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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 84-92, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919622

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We propose the Lifelog Bigdata Platform as a sustainable digital healthcare system based on individual-centric lifelog datasets and describe the standardization of lifelog and clinical data in its full-cycle management system. @*Materials and Methods@#The Lifelog Bigdata Platform was developed by Yonsei Wonju Health System on the cloud to support digital healthcare and precision medicine. It consists of five core components: data acquisition system, de-identification of individual information, lifelog integration, analyzer, and service. We designed a gathering system into a dedicated virtual machine to save lifelog or clinical outcomes and established standard guidelines for maintaining the quality of gathering procedures. We used standard integration keys to integrate the lifelog and clinical data. Metadata were generated from the data warehouse after loading combined or fragmented data on it. We analyzed the de-identified lifelog and clinical data using the lifelog analyzer to prevent and manage acute and chronic diseases through providing results of statistics on analysis. @*Results@#The big data centers were built in four hospitals and seven companies for integrating lifelog and clinical data to develop the Lifelog Bigdata Platform. We integrated and loaded lifelog big data and clinical data for 3 years. In the first year, we uploaded 94 types of data on the platform with a total capacity of 221 GB. @*Conclusion@#The Lifelog Bigdata Platform is the first to combine lifelog and clinical data. The proposed standardization guidelines can be used for future platforms to achieve a virtuous cycle structure of lifelogging big data and an industrial ecosystem.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919480

ABSTRACT

Background@#In asthma, consistent control of chronic airway inflammation is crucial, and the use of asthma-controller medication has been emphasized. Our purpose in this study is to compare the incidence of acute exacerbation and healthcare costs related to the use of asthma-controller medication. @*Methods@#By using data collected by the National Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, we compared one-year clinical outcomes and medical costs from July 2014 to June 2015 (follow-up period) between two groups of patients with asthma who received different prescriptions for recommended asthma-controller medication (inhaled corticosteroids or leukotriene receptor antagonists) at least once from July 2013 to June 2014 (assessment period). @*Results@#There were 51,757 patients who satisfied our inclusion criteria. Among them, 13,702 patients (26.5%) were prescribed a recommended asthma-controller medication during the assessment period. In patients using a recommended asthma-controller medication, the frequency of acute exacerbations decreased in the follow-up period, from 2.7% to 1.1%. The total medical costs of the controller group decreased during the follow-up period compared to the assessment period, from $3,772,692 to $1,985,475. Only 50.9% of patients in the controller group used healthcare services in the follow-up period, and the use of asthma-controller medication decreased in the follow-up period. @*Conclusion@#Overall, patients using a recommended asthma-controller medication showed decreased acute exacerbation and reduced total healthcare cost by half.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919200

ABSTRACT

The incidence and prevalence of heart failure (HF) is increasing worldwide, leading to high morbidity and mortality. The global management of HF involves lifestyle changes in addition to pharmacological treatments. Changes include exercise and dietary recommendations, mainly salt and fluid restriction, but without any clear evidence. We conducted a systematic review to analyse the degree of evidence for these dietary recommendations in HF. Only randomized controlled trials (RCT), and observational studies in humans were selected. Studies were considered eligible if they included participants with HF and sodium and/or fluid restriction. Publications in languages other than English or Spanish were excluded. We included 15 studies related to sodium or fluid restriction. Nine RCT and six observational studies showed some improvements in symptoms and quality of life and a degree of reduction in new hospitalizations, but the results are based on limited population groups, applying different methodologies, and with different restriction goals. We found a lack of clear evidence of the benefits of sodium/fluid restriction in chronic HF. The evidence is limited to few studies with conflicting results. Randomized clinical trials are needed to fill this gap in our knowledge.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918841

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic panniculitis is a rare skin complication in which subcutaneous fat necrosis occurs in association with pancreatic disorders, most commonly acute or chronic pancreatitis. Erythematous subcutaneous nodules develop on the legs and spontaneously ulcerate or exude an oily substance. A 32-year-old Korean female patient presented with a 2-week-history of tender nodules with erythematous crusts on her left shin. She had a history of alcoholic liver cirrhosis and, 5 weeks earlier, had been diagnosed with acute pancreatitis. The histopathologic findings from a skin biopsy were consistent with lobular panniculitis, without signs of vasculitis, and diffuse fat necrosis. Basophilic calcium deposits were present in the dermis and subcutaneous fat. These findings were suggestive of pancreatic panniculitis. The skin lesion had a chronic course corresponding to repeated exacerbations of the patient’s pancreatitis. Thus, in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous nodules, clinicians should consider pancreatic panniculitis as a cutaneous manifestation of pancreatic disease.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917644

