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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786238

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Postoperative desaturation in older individuals is rarely addressed in the literature. The objective of this retrospective study was to investigate whether a preoperative spirometric test and arterial blood gas analysis (ABGA) might predict postoperative desaturation after spinal anesthesia in extreme older patients.METHODS: The medical records of 399 patients (age ≥ 80 yrs) who were administered spinal anesthesia for a femur neck fracture surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Early postoperative desaturation was defined as a reduction of oxygen saturation (SpO₂) below 90% within 3 days of surgery, despite O₂ supply via a nasal prong. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of early postoperative desaturation.RESULTS: The incidence of postoperative desaturation was 12.5%. Major morbidity rate was significantly higher in the desaturation group (n = 50) than that in the non-desaturation group (n = 349) (14% vs. 3.2%, P = 0.001) with more frequent postoperative stays in the intensive care unit (22% vs. 12%, P = 0.004). In a binary logistic regression analysis, preoperative ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO₂/FiO₂ ratio) (OR, 0.972; 95% CI 0.952–0.993; P = 0.010) and history of cardiovascular disease (OR, 2.127; 95% CI 1.004–4.507; P = 0.049) predicted postoperative desaturation.CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative PaO₂/FiO₂ ratio, but not preoperative spirometry, was predictive of the postoperative desaturation in older patients after being administered spinal anesthesia for femur fracture surgery. Based on our results, preoperative ABGA may be helpful in predicting early postoperative desaturation in these patients.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Spinal , Blood Gas Analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases , Femoral Neck Fractures , Femur , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Logistic Models , Medical Records , Oxygen , Partial Pressure , Retrospective Studies , Spirometry
2.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 491-499, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762087

ABSTRACT

With the rapid development of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures performed outside the operating room (OR), the need for appropriate sedation care has emerged in importance to ensure the safety and comfort of patients and clinicians. The preparation and administration of sedatives and sedation care outside the OR require careful attention, proper monitoring systems, and clinically useful sedation guidelines. This literature review addresses proper monitoring and selection of sedatives for diagnostic and interventional procedures outside the OR. As the depth of sedation increases, respiratory depression and cardiovascular suppression become serious, necessitating careful surveillance using appropriate monitoring equipment.


Subject(s)
Capnography , Dexmedetomidine , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Operating Rooms , Respiratory Insufficiency
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718417

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To compare the effects of intraoperative infusions of balanced electrolyte solution (BES)-based hydroxyethyl starch (HES) and saline-based albumin on metabolic acidosis and acid/base changes during major abdominal surgery conducted using Stewart’s approach. METHODS: Forty patients, aged 20-65 years, undergoing major abdominal surgery, were randomly assigned to the HES group (n = 20; received 500 ml of BES-based 6% HES 130/0.4) or the albumin group (n = 20; received 500 ml of normal saline-based 5% albumin). Acid-base parameters were measured and calculated using results obtained from arterial blood samples taken after anesthesia induction (T1), 2 hours after surgery commencement (T2), immediately after surgery (T3), and 1 hour after arriving at a postanesthetic care unit (T4). RESULTS: Arterial pH in the HES group was significantly higher than that in the albumin group at T3 (7.40 ± 0.04 vs. 7.38 ± 0.04, P = 0.043), and pH values exhibited significant intergroup difference over time (P = 0.002). Arterial pH was significantly lower at T3 and T4 in the HES group and at T2, T3, and T4 in the albumin group than at T1. Apparent strong ion difference (SIDa) was significantly lower at T2, T3, and T4 than at T1 in both groups. Total plasma weak nonvolatile acid (ATOT) was significantly lower in the HES group than in the albumin group at T2, T3 and T4 and exhibited a significant intergroup difference over time (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: BES-based 6% HES infusion was associated with lower arterial pH values at the end of surgery than saline-based 5% albumin infusion, but neither colloid caused clinically significant metabolic acidosis (defined as an arterial pH < 7.35).


Subject(s)
Acidosis , Anesthesia , Colloids , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Plasma , Starch
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-95778

ABSTRACT

The main stream of intraabdominal surgery has changed from laparotomy to laparoscopy, but anesthetic care for laparoscopic surgery is challenging for clinicians, because pneumoperitoneum might aggravate respiratory mechanics and arterial oxygenation. The authors reviewed the literature regarding ventilation strategies that reduce deleterious pulmonary physiologic changes during pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery under general anesthesia and make appropriate recommendations.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Laparoscopy , Laparotomy , Oxygen , Pneumoperitoneum , Respiratory Mechanics , Rivers , Ventilation
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-52555

