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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 667-681, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011254

ABSTRACT

Studies have suggested that the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is implicated in the pathophysiology of major depression; however, the regulatory strategy that targets the NAc to achieve an exclusive and outstanding anti-depression benefit has not been elucidated. Here, we identified a specific reduction of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in the subset of dopamine D1 receptor medium spiny neurons (D1-MSNs) in the NAc that promoted stress susceptibility, while the stimulation of cAMP production in NAc D1-MSNs efficiently rescued depression-like behaviors. Ketamine treatment enhanced cAMP both in D1-MSNs and dopamine D2 receptor medium spiny neurons (D2-MSNs) of depressed mice, however, the rapid antidepressant effect of ketamine solely depended on elevating cAMP in NAc D1-MSNs. We discovered that a higher dose of crocin markedly increased cAMP in the NAc and consistently relieved depression 24 h after oral administration, but not a lower dose. The fast onset property of crocin was verified through multicenter studies. Moreover, crocin specifically targeted at D1-MSN cAMP signaling in the NAc to relieve depression and had no effect on D2-MSN. These findings characterize a new strategy to achieve an exclusive and outstanding anti-depression benefit by elevating cAMP in D1-MSNs in the NAc, and provide a potential rapid antidepressant drug candidate, crocin.

2.
Journal of China Pharmaceutical University ; (6): 74-78, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920653

ABSTRACT

@#A rapid analytical method for the determination of dezocine and pethidine in hair samples using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was established.After cleaned hair was extracted by grinding with methanol and ultrasonic, the final solution was analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS.The targets were gradient eluted on a Waters Acquity BEH C18 (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) column with 0.1% formic acid-water and methanol as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min.The ESI+ ion source and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) were used to select the qualitative and quantitative ion pairs of dezocine and pethidine.Dezocine and pethidine showed good linearity in the range of 0.01-8 ng/mg, with the limit of detection of 0.005 ng/mg and the LOQs of 0.01 ng/mg.The accuracy, precision, matrix effect, extraction recovery, and stability all met the requirements.The established method is simple, rapid, and accurate for the qualitative and quantitative determination of dezocine and pethidine in hair, which can be applied in the case analysis of dezocine and/or pethidine abuse.

3.
Journal of China Pharmaceutical University ; (6): 467-472, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939971

ABSTRACT

@#The waste water-based epidemiology is an important technique to fight against drug abuse by analyzing the concentration of illicit drugs in urban sewage, which can monitor the abuse of drugs.An SPE-UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the analysis of 12 common drugs and their metabolites involving amphetamine and morphine.It was shown that the best result was achieved when hydrochloric acid/ acetonitrile (5∶95) was added to acidify the sample during the concentration process, guaranteeing the anti-across contamination of the analysis of organic nitrogen basic trace components, and improve the stability, specificity, and accuracy of the method.The optimized method meets the analytical requirements of complex sewage samples, and has been successfully applied to the assessment of urban drug abuse through sewage analysis.

4.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis ; (6): 739-745, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931218

ABSTRACT

In this study,we developed a novel on-line solid phase extraction (SPE)-ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS)-based analytical method for simulta-neously quantifying 12 illicit drugs and metabolites (methamphetamine,amphetamine,morphine,co-deine,6-monoacetylmorphine,benzoylecgonine,3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine,3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine,cocaine,ketamine,norketamine,and methcathinone) and cotinine(COT) in wastewater samples.The analysis was performed by loading 2 mL of the sample onto an Oasis hydrophilic-lipophilic balance cartridge and using a cleanup step (5% methanol) to eliminate interference with a total run time of 13 min.The isotope-labeled internal standard method was used to quantify the target substances and correct for unavoidable losses and matrix effects during the on-line SPE process.Typical analytical characteristics used for method validation were sensitivity,linearity,precision,repeatability,recovery,and matrix effects.The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ)of each target were set at 0.20 ng/L and 0.50 ng/L,respectively.The linearity was between 0.5 ng/L and 250 ng/L,except for that of COT.The intra-and inter-day precisions were <10.45% and 25.64%,respec-tively,and the relative recovery ranged from 83.74% to 162.26%.The method was used to analyze various wastewater samples from 33 cities in China,and the results were compared with the experimental re-suits of identical samples analyzed using off-line SPE.The difference rate was between 19.91%and-20.44%,and the error range could be considered acceptable.These findings showed that on-line SPE is a suitable alternative to off-line SPE for the analysis of illicit drugs in samples.

5.
Journal of China Pharmaceutical University ; (6): 724-730, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-843052

ABSTRACT

@#Fentanyl and fentanyl-related substances are a series of synthetic and powerful anesthetics represented by fentanyl. In recent years,the abuse and trafficking of these substances in many countries around the world are serious which poses a great threat to people"s health and social stability. This paper focuses on the abuse,pharmacological and toxicological action,detection methods and control of fentanyl and fentanyl-related substances and aims to enhance people"s understanding of their basic properties,current research and control so as to provide references for future research.

6.
Journal of China Pharmaceutical University ; (6): 305-312, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-822999

ABSTRACT

@#A quantitative analysis method based on solid phase extraction-ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-UPLC-MS/MS) for simultaneous determination of illicit drugs and their metabolites in wastewater was established. Samples filtered at pH of 2 and spiked with internal standard were loaded to Oasis Prime MCX cartridges for solid-phase extraction. The samples were washed with 4 mL of methanol and eluted with 4 mL of 5% ammonia in acetonitrile before reconstituting with 0.1% formic acid/water solution. ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 column was used for chromatography, and gradient elution was performed with 0.1% formic acid/water solution and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The samples were then detected by electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive ion mode, and multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM) was adopted for quantitative analysis. All analytes had a good linear relationship (r ≥ 0.993 2) within the range of their respective standard curve; the limit of quantification was 1 ng/L (except amphetamine at 2.5 ng/L); the extraction recovery ranged from 82.13% to 99.96%; and the intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 9.43%. The method is accurate, reliable and reproducible, and is suitable for the quantitative determination of illicit drugs and their metabolites in wastewater and can provide an analytical method for real-time monitoring of drug abuse.

7.
Journal of China Pharmaceutical University ; (6): 545-552, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811755

ABSTRACT

@#GC-MS and LC-MS are the main techniques used for the structural identification of new psychoactive substances at present. However, they are hard to give accurate structure information because of the hardly available corresponding reference standards and the quickly changing status of these compounds. This leads tremendous obstacle on the rapid identification of new psychoactive substances. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is one of the most effective methods for structures identification. Therefore, NMR is especially suitable for the analysis and identification of new psychoactive substances even with rapid structural changes. This article summarizes the NMR applications for the structural analysis of new psychoactive substances including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, piperazines, phenethylamines, ketamine & phencyclidine-type substances, and fentanyls. It is found that the NMR signals of the main frame structure of each kind of the new psychoactive substances are basically the same. Hence, these frame structure NMR signals can provide scientific evidence for the rapid identification of new psychoactive substances. This article also look ahead the prospect for the application of LC-NMR and DOSY in new psychoactive substances, which provides new ideas for the screening of new psychoactive substances.

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