ABSTRACT

Background@#Dermatofibromas (DF) are fibrohistiocytic tumors of unknown etiology, and multiple DF (MDF) are relatively rare. MDF have been reported in the setting of autoimmune diseases, human immunodeficiency virus infection, or comorbidities treated with immunosuppressive drugs. @*Objective@#The present study investigated whether underlying conditions with impaired immune function are associated with MDF. @*Methods@#A total of 338 patients with DF was enrolled. We divided patients into two groups as MDF and solitary DF (SDF) groups. We retrospectively reviewed patient medical records and classified all patients by underlying diseases. Statistical significance of SDF and MDF for each conditions was analyzed. @*Results@#The demographics and comorbidities were compared between MDF group (n=82) and SDF group (n=256). Among underlying conditions, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (odds ratio, 10.397; 95% confidence interval, 2.743∼39.404; p<0.001) was significantly associated with MDF over SDF. Vitiligo and post status of kidney transplant were related more highly to MDF (p=0.014; p=0.014, respectively) than to SDF. Presence of overall comorbidities, autoimmune diseases, and immunosuppressive drug use were associated with DF number (p<0.001;p<0.001; p<0.001, respectively). @*Conclusion@#We propose an association between MDF and comorbidities, especially SLE and immunosuppressant use. MDF lesions seem to be impacted by compromised immune function. This is of significance since it is essential to search for associated conditions in patients presenting with MDF in dermatologic clinical settings.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917388

ABSTRACT

no abstract available

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916896

ABSTRACT

Persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) represent an unusual remnant of the fetal carotid-basilar anastomosis. Persistent trigeminal artery variant (PTAV) is a rare anastomosis between the internal carotid artery and cerebellar artery, without an interposing basilar artery segment. We report the case of 49-year-old female with an incidentally discovered, rare variation of PTA that directly terminated in the ipsilateral superior cerebellar artery. The variation was observed on CT angiography, digital subtraction angiography, and MR angiography. Additionally, we reviewed the embryogenesis of PTA and PTAV and discussed the clinical implications of this variation.

9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916437

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To minimize ultrasound power use and surgical phaco time in illuminated chop cataract surgery. @*Methods@#The charts of patients who underwent senile cataract surgery by a single surgeon were reviewed retrospectively. A conventional intracameral endoilluminator was used in a Stop & Chop group (n = 45), while an illuminated chopper was used in an illuminated chop (I-Chop) group (n = 71). EFX, a unitless value that roughly correlates with ultrasound energy during phacoemulsification, surgical phaco time, and changes in endothelial cell count were compared between the two groups and the ratio of zero phacoemulsification in the I-Chop group was evaluated. @*Results@#EFX of the Stop & Chop and I-Chop groups was 18.08 ± 16.15 and 0.82 ± 3.53, respectively (p = 0.001), while the surgical phaco time was 185.08 ± 41.42 and 162.04 ± 49.65 seconds (p = 0.01). However, the endothelial loss did not differ in the two groups (7.03 ± 7.89 vs. 7.13 ± 9.47%, p = 0.76). In the I-Chop group, 56 (86%) eyes had zero phaco energy and patients with EFX >1 (n = 6) had more severe nuclear sclerosis grading (2.90 ± 0.71 vs. 4.5 ± 1.0; p = 0.001). @*Conclusions@#The I-Chop group had lower EFX and shorter surgical phaco time than the Stop & Chop group. Illuminated chop using an illuminated chopper is one way to attain minimal phacoemulsification.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915893