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: 5-Hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists have been reported to attenuate spinal anesthesia-induced hemodynamic changes. This study was conducted to determine whether the second generation 5-HT3, antagonist palonosetron attenuates hypotension and bradycardia during spinal anesthesia. METHODS: Sixty adult patients scheduled for lower limb surgery were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either normal saline (Control group, N = 30) or palonosetron (0.075 mg, i.v.) (Palonosetron group, N = 30) prior to spinal anesthesia. Hemodynamic variables were recorded during anesthesia. RESULTS: The mean blood pressure (MBP) were 89.2 ± 11.4 mmHg in the control group and 87.6 ± 12.1 mmHg in the palonosetron group at 10 min after intrathecal injection (P = 0.609). The median blocked levels of the control group and the palonosetron group were T10 (interquartile range, 9-10) and T10 (8-10) at 20 min after intrathecal injection (P = 0.939). Requirements for ephedrine, phenylephrine, and atropine were similar (P = 0.652, 0.533 and 0.417, respectively). The incidences of hypotension (40% vs. 41%) and bradycardia (7% vs. 17%) were comparable (P = 0.562, P = 0.198, respectively) between the control and the palonosetron group. There were no significances in the changes of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, MBP and heart rate by the group (P = 0.632, 0.287, 0.556, 0.733, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous palonosetron (0.075 mg) prior to spinal anesthesia might not attenuate spinal anesthesia-induced hypotension during low level of neuroaxial block for lower limb surgery.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, Spinal , Atropine , Blood Pressure , Bradycardia , Ephedrine , Heart Rate , Hemodynamics , Humans , Hypotension , Incidence , Injections, Spinal , Lower Extremity , Orthopedics , Phenylephrine
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-64793

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic gastrectomy requires a reverse-Trendelenburg position and prolonged pneumoperitoneum and it could cause significant changes in cerebral homeostasis and lead to cognitive dysfunction. We compared changes in regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2), early postoperative cognitive function and hemodynamic variables in patients undergoing laparoscopic gastrectomy with those patients that underwent conventional open gastrectomy. METHODS: Sixty patients were enrolled in this study and the patients were distributed to receive either laparoscopic gastrectomy (laparoscopy group, n = 30) or open conventional gastrectomy (open group, n = 30). rSO2, end-tidal carbon dioxide tension, hemodynamic variables and arterial blood gas analysis were monitored during the operation. The enrolled patients underwent the mini-mental state examination 1 day before and 5 days after surgery for evaluation of early postoperative cognitive function. RESULTS: Compared to baseline value, rSO2 and end-tidal carbon dioxide tension increased significantly in the laparoscopy group after pneumoperitoneum, whereas no change was observed in the open group. No patient experienced cerebral oxygen desaturation or postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Changes in mean arterial pressure over time were significantly different between the groups (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Both laparoscopic and open gastrectomy did not induce cerebral desaturation or early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in patients under desflurane anesthesia. However, rSO2 values during surgery favoured laparoscopic surgery, which was possibly related to increased cerebral blood flow due to increased carbon dioxide tension and the effect of a reverse Trendelenburg position.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Arterial Pressure , Blood Gas Analysis , Carbon Dioxide , Gastrectomy , Head-Down Tilt , Hemodynamics , Homeostasis , Humans , Laparoscopy , Oxygen , Pneumoperitoneum
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-215140

ABSTRACT

Benedikt syndrome is characterized by ipsilateral ophthalmoplegia with contralateral hemichorea due to a midbrain lesion. A 67-year-old male with Benedikt syndrome underwent corpectomy at L1 and anterolateral interbody fusion at T12-L2 due to pathologic bursting fracture at L1 involving multiple myeloma. He had a history of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage and subdural hemorrhage 8 months before surgery. Magnetic resonance image of the brain revealed intracranial hemorrhage from thalamus to midbrain. Target controlled infusion with propofol and remifentanil were administered for anesthetic induction and maintenance and close hemodynamic and neurologic monitoring led to successful anesthetic management.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anesthesia , Brain , Hematoma, Subdural , Hemodynamics , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Male , Mesencephalon , Multiple Myeloma , Ophthalmoplegia , Propofol , Spine , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Traumatic , Thalamus
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-177914

ABSTRACT

A 70-year-old woman with an infectious thrombus in her left internal jugular vein (IJV) underwent carotid endarterectomy for stenosis and a highly movable plaque in her right carotid artery. She had been treated with antibiotics for four weeks before surgery due to Lemierre syndrome, a rare septic thrombophlebitis in the IJV secondary to an oropharyngeal infection. The right IJV was in a two-fold dilated state due to compensation for a thrombotic left IJV. Accordingly, superficial cervical plexus block was performed under ultrasound guidance to ensure safety and accuracy. During surgery, the alertness was maintained and the patient did not complain of pain in the absence of additional analgesics. No block-related complications were encountered. The authors report for the first time their regional anesthetic experiences in a patient with Lemierre syndrome.


