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1.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 672-682, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003062

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Some management strategies for acute colonic diverticulitis remain controversial in Korean real-world practice because their clinical features differ from those in the West. This study aimed to investigate the opinions of Korean physicians regarding the diagnosis and treatment of acute diverticulitis. @*Methods@#A web-based survey was conducted among gastroenterologists specializing on treating lower gastrointestinal disorders. The questionnaires concerned overall management strategies for colonic diverticulitis, including diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. @*Results@#In total, 209 gastroenterologists responded to the survey. Less than one-fourth of the respondents (23.6%) answered that left-sided colonic diverticulitis is more likely to be complicated than right-sided colonic diverticulitis. Most respondents agreed that immunocompromised patients with diverticulitis have worse clinical outcomes than immunocompetent patients (71.3%). Computed tomography was the most preferred tool for diagnosing diverticulitis (93.9%). Approximately 89% of the respondents answered that they believed antibiotic treatment is necessary to treat acute uncomplicated diverticulitis. Most respondents (92.6%) agreed that emergency surgery is not required for diverticulitis with an abscess or microperforation without panperitonitis. Further, 94.7% of the respondents agreed that colon cancer screening is necessary in patients aged ≥ 50 years with diverticulitis after they have recovered from acute illness. Many respondents (71.4%) agreed that surgery for recurrent diverticulitis should be individualized. @*Conclusions@#Opinions regarding management strategies for colonic diverticulitis among Korean gastroenterologists were well agreed upon in some areas but did not agree well in other areas. Evidence-based guidelines that meet the practical needs of the Korean population should be developed.

2.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 89-95, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002553

ABSTRACT

Human microbiome refers to the genetic material of approximately 1013 microorganisms present in the human body. These microbiomes interact significantly with the physiological, metabolic, and immune systems, particularly during pregnancy. Microbiome dysbiosis in pregnant women and their fetuses is associated with obstetric complications and poor neonatal outcomes. Oral and gut microbiomes can influence the placenta, uterus, and fetus via hematogenous translocation. Through ascending translocation, vaginal microbiota can directly affect the uterine environment. Current research focuses on the presence of the placental microbiome, which is characterized by low biomass. However, more well-controlled studies are required to specifically address the contamination issues. Use of antibiotics during pregnancy and the mode of delivery, specifically cesarean section, have been linked to the establishment of the neonatal gut microbiome. Probiotic supplementation may be beneficial during pregnancy, particularly for women receiving antibiotic treatment.

3.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 628-638, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001995

ABSTRACT

Fabry nephropathy is characterized by a deficiency of lysosomal alpha-galactosidase A, which results in proteinuria and kidney disease. The ineffectiveness of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for severe kidney failure highlights the need for early detection and meaningful markers. However, because the diagnosis and treatment of Fabry disease can vary according to the expertise of physicians, we evaluated the opinions of Korean specialists. Methods: A questionnaire regarding the management of Fabry nephropathy was emailed to healthcare providers with the experience or ability to treat individuals with Fabry nephropathy. Results: Of the 70 experts who responded to the survey, 43 were nephrologists, and 64.3% of the respondents reported having treated patients with Fabry disease. Pediatricians are treating primarily patients with classic types of the disease, while nephrologists and cardiologists are treating more patients with variant types. Only 40.7% of non-nephrologists agreed that a kidney biopsy was required at the time of diagnosis, compared with 81.4% of nephrologists. Thirty-eight of 70 respondents (54.3%) reported measuring globotriaosylsphingosine (lyso-Gb3) as a biomarker. The most common period to measure lyso-Gb3 was at the time of diagnosis, followed by after ERT, before ERT, and at screening. For the stage at which ERT should begin, microalbuminuria and proteinuria were chosen by 51.8% and 28.6% of respondents, respectively. Conclusion: Nephrologists are more likely to treat variant Fabry disease rather than classic cases, and they agree that ERT should be initiated early in Fabry nephropathy, using lyso-Gb3 as a biomarker.