ABSTRACT

Ischemic vaso-occlusive retinopathy as an initial manifestation is rare in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus (pSLE). A 13-year-old girl presented with two months’ history of papules and crusts with fatigue, weight loss, and abrupt hair loss. Pancytopenia and findings compatible with SLE, including positive direct Coombs’ test, antinuclear antibody (Ab), anti-double stranded DNA Ab, anti-Smith Ab, anti-ribonucleoprotein Ab, lupus anticoagulant, anti-β2 glycoprotein Immunoglobulin G, and anti-cardiolipin Ab, were detected. Bi-nasal hemianopsia was detected. Initial visual acuity was hand motion in the right eye and 15/20 in the left. Fundoscopy showed massive exudation around the optic disc with macular edema, vascular sheathing with perivascular hemorrhage in the whole retina, and ghost vessels in the peripheral retina. Intravitreal triamcinolone injection and dexamethasone implant injection were administered. Visual symptoms improved but did not recover. Methylprednisolone therapy and photocoagulation improved visual acuity and fever. Early intervention for retinopathy in pSLE can help prevent vision-loss.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915759

ABSTRACT

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly efficacious and safe modality for the treatment of recurrent or refractory Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), with overall success rates of 90%. Thus, FMT has been widely used for 10 years. The incidence and clinical characteristics of CDI, the main indication for FMT, differ between countries. To date, several guidelines have been published. However, most of them were published in Western countries and therefore cannot represent the Korean national healthcare systems. One of the barriers to performing FMT is a lack of national guidelines. Accordingly, multidisciplinary experts in this field have developed practical guidelines for FMT. The purpose of these guidelines is to aid physicians performing FMT, which can be adapted to treat CDI and other conditions.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915750

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are essential for clinical decision making, conduction of clinical research, and drug application acquisition in functional gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study is to develop a PRO instrument and to determine the respondents’ perception of the efficacy of therapeutic agents for functional dyspepsia (FD). @*Methods@#A self-evaluation questionnaire for dyspepsia (SEQ-DYSPEPSIA) was developed and validated through a structured process. The 2-week reproducibility was evaluated, and the construct validity was assessed by correlating the scores of SEQ-DYSPEPSIA (including typical and major FD symptom subscales). Finally, the response to medication was assessed by comparing the changes after 4 weeks of treatment. @*Results@#A total of 193 Korean patients (age 48.5 ± 13.6 years, 69.4% women) completed the questionnaire. SEQ-DYSPEPSIA with 11 items had a good internal consistency (alpha = 0.770-0.905) and an acceptable test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.733-0.859). The self-evaluation questionnaire (SEQ)-major FD score highly correlated with the postprandial fullness/early satiety domain of the Patient Assessment of Gastrointestinal Symptom Severity Index (correlation coefficient r = 0.741, P < 0.001), Nepean Dyspepsia Index-Korean version (NDI-K) (r = 0.839, P < 0.001), and NDI-K quality of life (r = −0.275 to −0.344, P < 0.001). After medical treatment, decrease in the SEQ-typical FD and SEQ-major FD was significantly greater in the responder group than in nonresponder group (P= 0.019 and P = 0.009, respectively). @*Conclusion@#This study suggests that the Korean version of SEQ-DYSPEPSIA has good reliability and validity, and can be a useful PRO measurement tool in patients with FD.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915542

ABSTRACT

Background@#Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a heterogeneous disease with different age of onset, disease course, clinical symptoms, severity, and risk of comorbidity. The characteristics of children with AD also vary by age or country. However, little is known about the clinical characteristics of AD in Korean school-aged children and adolescents. Furthermore, there are few studies on phenotypic differences according to onset age. This study aimed to explore the clinical characteristics and phenotypes according to onset age and severity of AD in children and adolescents in Korea. @*Methods@#AD patients aged 6–18 years who presented to 18 hospitals nationwide were surveyed.The patients were examined for disease severity by pediatric allergy specialists, and data on history of other allergic diseases, familial allergy history, onset age, trigger factors, lesion sites,treatment history and quality of life were collected. The results of the patient’s allergy test were also analyzed. The patients were classified into infancy-onset (< 2 years of age), preschoolonset (2–5 years of age), and childhood-onset (≥ 6 years of age) groups. Study population was analyzed for clinical features according to onset-age groups and severity groups. @*Results@#A total of 258 patients with a mean age of 10.62 ± 3.18 years were included in the study. Infancy-onset group accounted for about 60% of all patients and presented significantly more other allergic diseases, such as allergic rhinitis and asthma (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, respectively). Food allergy symptoms and diagnoses were highly relevant to both earlier onset and more severe group. Inhalant allergen sensitization was significantly associated with both infancy-onset group and severe group (P = 0.012 and P = 0.024, respectively). A family history of food allergies was significantly associated with infancyonset group (P = 0.036). Severe group was significantly associated with a family history of AD, especially a paternal history of AD (P = 0.048 and P = 0.004, respectively). Facial (periorbital, ear, and cheek) lesions, periauricular fissures, hand/foot eczema, and xerosis were associated with infancy-onset group. The earlier the onset of AD, the poorer the quality of life (P = 0.038). Systemic immunosuppressants were used in only 9.6% of the patients in the severe group. @*Conclusion@#This study analyzed the clinical features of AD in Korean children and adolescents through a multicenter nationwide study and demonstrated the phenotypic differences according to onset age and severity. Considering the findings that the early-onset group is more severe and accompanied by more systemic allergic diseases, early management should be emphasized in young children and infants.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915541