Subject(s)
Aged , Analgesics , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Carotid Arteries , Cervical Plexus Block , Cervical Plexus , Compensation and Redress , Constriction, Pathologic , Endarterectomy, Carotid , Female , Humans , Jugular Veins , Lemierre Syndrome , Thrombophlebitis , Thrombosis , Ultrasonography
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83783

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The patients with traumatic brain injury showed ischemia due to increased intracranial pressure. This study evaluated the relationship of pre-anesthetic serum lactate level with in-hospital mortality. METHODS: The archived medical records of 121 patients were retrospectively reviewed. Demographics and preoperative serum lactate level were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 121 patients, 32 patients expired in the hospital after decompressive craniectomy. Preoperative serum lactate levels were 3.2 +/- 2.2 mmol/L in the survivors and 5.4 +/- 3.0 mmol/L in the dead (P = 0.001), and the receiver operating characteristic curve revealed that a cut off value of 3.60 mmol/L was reasonable for predicting mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative serum lactate level is highly correlated with in-hospital mortality after decompressive craniectomy in traumatic brain injury.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , Decompressive Craniectomy , Demography , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intracranial Pressure , Ischemia , Lactic Acid , Medical Records , Mortality , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Survivors
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-61150

ABSTRACT

Even with the rapid development of pediatric postoperative pain management, pediatric patients have remained undertreated for postoperative pain because of difficulty in pain assessment and concerns regarding side effects of opioid analgesics. Although there are no perfect pain assessment techniques and no absolutely safe analgesics, proper monitoring and an individualized analgesic plan after due consideration of age, operative procedures, and underlying illness, using multimodal analgesics may improve the quality of pain control in children.


Subject(s)
Analgesics , Analgesics, Opioid , Child , Humans , Pain Measurement , Pain, Postoperative , Pediatrics , Surgical Procedures, Operative
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-60713

ABSTRACT

Preoperative fasting is prescribed for a certain period before operations or procedures in which patients are not allowed oral intake to prevent aspiration of gastric content. Fasting recommendations prohibit the consumption of a heavy meal for 8 hours, a light meal or milk for 6 hours, and breast milk for 4 hours, and permit the consumption of clear liquid until 2 hours before an operation. However, sometimes, in an emergency situation such as increased intra-cranial or intraabdominal pressure and other trauma, the recommended fasting time might not be an absolute policy for preventing the aspiration of gastric content because the disease or trauma itself causes changes on the esophageal sphincter pressure, volume of the gastric content, and pH of the gastric fluid. Preparation of a safe anesthetic technique and appropriate preoperative medications can be helpful in preventing aspiration pneumonitis in an emergency situation.


Subject(s)
Emergencies , Fasting , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Meals , Milk , Milk, Human , Pneumonia
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-27436

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The start-up behavior of syringe and syringe pump is known to be one of the causes of inaccurate intravenous infusion. This study evaluated the method of priming the infusion system (PRIMING), and its impact on the target-controlled infusion (TCI) of two remifentanil diluents. METHODS: PRIMING was performed using an evacuation of 2.0 ml to the atmosphere prior to TCI. Forty-eight TCI, using 50 microg/ml (Remi50) or 20 microg/ml (Remi20) of diluents, were performed targeting 4.0 ng/ml of effect-site concentration (Ceff), with PRIMING or not. The gravimetrical measurements of the delivered infusates reproduced actual Ceff. The bolus amount and time to reach 95% target were compared. RESULTS: Without PRIMING, Remi50 infused less bolus (43 +/- 23 %) than Remi20 (19 +/- 9 %) (P = 0.003), and showed more delayed increase of Ceff (11.2 +/- 4.0 min) than Remi20 (7.4 +/- 0.4 min) (P = 0.028). However, PRIMING significantly decreased the deficit of the bolus (2 +/- 1%), as well as the delay of the increase of Ceff in Remi50 (1.2 +/- 0.2 min) (both P < 0.001). In addition, with PRIMING, the start-up bolus showed minimal difference to the nominal bolus (1 and 2%), and Ceff were increased to 4.0 +/- 0.1 ng/ml at the expected time of peak effect, irrespective of the diluents. CONCLUSIONS: Proper operation of the syringe pump used in the priming of the syringe may be helpful in reduction of the inaccuracy of TCI, particularly during the early phase of infusion, or the infusion of a more concentrated diluent.


