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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834572

ABSTRACT

Background@#High-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) is found in a subset of head and neck (HN) squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). For oropharyngeal SCCs, HR HPV positivity is known to be associated with good prognosis, and a separate staging system for HPV-associated carcinomas using p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC) as a surrogate test has been adopted in the 8th American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system. We examined the HR HPV status and the genotype distribution in five HN subsites. @*Methods@#Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections were used for p16 IHC and DNA extraction. HPV DNA detection and genotyping were done employing either a DNA chip-based or real-time polymerase chain reaction–based method. @*Results@#During 2011–2019, a total of 466 SCCs were tested for HPV DNA with 34.1% positivity for HR HPV. Among HN subsites, the oropharynx showed the highest HR HPV prevalence (149/205, 75.1%), followed by the sinonasal tract (3/14, 21.4%), larynx (5/43, 11.6%), hypopharynx (1/38, 2.6%), and oral cavity (1/166, 0.6%). The most common HPV genotype was HPV16 (84.3%) followed by HPV35 (6.9%) and HPV33 (4.4%). Compared with HR HPV status, the sensitivity and specificity of p16 IHC were 98.6% and 94.3% for the oropharynx, and 99.2% and 93.8% for the tonsil, respectively. @*Conclusions@#Using a Korean dataset, we confirmed that HR HPV is most frequently detected in oropharyngeal SCCs. p16 positivity showed a good concordance with HR HPV DNA for oropharyngeal and especially tonsillar carcinomas. The use of p16 IHC may further be extended to predict HR HPV positivity in sinonasal tract SCCs.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834527

ABSTRACT

Meningioma is the most common primary intracranial tumor in adults. The grading of meningioma is based on World Health Organization criteria, which rely on histopathological features alone. This grading system is unable to conclusively predict the clinical behavior of these tumors (i.e., recurrence or prognosis in benign or atypical grades). Advances in molecular techniques over the last decade that include genomic and epigenomic data associated with meningiomas have been used to identify genetic biomarkers that can predict tumor behavior. This review summarizes the molecular characteristics of meningioma using genetic and epigenetic biomarkers. Molecular alterations that can predict meningioma behavior may be integrated into the upcoming World Health Organization grading system.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831026

ABSTRACT

Background@#: The Guideline Working Group of the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO)conducted a nationwide questionnaire survey for diverse queries faced in the treatment of brain tumors.As part I of the survey, the aim of this study is to evaluate national patterns of clinical practiceabout antiepileptic drug (AED) and steroid usage for management of brain tumors. @*Methods@#: A web-based survey was sent to all members of the KSNO by email. The survey included9 questions of AED usage and 5 questions of steroid usage for brain tumor patients. All questionswere developed by consensus of the Guideline Working Group. @*Results@#: The overall response rate was 12.8% (54/423). Regarding AED usage, the majority ofrespondents (95.2%) routinely prescribed prophylactic AEDs for patients with seizure at the peri/postoperativeperiod. However, as many as 72.8% of respondents prescribed AED routinely for seizure-naïvepatients, and others prescribed AED as the case may be. The duration of AED prophylaxis showedwide variance according to the epilepsy status and the location of tumor. Levetiracetam (82.9%) wasthe most preferred AED for epilepsy prophylaxis. Regarding steroid usage, 90.5% of respondents usesteroids in perioperative period, including 34.2% of them as a routine manner. Presence of peritumoraledema (90.9%) was considered as the most important factor determining steroid usage followed bydegree of clinical symptoms (60.6%). More than half of respondents (51.2%) replied to discontinue thesteroids within a week after surgery if there are no specific medical conditions, while 7.3% preferredslow tapering up to a month after surgery. @*Conclusion@#: The survey demonstrated the prevailing practice patterns on AED and steroid usagein neuro-oncologic field among members of the KSNO. This information provides a point of referencefor establishing a practical guideline in the management of brain tumor patients.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831025

