of life among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), although there is no clear method to evaluate nutritional status in this setting. Therefore, this study examined whether bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) could be used to evaluate the nutritional status of patients with IBD. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed data from 139 Korean patients with IBD who were treated between November 2018 and November 2019. Patients were categorized as having active or inactive IBD based on the Harvey-Bradshaw index (a score of ≥5 indicates active Crohn’s disease) and the partial Mayo scoring index (a score of ≥2 indicates active ulcerative colitis). BIA results and serum nutritional markers were analyzed according to disease activity. @*Results@#The mean patient age was 45.11±17.71 years. The study included 47 patients with ulcerative colitis and 92 patients with Crohn’s disease. Relative to the group with active disease (n=72), the group with inactive disease (n=67) had significantly higher values for hemoglobin (P<0.001), total protein (P<0.001), and albumin (P<0.001). Furthermore, the group with inactive disease had higher BIA values for body moisture (P=0.047), muscle mass (P=0.046), skeletal muscle mass (P=0.042), body mass index (P=0.027), and mineral content (P=0.034). Moreover, the serum nutritional markers were positively correlated with the BIA results. @*Conclusions@#Nutritional markers evaluated using BIA were correlated with serum nutritional markers and inversely correlated with disease activity. Therefore, we suggest that BIA may be a useful tool that can help existing nutritional tests monitor the nutritional status of IBD patients.

6.
Intestinal Research ; : 350-360, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937722

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study assessed the efficacy and safety of adalimumab (ADA) and explored predictors of response in Korean patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). @*Methods@#A prospective, observational, multicenter study was conducted over 56 weeks in adult patients with moderately to severely active UC who received ADA. Clinical response, remission, and mucosal healing were assessed using the Mayo score. @*Results@#A total of 146 patients were enrolled from 17 academic hospitals. Clinical response rates were 52.1% and 37.7% and clinical remission rates were 24.0% and 22.0% at weeks 8 and 56, respectively. Mucosal healing rates were 39.0% and 30.1% at weeks 8 and 56, respectively. Prior use of anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF-α) did not affect clinical and endoscopic responses. The ADA drug level was significantly higher in patients with better outcomes at week 8 (P<0.05). In patients with lower endoscopic activity, higher body mass index, and higher serum albumin levels at baseline, the clinical response rate was higher at week 8. In patients with lower Mayo scores and C-reactive protein levels, clinical responses, and mucosal healing at week 8, the clinical response rate was higher at week 56. Serious adverse drug reactions were identified in 2.8% of patients. @*Conclusions@#ADA is effective and safe for induction and maintenance in Korean patients with UC, regardless of prior anti-TNF-α therapy. The ADA drug level is associated with the efficacy of induction therapy. Patients with better short-term outcomes were predictive of those with an improved long-term response.

7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e38-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915493

ABSTRACT

Background@#The interest in Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) has increased, and the choice of assays became wider since the first national survey in Korea on CDI diagnosis in 2015. We conducted a survey of the domestic CDI assays with more varied questions to understand the current situation in Korea. @*Methods@#In April 2018, about 50 questions on the current status of CDI assays and details on implementation and perceptions were written, and a survey questionnaire was administered to laboratory medicine specialists in 200 institutions. @*Results@#One-hundred and fifty institutions responded to the questionnaire, of which 90 (60.0%) including one commercial laboratory, performed CDI assays. The toxin AB enzyme immunoassay (toxin AB EIA), nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT), and C. difficile culture, glutamate dehydrogenase assay, alone or in combination with other assays, were used in 75 (84.3%), 52 (58.4%), 35 (36.0%), and 23 (25.8%), respectively, and 65 (73.0%) institutions performed a combination of two or more assays. The sensitivity of toxin AB EIA was more negatively perceived, and that on specificity was more positively perceived. The perception of sensitivity and specificity of NAAT was mostly positive. Perception on the algorithm test projected it as useful but in need of countermeasures. Sixty-three (73.3%) institutions responded that they performed surveillance on CDI. @*Conclusion@#This study provides useful evidence on the current status of CDI laboratory diagnosis in Korea as well as on items that require improvement and is thought to aid in standardizing and improving the CDI laboratory diagnosis in Korea.