4.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e270-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001082

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to investigate the prevalence rate of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and identify the demographic, and sociological characteristics and changes in awareness of HCV infection by participating the study for North Korean defectors residing in South Korea. @*Methods@#This study prospectively enrolled participants. Demographic, sociological and clinical data, and questionnaire surveys focused on awareness of HCV infection were collected. @*Results@#In total, 211 North Korean defectors participated in this study from September 2020 until June 2021. There were 174 women (82.5%), and the overall mean age was 48.9 years (range, 20 to 80 years). Of these participants, 112 (53.1%) had immigrated to South Korea since 2011. The overall prevalence of anti-HCV antibody among North Korean defectors was 1.9%. Thirty participants (14.2%) had hepatitis B surface antigens. A huge lack of awareness regarding HCV infection has been observed among North Korean defectors. @*Conclusion@#This is the first prospective study to investigate the prevalence rate of HCV infection among North Korean defectors residing in South Korea. As North Korean defectors are a vulnerable group concerning HCV infection, they may benefit from HCV screening policies and educational interventions for HCV infection.

5.
Intestinal Research ; : 481-492, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000605

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Immunocompromised patients with acute colonic diverticulitis are at high risk for complications and failure of non-surgical treatment. However, evidence on the comparative outcomes of immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients with diverticulitis is lacking. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the outcomes of medical treatment in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients with diverticulitis. @*Methods@#A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Studies comparing the clinical outcomes of immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients with diverticulitis were included. @*Results@#A total of 10 studies with 1,946,461 subjects were included in the quantitative synthesis. The risk of emergency surgery and postoperative mortality after emergency surgery was significantly higher in immunocompromised patients than in immunocompetent patients with diverticulitis (risk ratio [RR], 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31–2.38 and RR, 3.05; 95% CI, 1.70–5.45, respectively). Overall risk of complications associated with diverticulitis was non-significantly higher in immunocompromised than in immunocompetent patients (RR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.95–1.63). Overall mortality irrespective of surgery was significantly higher in immunocompromised than in immunocompetent patients with diverticulitis (RR, 3.65; 95% CI, 1.73–7.69). By contrast, postoperative mortality after elective surgery was not significantly different between immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients with diverticulitis. In subgroup analysis, the risk of emergency surgery and recurrence was significantly higher in immunocompromised patients with complicated diverticulitis, whereas no significant difference was shown in mild disease. @*Conclusions@#Immunocompromised patients with diverticulitis should be given the best medical treatment with multidisciplinary approach because they had increased risks of surgery, postoperative morbidity, and mortality than immunocompetent patients.

6.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 436-444, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000309

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to investigate the changes of incidence and treatment of choice for hyperthyroidism from 2003 to 2018 and explore the treatment-related complications and concomitant comorbidities in South Korea using data from the National Health Insurance Service. @*Methods@#This is a retrospective observational study. Hyperthyroidism was defined as a case having two or more diagnostic codes of thyrotoxicosis, with antithyroid drug intake for more than 6 months. @*Results@#The average age-standardized incidence of hyperthyroidism from 2003 to 2018 was 42.23 and 105.13 per 100,000 men and women, respectively. In 2003 to 2004, hyperthyroidism was most often diagnosed in patients in their 50s, but in 2017 to 2018, people were most often diagnosed in their 60s. During the entire period, about 93.7% of hyperthyroidism patients were prescribed with antithyroid drugs, and meanwhile, the annual rates of ablation therapy decrease from 7.68% in 2008 to 4.56% in 2018. Antithyroid drug-related adverse events, mainly agranulocytosis and acute hepatitis, as well as complications of hyperthyroidism such as atrial fibrillation or flutter, osteoporosis, and fractures, occurred more often in younger patients. @*Conclusion@#In Korea, hyperthyroidism occurred about 2.5 times more in women than in men, and antithyroid drugs were most preferred as the first-line treatment. Compared to the general population, hyperthyroid patients may have a higher risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter, osteoporosis, and fractures at a younger age.

7.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 563-577, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000075

ABSTRACT

In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), chronic inflammation leads to unfavorable clinical outcomes and increases the risk of developing colorectal neoplasm (CRN); thereby highlighting the importance of endoscopically evaluating disease activity as well as detecting and characterizing CRN in patients with IBD. With recent advances in image-enhanced endoscopic (IEE) technologies, especially virtual chromoendoscopy (VCE) platforms, this review discusses state-of-the-art IEE techniques and their applicability in assessing disease activity and surveillance colonoscopy in patients with IBD. Among various IEE, VCE demonstrated the capacity to identify quiescent disease activity. And endoscopic remission defined by the new scoring system using VCE platform better predicted clinical outcomes, which may benefit the tailoring of therapeutic strategies in patients with IBD. High-definition dye-chromoendoscopy (HD-DCE) is numerically superior to high-definition white light endoscopy (HD-WLE) in detecting CRN in IBD; however, discrepancy is observed in the statistical significance. VCE showed comparable performance in detecting dysplasia to HD-WLE or DCE and potential for optical diagnosis to differentiate neoplastic from nonneoplastic lesions during surveillance colonoscopy. Applying these novel advanced IEE technologies would provide opportunities for personalized medicine in IBD and optimal treatment of CRN in patients with IBD.