ABSTRACT

Background@#: The Guideline Working Group of the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO)conducted a nationwide questionnaire survey for diverse queries faced in the treatment of brain tumors.As part II of the survey, the aim of this study is to evaluate the national patterns of clinical practicefor patients with diffuse midline glioma and meningioma. @*Methods@#: A web-based survey was sent to all members of the KSNO by email. The survey included4 questions of diffuse midline glioma and 6 questions of meningioma (including 2 case scenarios).All questions were developed by consensus of the Guideline Working Group. @*Results@#: In the survey about diffuse midline glioma, 76% respondents performed histologicconfirmation to identify H3K27M mutation on immunohistochemical staining or sequencing methods.For treatment of diffuse midline glioma, respondents preferred concurrent chemoradiotherapy withtemozolomide (TMZ) and adjuvant TMZ (63.8%) than radiotherapy alone (34.0%). In the surveyabout meningioma, respondents prefer wait-and-see policy for the asymptomatic small meningiomawithout peritumoral edema. However, a greater number of respondents had chosen surgical resectionas the first choice for all large size meningiomas without exception, and small size meningiomaswith either peritumoral edema or eloquent location. There was no single opinion with major consensuson long-term follow-up plans for asymptomatic meningioma with observation policy. As many as68.1% of respondents answered that they would not add any adjuvant therapies for World Health Organizationgrade II meningiomas if the tumor was totally resected including dura. @*Conclusion@#: The survey demonstrates the prevailing clinical practice patterns for patients with diffusemidline glioma and meningioma among members of the KSNO. This information provides a pointof reference for establishing a practical guideline in the management of diffuse midline glioma andmeningioma.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831024

ABSTRACT

Background@#: The Guideline Working Group of the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO)conducted the nationwide questionnaire survey for diverse queries facing to treat patients with braintumor. As part III of the survey, the aim of this study is to evaluate the national patterns of clinical practicefor patients with brain metastasis and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). @*Methods@#: A web-based survey was sent to all members of the KSNO by email. The survey included7 questions of brain metastasis and 5 questions of PCNSL, focused on the management strategiesin specific situations. All questions were developed by consensus of the Guideline WorkingGroup. @*Results@#" In the survey about brain metastasis, respondents preferred surgical resection withadjuvant treatment for patients with a surgically accessible single brain metastatic lesion less than 3cm in size without extracranial systemic lesions. However, most respondents considered radiosurgeryfor surgically inaccessible lesions. As the preferred treatment of multiple brain metastases according tothe number of brain lesions, respondents tended to choose radiotherapy with increasing number of lesions.Radiosurgery was mostly chosen for the brain metastases of less than or equal to 4. In the surveyabout PCNSL, a half of respondents choose high-dose methotrexate-based polychemotherapy asthe first-line induction therapy for PCNSL. The consolidation and salvage therapy showed a little variationamong respondents. For PCNSL patients with cerebrospinal fluid dissemination, intrathecal chemotherapywas most preferred. @*Conclusion@#: The survey demonstrates the prevailing clinical practice patterns for patients withbrain metastasis and PCNSL among members of the KSNO. This information provides a point of referencefor establishing a practical guideline in the management of brain metastasis and PCNSL.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study investigated the clinical and pathological features of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related ophthalmic disease. To clarify the features, we compared IgG4-related ophthalmic disease and orbital inflammatory pseudotumor. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 103 patients who were initially diagnosed with orbital inflammatory pseudotumor, and identified 16 cases in which the diagnosis was based on surgical biopsy and for which data in medical records were sufficient for analysis. Immunohistochemical staining of pathological specimens for IgG and IgG4 was performed. Finally, six of IgG4-related ophthalmic disease patient and 10 of orbital inf lammatory pseudotumor patient were analyzed. RESULTS: The IgG4-related ophthalmic disease group had more IgG4-positive plasma cells and a higher IgG4/IgG plasma cell ratio than the orbital inflammatory pseudotumor group. Collagenous fibrosis and lacrimal gland involvement were significantly more frequent in the IgG4-related ophthalmic disease group. Dense lymphocyte infiltration, obliterative phlebitis, and bilateral lesions were more frequent in IgG4-related ophthalmic disease, but the differences were not significant. The recurrence-free period was shorter in the IgG4-related ophthalmic disease group (p = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: The location of the lesion (lacrimal gland), count and ratio of IgG4-positive plasma cells, and collagenous fibrosis aid the diagnosis of IgG4-related ophthalmic disease in patients with idiopathic orbital mass-like lesions. In addition, maintenance therapy should be considered in patients with IgG4-related ophthalmic disease to prevent recurrence.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Collagen , Diagnosis , Fibrosis , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulins , Lacrimal Apparatus , Lymphocytes , Medical Records , Orbit , Orbital Pseudotumor , Phlebitis , Plasma Cells , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 158-162, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742523