8.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 118-125, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926976

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#There is a recent increase in the use of stool multiplex PCR assay-based diagnostic tests in patients with acute diarrhea. We used multiplex PCR assays to analyze the distribution of diarrhea-causing bacteria and viruses, as well as the clinical features of patients with acute diarrhea. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed stool specimens of inpatients complaining of acute diarrhea from October 2018 to July 2020.The stool specimens had been tested for bacteria and viruses using multiplex PCR assays. @*Results@#A total of 414 stool specimens from 346 patients were tested, and 152 pathogens were detected in 131 stool samples (131/414, 31.6%). Co-infection was detected in 20 patients (20/346, 5.8%). The common pathogens detected as causes of acute diarrhea, including co-infection, were Clostridium perfringens (34.9%), Clostridioides difficile (19.7%), and Campylobacter spp. (18.4%). The average age of patients with multiplex PCR-positive tests was lower than those with multiplex PCR-negative tests (p=0.001). In patients with suspected C. difficile infection (CDI), the RT-PCR for toxin gene assay was performed in 370 stool samples, 35 of which were positive (9.5%). Furthermore, 16 of the 35 samples were positive on the multiplex PCR assay (45.7%). @*Conclusions@#The multiplex PCR assay revealed that C. perfringens was the most common diarrhea-causing pathogen. In addition, in patients with suspected CDI, the multiplex PCR assay alone was insufficiently sensitive to detect pathogens and a conventional CDI test was additionally required.

9.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e140-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925988

ABSTRACT

Croup is an acute upper respiratory disease primarily caused by the parainfluenza virus.Owing to inflammation and edema of the upper airways, children present with barky cough and stridor, and some may experience respiratory distress. We investigated children aged < 5 years with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) admitted to two hospitals in Seoul, South Korea, and observed a spike in croup cases during the omicron surge. Among the 569 children admitted from March 1, 2021 to February 25, 2022, 21 children (3.7%) had croup, and the proportion of croup cases was significantly higher during the omicron wave than that during the delta wave (12.4% vs. 1.2%, P < 0.001). With the immediate administration of corticosteroids and epinephrine via nebulizer, the symptoms improved rapidly. During the current omicron surge, careful monitoring of the symptoms of croup in young children is needed for the diagnosis of COVID-19 and its timely management.

10.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 596-604, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900880

ABSTRACT

Recently, the incidence and prevalence rates of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have increased worldwide, including in Korea. Although there has been considerable progress in the management of IBD following the discovery of biologic agents, 5-aminosalicylate (5-ASA) and immunomodulators are still considered cornerstones in the management of mild to moderate IBD.Current Concepts: 5-ASA plays a key role in inducing remission in patients with mild to moderate ulcerative colitis. High doses of 5-ASA are more effective in inducing remission in patients with moderate ulcerative colitis, and combination therapy of oral 5-ASA and topical 5-ASA agents is recommended. Although the effect of 5-ASA in patients with Crohn disease is limited, high doses of 5-ASA can be effective for patients with mild disease, inflammatory behavior, and colonic involvement. Maintaining remission is essential for patients with IBD. Good doctor-patient relationships and encouraging drug adherence are recommended. Regarding drug adherence, a once-daily regimen is preferred for patients’ satisfaction. Thiopurines, the most important immunomodulators, show therapeutic benefits, such as steroid-sparing effects and remission maintenance in ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease after induction therapy. However, several side effects, including severe leukopenia, can induce the discontinuation of thiopurines. Close monitoring and management decisions should be individualized according to the risk of relapse and adverse events.Discussion and Conclusion: In conclusion, 5-ASA and immunomodulators are cornerstones in the management of IBD. As such, clinicians should have knowledge of these drugs and patients’ characteristics for proper prescription.