Subject(s)
Atmosphere , Infusions, Intravenous , Piperidines , Syringes
13.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 127-128, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25970

ABSTRACT

Intradermal injections of indigo carmine for sentinel node mapping are considered safe and no report of an adverse reaction has been published. The authors described two cases of profound hypotension in women that underwent breast-conserving surgery after an intradermal injection of indigo carmine into the periareolar area for sentinel node mapping.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Hypotension , Indigo Carmine , Indoles , Injections, Intradermal , Mastectomy, Segmental , Nitriles , Pyrethrins , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-85966

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Perioperative hypothermia can develop easily during shoulder arthroscopy, because cold irrigation can directly influence core body temperature. The authors investigated whether active warming and humidification of inspired gases reduces falls in core body temperature and allows redistribution of body heat in patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia. METHODS: Patients scheduled for arthroscopic shoulder surgery were randomly assigned to receive either room temperature inspired gases using a conventional respiratory circuit (the control group, n = 20) or inspired gases humidified and heated using a humidified and electrically heated circuit (HHC) (the heated group, n = 20). RESULTS: Core temperatures were significantly lower in both groups from 30 min after anesthesia induction, but were significantly higher in the heated group than in the control group from 75 to 120 min after anesthesia induction. CONCLUSIONS: In this study the use of a humidified and electrically heated circuit did not prevent core temperature falling during arthroscopic shoulder surgery, but it was found to decrease reductions in core temperature from 75 min after anesthesia induction.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Arthroscopy , Body Temperature , Cold Temperature , Gases , Hot Temperature , Humans , Hypothermia , Shoulder
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100103

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Different tidal volume (TV) settings during mechanical ventilation alter intrathoracic blood volume, and these changes could alter central venous pressure and the cross sectional area (CSA) of the right internal jugular vein (RIJV). The aim of this study was to determine the optimal TV for maximizing the CSA of the RIJV in the supine and Trendelenburg positions in anesthetized patients. METHODS: Forty patients were randomly allocated to a supine group (Group S, n = 20) or a Trendelenburg group (Group T, n = 20) by computer generated randomization. RIJV CSAs were measured repeatedly after increasing the inspiratory volume in 1 ml/kg increments from a TV of 8 ml/kg to 14 ml/kg using ultrasound images. RESULTS: Peak inspiratory pressure increased significantly on increasing TV from 11 ml/kg to 14 ml/kg and between baseline (TV 8 ml/kg) and 11 ml/kg in both groups (P < 0.05). RIJV CSA was not increased versus baseline even after TV changes in either group and no intergroup difference was found. CONCLUSIONS: TV increases do not increase the CSA of the RIJV within the TV range 8 to 14 ml/kg in the supine or 10degrees Trendelenburg position.


Subject(s)
Blood Volume , Central Venous Pressure , Head-Down Tilt , Humans , Jugular Veins , Random Allocation , Respiration, Artificial , Tidal Volume , Ultrasonography
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-38814

ABSTRACT

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is defined as an autoimmune disorder characterized by recurrent thrombosis or obstetrical morbidity. A 29-year-old woman who was diagnosed with APS underwent emergency cesarean delivery at 23 weeks' gestation. She had a seizure attack and her laboratory findings were: AST/ALT 1459/1108 IU/L, LDH 1424 IU/L, 30% hematocrit, a platelet count of 43 x 10(3)/ml and urine protein (4+). We describe the anesthetic experience of catastrophic HELLP syndrome with antiphospholipid syndrome and we review the relevant literature.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antiphospholipid Syndrome , Eclampsia , Emergencies , Female , HELLP Syndrome , Hematocrit , Humans , Platelet Count , Pregnancy , Seizures , Thrombosis
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-37794

ABSTRACT

Although the incidence of extrapyramidal reactions associated with metoclopramide has been reported to be approximately 0.2%, such reactions are rare in the anesthetic field. Several anesthetic adjuvants, including ondansetron and pregabalin, have also been associated with extrapyramidal side effect. Here, the authors report the case of a 47-year-old patient, previously administered pregabalin and ondansetron, who developed extrapyramidal side effects after a single injection of metoclopramide (10 mg) in a post-anesthesia care unit.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Anesthesia , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Humans , Incidence , Metoclopramide , Middle Aged , Ondansetron , Pregabalin
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208516

ABSTRACT

Kartagener's syndrome (KGS) is an autosomal recessive disorder which possible to link the occurrence of abnormal ciliary movement and abnormal position of the body organs. Considering the fact that airway ciliary function plays an important role in the primary pulmonary defense mechanism, prevent the ciliodepressant actions are also important for anesthetic management. We described successful anesthetic management of a 44-year-old male scheduled for endoscopic sinus surgery who had a history of frequent epistaxis, anosmia and situs inversus totalis. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol and remifentanil using a target controlled infusion device.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aluminum Hydroxide , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, Intravenous , Carbonates , Epistaxis , Humans , Kartagener Syndrome , Male , Olfaction Disorders , Piperidines , Propofol , Situs Inversus
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-227705

ABSTRACT

The patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have abnormal cerebral auto-regulation and preexisting DM is one of the major factors related to adverse postoperative neurological deficits. New onset hemiparesis is a rare and devastating event in a patient awakening from general anesthersia. We report a case of transient hemiparesis after general anesthesia in a patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy with uncontrolled DM.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , Paresis
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