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Trastuzumab is an effective treatment for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-amplified breast cancers. We sought to develop a simple protocol for HER2 image analysis of breast cancer specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a preliminary test, we found that at least 1000 tumor cells need to be examined in the most strongly stained areas. Next, we evaluated the clinical usefulness of this established protocol of image analysis in 555 breast cancer patients. Results of the HER2 immunohistochemical (IHC) staining were compared between manual scoring and image analysis. RESULTS: The HER2 IHC results obtained by the image analysis method correlated well with those obtained by the manual scoring method (Cohen's kappa=0.830). Using the HER2 silver in situ hybridization (SISH) results as a gold standard, sensitivity values were 72.1% for manual scoring and 74.0% for image analysis; specificity values were 96.2% for manual scoring and 94.7% for image analysis; and accuracy values were 91.7% for manual scoring and 90.8% for image analysis. McNemar's test was applied to the results, and there were no statistically significant differences in sensitivity and specificity between the positive (p=0.688) and negative (p=0.118) SISH groups. CONCLUSION: HER2 image analysis results were similar to those obtained via the manual scoring method, indicating that the use of image analysis can reduce assessment time and effort. We suggest that image analysis-based evaluation of 1000 tumor cells in the most strongly IHC-stained area, regardless of stroma content, is sufficient for determining HER2 expression levels in breast cancer specimens.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , Methods , ErbB Receptors , Research Design , Sensitivity and Specificity , Silver , Trastuzumab
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was no practical guideline for the management of patients with central nervous system tumor in Korea in the past. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, developed the guideline for glioblastoma successfully and published it in Brain Tumor Research and Treatment, the official journal of KSNO, in April 2019. Recently, the KSNO guideline for World Health Organization (WHO) grade III cerebral glioma in adults has been established. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified by searches in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. Scope of the disease was confined to cerebral anaplastic astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma in adults. RESULTS: Whenever radiological feature suggests high grade glioma, maximal safe resection if feasible is globally recommended. After molecular and histological examinations, patients with anaplastic astrocytoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant should be primary treated by standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy whereas those with anaplastic astrocytoma, NOS, and anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH-wildtype should be treated following the protocol for glioblastomas. In terms of anaplastic oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and 1p19q-codeletion, and anaplastic oligodendroglioma, NOS should be primary treated by standard brain radiotherapy and neoadjuvant or adjuvant PCV (procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine) combination chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that WHO grade III cerebral glioma of adults should be treated by maximal safe resection if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to molecular and histological features of tumors.


Subject(s)
Adult , Astrocytoma , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Central Nervous System , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Korea , Lomustine , Oligodendroglioma , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was no practical guideline for the management of patients with central nervous system tumor in Korea for many years. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, has developed the guideline for glioblastoma. Subsequently, the KSNO guideline for World Health Organization (WHO) grade II cerebral glioma in adults is established. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified by searching PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords regarding diffuse astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma of brain in adults. RESULTS: Whenever radiological feature suggests lower grade glioma, the maximal safe resection if feasible is recommended globally. After molecular and histological examinations, patients with diffuse astrocytoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-wildtype without molecular feature of glioblastoma should be primarily treated by standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy (Level III) while those with molecular feature of glioblastoma should be treated following the protocol for glioblastomas. In terms of patients with diffuse astrocytoma, IDH-mutant and oligodendroglioma (IDH-mutant and 1p19q codeletion), standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant PCV (procarbazine+lomustine+vincristine) combination chemotherapy should be considered primarily for the high-risk group while observation with regular follow up should be considered for the low-risk group. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that WHO grade II gliomas should be treated by maximal safe resection, if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to molecular and histological features of tumors and clinical characteristics of patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Astrocytoma , Brain , Central Nervous System , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Follow-Up Studies , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Korea , Oligodendroglioma , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been no practical guidelines for the management of patients with central nervous system (CNS) tumors in Korea for many years. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, started to prepare guidelines for CNS tumors from February 2018. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. RESULTS: First, the maximal safe resection if feasible is recommended. After the diagnosis of a glioblastoma with neurosurgical intervention, patients aged ≤70 years with good performance should be treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy with temozolomide followed by adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy (Stupp's protocol) or standard brain radiotherapy alone. However, those with poor performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy (preferred)±concurrent or adjuvant temozolomide, temozolomide alone (Level III), or supportive treatment. Alternatively, patients aged >70 years with good performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy+concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide or Stupp's protocol or hypofractionated brain radiotherapy alone, while those with poor performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy alone or temozolomide chemotherapy if the patient has methylated MGMT gene promoter (Level III), or supportive treatment. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that glioblastomas should be treated by maximal safe resection, if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to the individual comprehensive condition of the patient.