8.
Ultrasonography ; : 275-285, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969228

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study evaluated thyroid cancer risk in a lung cancer screening population according to the presence of an incidental thyroid nodule (ITN) detected on low-dose chest computed tomography (LDCT). @*Methods@#Of 47,837 subjects who underwent LDCT, a lung cancer screening population according to the National Lung Screening Trial results was retrospectively enrolled. The prevalence of ITN on LDCT was calculated, and the ultrasonography (US)/fine-needle aspiration (FNA)–based risk of thyroid cancer according to the presence of ITN on LDCT was compared using the Fisher exact or Student t-test as appropriate. @*Results@#Of the 2,329 subjects (female:male=44:2,285; mean age, 60.9±4.9 years), the prevalence of ITN on LDCT was 4.8% (111/2,329). The incidence of thyroid cancer was 0.8% (18/2,329, papillary thyroid microcarcinomas [PTMCs]) and was higher in the ITN-positive group than in the ITN-negative group (3.6% [4/111] vs. 0.6% [14/2,218], P=0.009). Among the 2,011 subjects who underwent both LDCT and thyroid US, all risks were higher (P<0.001) in the ITNpositive group than in the ITN-negative group: presence of thyroid nodule on US, 94.1% (95/101) vs. 48.6% (928/1,910); recommendation of FNA according to the American Thyroid Association guideline and Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System guideline, 41.2% (42/101) vs. 2.4% (46/1,910) and 39.6% (40/101) vs. 1.9% (37/1,910), respectively. @*Conclusion@#Despite a higher risk of thyroid cancer in the LDCT ITN-positive group than in the ITN-negative group in a lung cancer screening population, all cancers were PTMCs. A heavy smoking history may not necessitate thorough screening US for thyroid incidentalomas.

9.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 1-16, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968702

ABSTRACT

The introduction of device-assisted enteroscopy (DAE) in the beginning of the 21st century has revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the small intestine. In contrast to capsule endoscopy, the other main diagnostic modality of small bowel diseases, DAE has the unique advantages of allowing the observation of the region of interest in detail and enabling tissue acquisition and therapeutic intervention. As DAE becomes an essential procedure in daily clinical practice, there is an increasing need for correct guidelines on when and how it is to be performed and what technical factors should be taken into consideration. In response to these needs, the Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases has developed an expert consensus statement on the performance of DAE by reviewing current evidence. This expert consensus statement particularly focuses on the indications, choice of insertion route, therapeutic intervention, complications, and relevant technical points.

10.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 284-293, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968241

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To validate a simplified ordinal scoring method, referred to as modified length-based grading, for assessing coronary artery calcium (CAC) severity on non-electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated chest computed tomography (CT). @*Materials and Methods@#This retrospective study enrolled 120 patients (mean age ± standard deviation [SD], 63.1 ± 14.5 years; male, 64) who underwent both non-ECG-gated chest CT and ECG-gated cardiac CT between January 2011 and December 2021. Six radiologists independently assessed CAC severity on chest CT using two scoring methods (visual assessment and modified length-based grading) and categorized the results as none, mild, moderate, or severe. The CAC category on cardiac CT assessed using the Agatston score was used as the reference standard. Agreement among the six observers for CAC category classification was assessed using Fleiss kappa statistics. Agreement between CAC categories on chest CT obtained using either method and the Agatston score categories on cardiac CT was assessed using Cohen’s kappa. The time taken to evaluate CAC grading was compared between the observers and two grading methods. @*Results@#For differentiation of the four CAC categories, interobserver agreement was moderate for visual assessment (Fleiss kappa, 0.553 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 0.496–0.610]) and good for modified length-based grading (Fleiss kappa, 0.695 [95% CI: 0.636–0.754]). The modified length-based grading demonstrated better agreement with the reference standard categorization with cardiac CT than visual assessment (Cohen’s kappa, 0.565 [95% CI: 0.511–0.619 for visual assessment vs. 0.695 [95% CI: 0.638–0.752] for modified length-based grading). The overall time for evaluating CAC grading was slightly shorter in visual assessment (mean ± SD, 41.8 ± 38.9 s) than in modified length-based grading (43.5 ± 33.2 s) (P < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#The modified length-based grading worked well for evaluating CAC on non-ECG-gated chest CT with better interobserver agreement and agreement with cardiac CT than visual assessment.