11.
Gut and Liver ; : 752-762, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898475

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Our study aimed to evaluate the long-term outcomes and risk factors forrelapse after anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α cessation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients because they are not well established. @*Methods@#A retrospective multicenter cohort study was conducted involving patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) from 10 referral hospitals in Korea who discontinued firstline anti-TNF therapy after achieving clinical remission. @*Results@#A total of 109 IBD patients (71 CD and 38 UC) with a median follow-up duration of 56months were analyzed. The cumulative relapse rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 11.3%, 46.7%, and 62.5% for CD patients and 28.9%, 45.3%, and 60.9% for UC patients. Multivariable Coxanalysis revealed that discontinuation owing to the clinician’s decision was associated with lower risk of relapse (vs patient’s preference: hazard ratio [HR], 0.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04 to 0.48; p=0.002) and adalimumab use was associated with higher risk of relapse (vs infliximab: HR, 4.42; 95% CI, 1.24 to 17.74; p=0.022) in CD patients. Mucosal healing was associated with lower risk of relapse (vs nonmucosal healing: HR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.83; p=0.031) in UC patients. Anti-TNF re-induction was provided to 52 patients, and a response was obtained in 50 patients. However, 25 of them discontinued retreatment owing to a loss of response (n=15), the patient’s preference (n=6), and other factors (n=4). @*Conclusions@#More than 60% of IBD patients in remission under anti-TNF therapy relapsed within 5 years of treatment cessation. Anti-TNF re-induction was effective. However, half of the patients discontinued anti-TNF therapy, and 50% of these patients discontinued treatment owing to loss of response.

12.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 596-604, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893176

ABSTRACT

Recently, the incidence and prevalence rates of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have increased worldwide, including in Korea. Although there has been considerable progress in the management of IBD following the discovery of biologic agents, 5-aminosalicylate (5-ASA) and immunomodulators are still considered cornerstones in the management of mild to moderate IBD.Current Concepts: 5-ASA plays a key role in inducing remission in patients with mild to moderate ulcerative colitis. High doses of 5-ASA are more effective in inducing remission in patients with moderate ulcerative colitis, and combination therapy of oral 5-ASA and topical 5-ASA agents is recommended. Although the effect of 5-ASA in patients with Crohn disease is limited, high doses of 5-ASA can be effective for patients with mild disease, inflammatory behavior, and colonic involvement. Maintaining remission is essential for patients with IBD. Good doctor-patient relationships and encouraging drug adherence are recommended. Regarding drug adherence, a once-daily regimen is preferred for patients’ satisfaction. Thiopurines, the most important immunomodulators, show therapeutic benefits, such as steroid-sparing effects and remission maintenance in ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease after induction therapy. However, several side effects, including severe leukopenia, can induce the discontinuation of thiopurines. Close monitoring and management decisions should be individualized according to the risk of relapse and adverse events.Discussion and Conclusion: In conclusion, 5-ASA and immunomodulators are cornerstones in the management of IBD. As such, clinicians should have knowledge of these drugs and patients’ characteristics for proper prescription.

13.
Gut and Liver ; : 752-762, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890771

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Our study aimed to evaluate the long-term outcomes and risk factors forrelapse after anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α cessation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients because they are not well established. @*Methods@#A retrospective multicenter cohort study was conducted involving patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) from 10 referral hospitals in Korea who discontinued firstline anti-TNF therapy after achieving clinical remission. @*Results@#A total of 109 IBD patients (71 CD and 38 UC) with a median follow-up duration of 56months were analyzed. The cumulative relapse rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 11.3%, 46.7%, and 62.5% for CD patients and 28.9%, 45.3%, and 60.9% for UC patients. Multivariable Coxanalysis revealed that discontinuation owing to the clinician’s decision was associated with lower risk of relapse (vs patient’s preference: hazard ratio [HR], 0.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04 to 0.48; p=0.002) and adalimumab use was associated with higher risk of relapse (vs infliximab: HR, 4.42; 95% CI, 1.24 to 17.74; p=0.022) in CD patients. Mucosal healing was associated with lower risk of relapse (vs nonmucosal healing: HR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.83; p=0.031) in UC patients. Anti-TNF re-induction was provided to 52 patients, and a response was obtained in 50 patients. However, 25 of them discontinued retreatment owing to a loss of response (n=15), the patient’s preference (n=6), and other factors (n=4). @*Conclusions@#More than 60% of IBD patients in remission under anti-TNF therapy relapsed within 5 years of treatment cessation. Anti-TNF re-induction was effective. However, half of the patients discontinued anti-TNF therapy, and 50% of these patients discontinued treatment owing to loss of response.