Subject(s)
Brain , Central Nervous System , Chemoradiotherapy , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Glioblastoma , Humans , Korea , Radiotherapy
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714818

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While procarbazine, CCNU (lomustine), and vincristine (PCV) has been an alternative chemotherapy option for malignant gliomas, it is worth investigating whether the combination of only procarbazine and CCNU is comparable because vincristine adds toxicity with uncertain benefit. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of procarbazine and CCNU chemotherapy for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) with O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation. METHODS: Eight patients with recurrent GBM following concurrent chemoradiotherapy and temozolomide (TMZ) adjuvant therapy were enrolled in this trial; they received no other chemotherapeutic agents or target therapy. They received CCNU (75 mg/m²) on day 1 and procarbazine (60 mg/m²) through days 11 and 24 every 4 weeks. The median cycle of CCNU and procarbazine was 3.5 (range: 2–6). RESULTS: One patient achieved stable disease. The median progression-free survival (PFS) with procarbazine and CCNU chemotherapy was eight weeks (range: 5–73), and the PFS rates were 25% and 12.5% at 16 and 30 weeks, respectively. The median overall survival (OS) from the initial diagnosis to death was 40 months, and the median OS from the administration of procarbazine and CCNU chemotherapy to death was 9.7 months (95% confidence interval: 6.7–12.7). Serious adverse events were found at six visits, and two cases were considered to be grade 3 toxicities. CONCLUSION: The efficacy of procarbazine and CCNU chemotherapy is not satisfactory. This study suggests the need to develop other treatment strategies for recurrent and TMZ-refractory GBM. Trial registry at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT017337346.


Subject(s)
Chemoradiotherapy , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Lomustine , Methylation , Procarbazine , Vincristine
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-176891

ABSTRACT

A 33-year-old woman presented with tingling and paresthesia on left extremity for 2 months. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the tumor was iso- and hypo-intensity on T1-weighted image, mixed iso- and high-signal intensity on T2-weighted images and heterogeneously enhanced with rim enhancement. Neither arachnoid cleft nor dural tail was certain but mass was located extra-axially so meningioma was suspected. During operation, tumor wasn't attached to dura at all but arachnoid attachment was seen. Pathologically, clear cell type ependymoma was confirmed. Details of diagnosis and treatment of this tumor is described.


Subject(s)
Adult , Arachnoid , Diagnosis , Ependymoma , Extremities , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Meningioma , Paresthesia , Tail
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13607

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the KRAS gene have been identified in approximately 50% of colorectal cancers (CRCs). KRAS mutations are well established biomarkers in anti–epidermal growth factor receptor therapy. Therefore, assessment of KRAS mutations is needed in CRC patients to ensure appropriate treatment. METHODS: We compared the analytical performance of the cobas test to Sanger sequencing in 264 CRC cases. In addition, discordant specimens were evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing. RESULTS: KRAS mutations for codons 12/13 were detected in 43.2% of cases (114/264) by Sanger sequencing. Of 257 evaluable specimens for comparison, KRAS mutations were detected in 112 cases (43.6%) by Sanger sequencing and 118 cases (45.9%) by the cobas test. Concordance between the cobas test and Sanger sequencing for each lot was 93.8% positive percent agreement (PPA) and 91.0% negative percent agreement (NPA) for codons 12/13. Results from the cobas test and Sanger sequencing were discordant for 20 cases (7.8%). Twenty discrepant cases were subsequently subjected to 454 pyrosequencing. After comprehensive analysis of the results from combined Sanger sequencing–454 pyrosequencing and the cobas test, PPA was 97.5% and NPA was 100%. CONCLUSIONS: The cobas test is an accurate and sensitive test for detecting KRAS-activating mutations and has analytical power equivalent to Sanger sequencing. Prescreening using the cobas test with subsequent application of Sanger sequencing is the best strategy for routine detection of KRAS mutations in CRC.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Codon , Colorectal Neoplasms , Humans
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) in tumor cells is known to promote immune escape of cancer by interacting with programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) in tumor infiltrating immune cells. Immunotherapy targeting these molecules is emerging as a new strategy for the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM). Understanding the relationship between the PD-L1/PD-1 axis and prognosis in GBM patients may be helpful to predict the effects of immunotherapy. METHODS: PD-L1 expression and PD-1–positive tumor infiltrating mononuclear cell (PD-1+tumor infiltrating mononuclear cell [TIMC]) density were evaluated using tissue microarray containing 54 GBM cases by immunohistochemical analysis; the associations with patient clinical outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: PD-L1 expression and high PD-1+TIMC density were observed in 31.5% and 50% of GBM cases, respectively. High expression of PD-L1 in tumor cells was an independent and significant predictive factor for worse overall survival (OS; hazard ratio, 4.958; p = .007) but was not a significant factor in disease-free survival (DFS). PD-1+TIMC density was not correlated with OS or DFS. When patients were classified based on PD-1 expression and PD-1+TIMC density, patients with PD-L1+/PD-1+TIMC low status had the shortest OS (13 months, p = .009) and DFS (7 months, p = .053). CONCLUSIONS: PD-L1 expression in GBM was an independent prognostic factor for poor OS. In addition, combined status of PD-L1 expression and PD-1+TIMC density also predicted patient outcomes, suggesting that the therapeutic role of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis should be considered in the context of GBM immunity.