11.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 90-98, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967831

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To study the long-term efficacy and safety of Flexivue Microlens refractive corneal inlays in Koreans for compensation of presbyopia. @*Methods@#Flexivue Microlens inlays were implanted in nine eyes at Samsung Medical Center from October 2015 to February 2018. The follow-up period was 1.95 ± 0.6 years. Pre- and postoperative near/intermediate/distant visual acuity, spherical equivalent, contrast sensitivity, defocus curve, keratometry, and patient satisfaction were evaluated retrospectively. @*Results@#The uncorrected near visual acuity (UNVA) of the operated eye increased significantly to 0.27 ± 0.10 logarithm of the minimal angle resolution (logMAR) after 6 months (p = 0.012). At the last observation, it was 0.32 ± 0.21 logMAR, which improved compared to before surgery, but the difference was not significant (p = 0.127). The binocular UNVA improved significantly to 0.19 ± 0.78 logMAR at 6 months postoperatively (p = 0.017) and to 0.21 ± 0.13 logMAR at the last observation (p = 0.028). There was no difference in the binocular uncorrected distant visual acuity (UDVA) before and after surgery, but the UDVA of the operated eye decreased significantly to 0.38 ± 0.15 logMAR at 6 months postoperatively (p = 0.007) and to 0.32 ± 0.21 logMAR at the last observation (p = 0.012). Satisfaction with near vision improved significantly after surgery; 14.3% of the patients had a score of 4 (good) or higher and 42.9% did not require near-vision glasses. In one case, the inlay was removed after 17 months due to blurred vision. @*Conclusions@#The Flexivue Microlens has a low risk of complications and is a reversible technique. However, the near vision improvement was temporary and distance vision deteriorated. In addition, the Koreans examined had relatively low satisfaction and high spectacle dependence.

12.
Journal of Bone Metabolism ; : 31-36, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967055

ABSTRACT

Osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures cause socioeconomic concerns, and medical system and policies appear insufficient to prepare for these issues in Korea, where the older adult population is rapidly increasing. Many countries around the world are already responding to osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures by adopting fracture liaison service (FLS), and such an attempt has only begun in Korea. In this article, we introduce the operation methods for institutions implementing FLS and characteristics of services, and activities of the FLS Committee for FLS implementation in the Korean Society for Bone and Mineral Research. In addition, we hope that the current position statement will contribute to the implementation of FLS in Korea and impel policy changes to enable a multidisciplinary and integrated FLS operated under the medical system.

13.
Intestinal Research ; : 3-19, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967001

ABSTRACT

The introduction of device-assisted enteroscopy (DAE) in the beginning of 21st century has revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the small intestine. In contrast to capsule endoscopy, the other main diagnostic modality of the small bowel diseases, DAE has the unique advantages of observing the region of interest in detail and enabling tissue acquisition and therapeutic intervention. As DAE becomes an essential procedure in daily clinical practice, there is an increasing need for correct guidelines on when and how to perform it and what technical factors should be considered. In response to these needs, the Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases developed an expert consensus statement on the performance of DAE by reviewing the current evidence. This expert consensus statement particularly focuses on the indications, choice of insertion route, therapeutic intervention, complications, and relevant technical points.

14.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 81-92, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966822