14.
Gut and Liver ; : 331-337, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833151

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#A considerable number of patients with Crohn’s disease still need intestinal resection surgery. Postoperative recurrence is an important issue in Crohn’s disease management, including the selection of high-risk patients. Eastern Asian patients showed several differences from Caucasian patients. Therefore, we investigated the postoperative surgical recurrence outcome and identified risk factors in Korean patients. @*Methods@#Clinical data of 372 patients with Crohn’s disease who underwent first intestinal resection between January 2004 and August 2014 at 14 hospitals in Korea were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#Over the follow-up period, 50 patients (17.1%) showed surgical recurrence. The cumulative surgical recurrence rate was 6.5% at 1 year and 15.4% at 7 years. Age under 16 (p=0.011; hazard ratio [HR], 5.136; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.576 to 16.731), colonic involvement (p=0.023; HR , 2.011; 95% CI, 1.102 to 3.670), and the presence of perianal disease at surgery (p=0.008; HR, 2.239; 95% CI, 1.236 to 4.059) were independent risk factors associated with surgical recurrence. Postoperative thiopurine treatment (p=0.002; HR, 0.393; 95% CI, 0.218 to 0.710) was a protective factor for surgical recurrence. @*Conclusions@#Among the disease characteristics at surgery, younger age, colonic location, and perianal lesions were independent risk factors for surgical recurrence. Postoperative thiopurine treatment significantly reduced the incidence of surgical recurrence.

15.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 120-125, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831208

ABSTRACT

Gorham-Stout syndrome is a rare bone disorder characterized by progressive massive osteolysis and proliferation of vascular and lymphatic vessels. A 15-year-old boy was initially diagnosed with Gorham-Stout at the age of 8 years based on clinical and radiological findings. Following diagnosis, he was treated with pamidronate, interferon alfa, propranolol, oral corticosteroids, and sirolimus. He developed proteinuria at the age of 15 and progressed into the nephrotic range 2 years later. A renal biopsy revealed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, not otherwise specified variant. The sequential increase in proteinuria associated with medications suggested that the focal segmental glomerulosclerosis may be caused by pamidronate and sirolimus, but cannot completely rule out the possibility of kidney involvement of GSS itself.

16.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 491-502, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830955

ABSTRACT

Sex/gender disparity has been shown in the incidence and prognosis of many types of diseases, probably due to differences in genes, physiological conditions such as hormones, and lifestyle between the sexes. The mortality and survival rates of many cancers, especially liver cancer, differ between men and women. Due to the pronounced sex/gender disparity, considering sex/ gender may be necessary for the diagnosis and treatment of liver cancer. By analyzing research articles through a PubMed literature search, the present review identified 12 genes which showed practical relevance to cancer and sex disparities. Among the 12 sex-specific genes, 7 genes (BAP1, CTNNB1, FOXA1, GSTO1, GSTP1, IL6, and SRPK1) showed sex-biased function in liver cancer. Here we summarized previous findings of cancer molecular signature including our own analysis, and showed that sexbiased molecular signature CTNNB1High , IL6High , RHOAHigh and GLIPR1Low may serve as a female-specific index for prediction and evaluation of OS in liver cancer patients. This review suggests a potential implication of sex-biased molecular signature in liver cancer, providing a useful information on diagnosis and prediction of disease progression based on gender.