Subject(s)
Cell Count , Cell Death , Disease-Free Survival , Glioblastoma , Humans , Immunotherapy , Prognosis , United Nations
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-6981

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and survival benefits of combined treatment with radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) in a Korean sample. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 750 Korean patients with histologically confirmed glioblastoma multiforme, who received concurrent chemoradiotherapy with TMZ (CCRT) and adjuvant TMZ from January 2006 until June 2011, were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: After the first operation, a gross total resection (GTR), subtotal resection (STR), partial resection (PR), biopsy alone were achieved in 388 (51.7%), 159 (21.2%), 96 (12.8%), and 107 (14.3%) patients, respectively. The methylation status of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) was reviewed retrospectively in 217 patients. The median follow-up period was 16.3 months and the median overall survival (OS) was 17.5 months. The actuarial survival rates at the 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS were 72.1%, 21.0%, and 9.0%, respectively. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 10.1 months, and the actuarial PFS at 1-, 3-, and 5-year PFS were 42.2%, 13.0%, and 7.8%, respectively. The patients who received GTR showed a significantly longer OS and PFS than those who received STR, PR, or biopsy alone, regardless of the methylation status of the MGMT promoter. Patients with a methylated MGMT promoter also showed a significantly longer OS and PFS than those with an unmethylated MGMT promoter. Patients who received more than six cycles of adjuvant TMZ had a longer OS and PFS than those who received six or fewer cycles. Hematologic toxicity of grade 3 or 4 was observed in 8.4% of patients during the CCRT period and in 10.2% during the adjuvant TMZ period. CONCLUSION: Patients treated with CCRT followed by adjuvant TMZ had more favorable survival rates and tolerable toxicity than those who did not undergo this treatment.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Chemoradiotherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Glioblastoma , Humans , Korea , Methylation , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115238

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Infection with high-risk genotypes of human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is the major cause of invasive cervical cancers. HPV-16 and HPV-18 are known to be responsible for two-thirds of all invasive cervical carcinomas, followed by HPV-45, -31, and -33. Current guidelines only differentiate HPV-16/18 (+) by recommending direct colposcopy for treatment. We tried to evaluate whether there are differences in risk among 12 non-16/18 HR-HPV genotypes in this study. METHODS: The pathology archive database records of 1,102 consecutive gynecologic patients, who had results for cervical cytology and histology and for HPV testing, as determined by HPV 9G DNA chip, were reviewed. RESULTS: Among the 1,102 patients, 346 were non-16/18 HR-HPV (+) and 231 were HPV-16/18 (+). We calculated the odds ratios for ≥cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 (CIN 2) of 14 groups of each HR-HPV genotype compared with a group of HR-HPV (–) patients. Based on the odds ratio of each genotype, we divided patients with non-16/18 HR-HPV genotypes (+) into two groups: HPV-31/33/35/45/52/58 (+) and HPV-39/51/56/59/66/68 (+). The age-adjusted odds ratios for ≥CIN 2 of the HPV-31/33/35/45/52/58 (+) and HPV-39/51/56/59/66/68 (+) groups compared with a HR-HPV (–) group were 11.9 (95% CI, 7.6 to 18.8; p<0.001) and 2.4 (95% CI, 1.4 to 4.3; p<0.001), respectively, while that of the HPV-16/18 (+) group was 18.1 (95% CI, 11.6 to 28.3; p=0.003). CONCLUSION: The 12 non-16/18 HR-HPV genotypes can be further categorized (HPV-31/33/35/45/52/58 vs. HPV-39/51/56/59/66/68) by risk stratification. The HPV-31/33/35/45/52/58 genotypes might need more aggressive action. Large scale clinical trials or cohort studies are necessary to confirm our suggestion.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/virology , Colposcopy , DNA, Viral/analysis , Female , Genotype , Human papillomavirus 16/genetics , Human papillomavirus 18/genetics , Humans , Middle Aged , Papanicolaou Test , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Risk Factors , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology , Vaginal Smears
18.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1167-1176, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-98817