ABSTRACT

Background@#The true benefit of thyroid cancer screening is incompletely understood. This study investigated the impact of ultrasound screening on thyroid cancer outcomes through a comparison with symptomatic thyroid cancer using data from a nationwide cohort study in Korea. @*Methods@#Cox regression analysis was performed to assess the hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and thyroid cancer-specific mortality. Considering the possible bias arising from age, sex, year of thyroid cancer registration, and confounding factors for mortality (including smoking/drinking status, diabetes, and hypertension), all analyses were conducted with stabilized inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) according to the route of detection. @*Results@#Of 5,796 patients with thyroid cancer, 4,145 were included and 1,651 were excluded due to insufficient data. In comparison with the screening group, the clinical suspicion group was associated with large tumors (17.2±14.6 mm vs. 10.4±7.9 mm), advanced T stage (3–4) (odds ratio [OR], 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 1.41), extrathyroidal extension (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.32), and advanced stage (III–IV) (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.35). In IPTW-adjusted Cox regression analysis, the clinical suspicion group had significantly higher risks of all-cause mortality (HR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.80) and thyroid cancer-specific mortality (HR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.77 to 5.29). Mediation analysis showed that the presence of thyroid-specific symptoms was directly associated with a higher risk of cancer-specific mortality. Thyroid-specific symptoms also indirectly affected thyroid cancer-specific mortality, mediated by tumor size and advanced clinicopathologic status. @*Conclusion@#Our findings provide important evidence for the survival benefit of early detection of thyroid cancer compared to symptomatic thyroid cancer.

15.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 93-103, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966821

ABSTRACT

Background@#Thyroid cancer screening has contributed to the skyrocketing prevalence of thyroid cancer. However, the true benefit of thyroid cancer screening is not fully understood. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of screening on the clinical outcomes of thyroid cancer by comparing incidental thyroid cancer (ITC) with non-incidental thyroid cancer (NITC) through a meta-analysis. @*Methods@#PubMed and Embase were searched from inception to September 2022. We estimated and compared the prevalence of high-risk features (aggressive histology of thyroid cancer, extrathyroidal extension, metastasis to regional lymph nodes or distant organs, and advanced tumor-node-metastasis [TNM] stage), thyroid cancer-specific death, and recurrence in the ITC and NITC groups. We also calculated pooled risks and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the outcomes derived from these two groups. @*Results@#From 1,078 studies screened, 14 were included. In comparison to NITC, the ITC group had a lower incidence of aggressive histology (odds ratio [OR], 0.46; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.7), smaller tumors (mean difference, −7.9 mm; 95% CI, −10.2 to −5.6), lymph node metastasis (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.48 to 0.86), and distant metastasis (OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.23 to 0.77). The risks of recurrence and thyroid cancer-specific mortality were also lower in the ITC group (OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.71 and OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.74) than in the NITC group. @*Conclusion@#Our findings provide important evidence of a survival benefit from the early detection of thyroid cancer compared to symptomatic thyroid cancer.

16.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 1-9, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966305

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Clinically, breast cancer can be divided into 4 subtypes based on the presence of hormone receptors, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki-67. Because the pattern and time of recurrence vary according to the subtype, we evaluated whether there was a difference in overall survival (OS) among the subtypes according to the time and type of recurrence. @*Methods@#A total of 2,730 patients who underwent breast cancer surgery were analyzed. Early and late recurrence were defined as recurrence within and after 5 years of diagnosis, respectively. Recurrence type was categorized as locoregional recurrence or systemic recurrence. @*Results@#Hormone receptor-positive tumors were significantly more frequent in the late recurrence group than in the early recurrence group (estrogen receptor positive, 47.8% [early] vs. 78.7% [late]). However, there was no difference in the rate of HER2 overexpression (HER2+, 38.1% [early] vs.39.0% [late]). In subgroup analysis, early recurrence was a significant prognostic factor for OS in all subtypes. However, late recurrence was a significant prognostic factor for OS only in the luminal B subtype (hazard ratio of 4.30). In addition, the luminal B type had the highest proportion in late recurrence patients (63.2%). @*Conclusion@#The luminal B subtype had a high rate of late recurrence, and late recurrence was a poor prognostic factor for OS only in this subgroup. Therefore, further targeted treatments for luminal B breast cancer are needed and patients with this subtype require close long-term surveillance.

17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 291-296, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977425

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Ear reconstruction is one of the most difficult areas in the field of reconstructive surgery. Due to limitations of the current practice, a novel method of auricular reconstruction is needed. Major advancements in three-dimensional (3D) printing technique have rendered the process of ear reconstruction more favorable. Herein, we present our experience in designing and clinically using 3D implants in both 1st and 2nd stage ear reconstruction surgery. @*Materials and Methods@#After obtaining 3D CT data from each patient, a 3D geometric ear model was created using mirroring and segmentation processes. The 3D-printed implant design resembles but does not exactly match the normal ear shape, and can be inserted in harmony with the currently used surgical technique. The 2nd stage implant was designed to minimize dead space and support the posterior ear helix. The 3D implants were finally fabricated with a 3D printing system and used in ear reconstruction surgery in our institute. @*Results@#The 3D implants were manufactured for application to the currently used two-stage technique while maintaining the shape of the patient’s normal ear. The implants were successfully used for ear reconstruction surgery in microtia patients. A few months later, the 2nd stage implant was used in the 2nd stage operation. @*Conclusion@#The authors were able to design, fabricate, and apply patient-specific 3D-printed ear implants for 1st and 2nd stage ear reconstruction surgeries. This design, combined with 3D bioprinting technique, may be a future alternative for ear reconstruction.