17.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 190-197, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903134

ABSTRACT

Laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB) is a common disease in the pediatric population, and it is rarely caused by a fungal infection. Acute respiratory failure caused by fungal LTB mainly occurs in immunocompromised patients, and early diagnosis is closely associated with morbidity and mortality. However, an appropriate diagnosis is challenging for pediatricians because symptoms and signs of LTB caused by Aspergillus spp. are nonspecific. Here, we report a case of progressive respiratory failure caused by pseudomembranous LTB in a child with a suspicion of primary immunodeficiency and highlight the importance of an early investigation, especially in immunocompromised patients.

18.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 669-683, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896608

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Recently, there has been a rise in the interest to understand the composition of indoor dust due to its association with lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. Furthermore, it has been found that bacterial extracellular vesicles (EVs) within indoor dust particles can induce pulmonary inflammation, suggesting that these might play a role in lung disease. @*Methods@#We performed microbiome analysis of indoor dust EVs isolated from mattresses in apartments and hospitals. We developed diagnostic models based on the bacterial EVs antibodies detected in serum samples via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in this analysis. @*Results@#Proteobacteria was the most abundant bacterial EV taxa observed at the phylum level while Pseudomonas, Enterobacteriaceae (f) and Acinetobacter were the most prominent organisms at the genus level, followed by Staphylococcus. Based on the microbiome analysis, serum anti-bacterial EV immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG1 and IgG4 were analyzed using ELISA with EV antibodies that targeted Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The levels of anti-bacterial EV antibodies were found to be significantly higher in patients with asthma, COPD and lung cancer compared to the healthy control group. We then developed a diagnostic model through logistic regression of antibodies that showed significant differences between groups with smoking history as a covariate. Four different variable selection methods were compared to construct an optimal diagnostic model with area under the curves ranging from 0.72 to 0.81. @*Conclusions@#The results of this study suggest that ELISA-based analysis of anti-bacterial EV antibodies titers can be used as a diagnostic tool for lung disease. The present findings provide insights into the pathogenesis of lung disease as well as a foundation for developing a novel diagnostic methodology that synergizes microbial EV metagenomics and immune assays.

19.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 190-197, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895430

ABSTRACT

Laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB) is a common disease in the pediatric population, and it is rarely caused by a fungal infection. Acute respiratory failure caused by fungal LTB mainly occurs in immunocompromised patients, and early diagnosis is closely associated with morbidity and mortality. However, an appropriate diagnosis is challenging for pediatricians because symptoms and signs of LTB caused by Aspergillus spp. are nonspecific. Here, we report a case of progressive respiratory failure caused by pseudomembranous LTB in a child with a suspicion of primary immunodeficiency and highlight the importance of an early investigation, especially in immunocompromised patients.

20.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 669-683, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888904

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Recently, there has been a rise in the interest to understand the composition of indoor dust due to its association with lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. Furthermore, it has been found that bacterial extracellular vesicles (EVs) within indoor dust particles can induce pulmonary inflammation, suggesting that these might play a role in lung disease. @*Methods@#We performed microbiome analysis of indoor dust EVs isolated from mattresses in apartments and hospitals. We developed diagnostic models based on the bacterial EVs antibodies detected in serum samples via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in this analysis. @*Results@#Proteobacteria was the most abundant bacterial EV taxa observed at the phylum level while Pseudomonas, Enterobacteriaceae (f) and Acinetobacter were the most prominent organisms at the genus level, followed by Staphylococcus. Based on the microbiome analysis, serum anti-bacterial EV immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG1 and IgG4 were analyzed using ELISA with EV antibodies that targeted Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The levels of anti-bacterial EV antibodies were found to be significantly higher in patients with asthma, COPD and lung cancer compared to the healthy control group. We then developed a diagnostic model through logistic regression of antibodies that showed significant differences between groups with smoking history as a covariate. Four different variable selection methods were compared to construct an optimal diagnostic model with area under the curves ranging from 0.72 to 0.81. @*Conclusions@#The results of this study suggest that ELISA-based analysis of anti-bacterial EV antibodies titers can be used as a diagnostic tool for lung disease. The present findings provide insights into the pathogenesis of lung disease as well as a foundation for developing a novel diagnostic methodology that synergizes microbial EV metagenomics and immune assays.

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