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated the prognostic factors for distant metastasis (DM) in patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) treated with surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-five patients treated between January 1995 and August 2014 were evaluated retrospectively. Data regarding the pathological tumour and nodal status, human papillomavirus (HPV) status, treatment characteristics, and pretreatment maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of 18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography–computed tomography scan (¹⁸F-FDG PET-CT) were evaluated, and their influence on DM and survival outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Median follow-up period was 48.0 months. Recurrence was observed in 20 patients, including locoregional recurrence and DM. DM was observed in 13 patients. A multivariate analysis confirmed that the presence of lymphovascular invasion (p=0.031), lower neck lymph node (LN) involvement (p=0.006), SUVmax ≥ 9.7 (p=0.014), and tumour size ≥ 3 cm (p=0.037) significantly affected DM. HPV status was not associated with DM. Perineural invasion (p=0.048), lower neck LNinvolvement (p=0.008), SUVmax ≥ 9.7 (p=0.019), and tumour size ≥ 3 cm (p=0.033) were also significant factors for the DM-free survival rate. CONCLUSION: Lower neck LN involvement, high SUVmax in pretreatment ¹⁸F-FDG PET-CT, and large tumour size were predictive factors for DM in patients of OPC.


Subject(s)
Drug Therapy , Electrons , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Multivariate Analysis , Neck , Neoplasm Metastasis , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-53511

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2004 World Health Organization classification introduced atypical pituitary adenoma (aPA), which was equivocally defined as invasion with increased mitotic activity that had a Ki-67 labeling index (LI) greater than 3%, and extensive p53 immunoreactivity. However, aPAs that exhibit all of these features are rare and the predictive value for recurrence in pituitary adenomas (PAs) remains uncertain. Thus, we sought to characterize pathological features of PAs that correlated with recurrence. METHODS: One hundred and sixty-seven cases of surgically resected PA or aPA were retrieved from 2011 to 2013 in Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital. Among them, 28 cases were confirmed to be recurrent, based on pathologic or radiologic examination. The pathologic characteristics including mitosis, invasion, Ki-67 LI and p53 immunoreactivity were analyzed in relation to recurrence. RESULTS: Analysis of the pathologic features indicated that only Ki-67 LI over 3% was significantly associated with tumor recurrence (p = .02). The cases with at least one pathologic feature showed significantly higher recurrence rates (p < .01). Analysis indicated that cases with two pathologic features, Ki-67 LI over 3% and extensive p53 immunoreactivity 20% or more, were significantly associated with tumor recurrence (p < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Based on these results, PA tumor recurrence can be predicted by using mitosis, invasion, Ki-67 LI (3%), or extensive p53 immunoreactivity (≥ 20%). Assessment of these features is recommended for PA diagnosis for more accurate prediction of recurrence.


Subject(s)
Classification , Diagnosis , Ki-67 Antigen , Mitosis , Pituitary Neoplasms , Recurrence , Seoul , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 , World Health Organization
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-145436

ABSTRACT

Lymphoplasmacyte-rich meningioma is a rare WHO Grade I subtype of meningioma. The lymphoplasmacyte-rich meningioma does not have typical imaging features of a meningioma so it can mimic intracranial inflammatory condition or brain neoplasm. We report the clinicopathologic features of lymphoplasmacyte-rich meningioma in a 35-year-old woman. She suffered from progressive headache, dizziness and tinnitus over two years. The tumor exhibited atypical neuroimaging features, including obvious peritumoral edema and irregular enhancing components. She underwent total resection and histologic examination revealed a meningioma with numerous plasma cells. Her symptoms have since resolved and there has been no evidence of tumor recurrence after one year of follow-up.


Subject(s)
Adult , Brain Neoplasms , Dizziness , Edema , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Headache , Humans , Meningioma , Neuroimaging , Plasma Cells , Recurrence , Tinnitus
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