18.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 208-217, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913821

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Hospital-based clinical studies have limitations in holistic assessment of cancer treatment and prognosis, as they omit out-of-hospital patients including elderly individuals. This study aimed to investigate trends in initial treatment and corresponding prognosis of patients with exocrine pancreatic cancer (EPC) in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#The Korea Central Cancer Registry data of patients with EPC from 2006 to 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. We defined the first course of treatment (FT) as the cancer-directed treatment administered within four months after cancer diagnosis according to Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. @*Results@#Among 62,209 patients with EPC, localized and regional (LR) SEER stage; patients over 70 years old; and ductal adenocarcinoma excluding cystic or mucinous (DAC) accounted for 40.6%, 50.1%, and 95.9%, respectively. “No active treatment” (NT, 46.5%) was the most frequent, followed by non-surgical FT (28.7%) and surgical FT (22.0%). Among 25,198 patients with LR EPC, surgical FT increased (35.9% to 46.3%) and NT decreased (45.0% to 29.5%) from 2006 to 2017. The rate of surgical FT was inversely related to age (55.1% [< 70 years], 37.3% [70-79 years], 10.9% [≥ 80 years]). Five-year relative survival rates of LR DAC were higher after surgical FT than after NT in localized (46.1% vs. 12.9%) and regional stage (23.6% vs. 4.9%) from 2012 to 2017. @*Conclusion@#Less than half of overall patients with LR EPC underwent surgical FT, and this proportion decreased significantly in elderly individuals. Clinicians should focus attention on elderly patients with EPC to provide appropriate medical advice.

19.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 72-79, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913706

ABSTRACT

Licochalcone H (LCH) is a phenolic compound synthetically derived from licochalcone C (LCC) that exerts anticancer activity. In this study, we investigated the anticancer activity of LCH in human skin cancer A375 and A431 cells. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) cell viability assay was used to evaluate the antiproliferative activity of LCH. Cell cycle distribution and the induction of apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Western blotting assays were performed to detect the levels of proteins involved in cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. LCH inhibited the growth of cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. The annexin V/propidium iodide double staining assay revealed that LCH induced apoptosis, and the LCH-induced apoptosis was accompanied by cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. Western blot analysis showed that the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 was decreased by treatment with LCH. The inhibition of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway by pharmacological inhibitors against JAK2/STAT3 (cryptotanshinone (CTS) and S3I-201) simulated the antiproliferative effect of LCH suggesting that LCH induced apoptosis by modulating JAK2/STAT3 signaling.

20.
Korean Journal of Clinical Oncology ; (2): 83-88, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968002

ABSTRACT

Appendiceal mucocele is a rare mucin-producing neoplasm of appendiceal origin. Due to its location and imaging findings, appendiceal mucocele is easily confused with tumors of the right adnexa. We present a rare case of a patient initially misdiagnosed with an ovarian tumor intraoperatively diagnosed as an appendiceal mucocele and successfully treated. A 66-year-old postmenopausal woman was admitted to the gynecology department for an asymptomatic pelvic mass. Preoperative pelvic imaging showed an 8-cm cystic mass. Exploratory laparoscopy for the suspected epithelial borderline tumor from the right ovary revealed a cystic mass in the right pelvic area and normal uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. Intraoperative consultation with the general surgery department confirmed the appendiceal origin. Laparoscopic appendectomy was performed. Histopathological examination confirmed a low-grade mucinous neoplasm of appendiceal origin. The patient was discharged on a postoperative day 5 without complications. The outpatient follow-up performed 1 month later showed no evidence of disease progression. Despite the use of advanced diagnostic tools, appendiceal mucocele may be confused for ovarian malignancies. Because the clinical features of appendiceal mucocele are nonspecific, clinicians and radiologists know the specific imaging findings. A multidisciplinary approach including general surgery, gynecology, and radiology is required for preoperative diagnosis and treatment.

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