ABSTRACT

Background@#To investigate the clinical findings of choroideremia patients and perform genetic analysis by whole-exome sequencing (WES). @*Methods@#A total of 94 patients initially diagnosed with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) at another hospital, and who visited our hospital for genetic analysis by WES, were included in the study, along with 64 family members. All subjects underwent comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation, including best-corrected visual acuity, slit lamp examination, fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fluorescein angiography (FAG), visual field (VF), electroretinogram (ERG), and optical coherence tomography (OCT). @*Results@#In six male patients with suspected choroideremia, extensive retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and severe loss of choroid were observed in the fundus, but not in the macula. CHM gene mutation was confirmed in five patients. A novel single nucleotide variant at a splice site was observed in one patient. OCT showed marked thinning of the outernuclear layer and choroid, except in the macula. FAF showed a small area of hyperfluorescence in the posterior pole. In addition, characteristic interlaminar bridges were observed in four patients. On FAG, hypofluorescence was seen up to the far-peripheral retina in five patients. @*Conclusion@#Of the 94 patients initially diagnosed with RP, CHM mutation was identified in five (5.3%) by WES. Choroideremia should be considered as a differential diagnosis of RP.WES would be useful for identifying the causes of hereditary retinal disease.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915522

ABSTRACT

Background@#We aimed to examine the delay in antiviral initiation in rapid antigen test (RAT) false-negative children with influenza virus infection and to explore the clinical outcomes. We additionally conducted a medical cost-benefit analysis. @*Methods@#This single-center, retrospective study included children (aged < 10 years) with influenza-like illness (ILI), hospitalized after presenting to the emergency department during three influenza seasons (2016–2019). RAT-false-negativity was defined as RAT-negative and polymerase chain reaction-positive cases. The turnaround time to antiviral treatment (TAT) was from the time when RAT was prescribed to the time when the antiviral was administered. The medical cost analysis by scenarios was also performed. @*Results@#A total of 1,430 patients were included, 7.5% were RAT-positive (n = 107) and 2.4% were RAT-false-negative (n = 20). The median TAT of RAT-false-negative patients was 52.8 hours, significantly longer than that of 4 hours in RAT-positive patients (19.2–100.1, P< 0.001). In the multivariable analysis, TAT of ≥ 24 hours was associated with a risk of severe influenza infection and the need for mechanical ventilation (odds ratio [OR], 6.8, P = 0.009 and OR, 16.2, P = 0.033, respectively). The medical cost varied from $11.7–187.3/ILI patient. @*Conclusion@#Antiviral initiation was delayed in RAT-false-negative patients. Our findings support the guideline that children with influenza, suspected of having severe or progressive infection, should be treated immediately.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914497

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Smart hospitals involve the application of recent information and communications technology (ICT) innovations to medical services; however, the concept of a smart hospital has not been rigorously defined. In this study, we aimed to derive the definition and service types of smart hospitals and investigate cases of each type. @*Methods@#A literature review was conducted regarding the background and technical characteristics of smart hospitals. On this basis, we conducted a focus group interview with experts in hospital information systems, and ultimately derived eight smart hospital service types. @*Results@#Smart hospital services can be classified into the following types: services based on location recognition and tracking technology that measures and monitors the location information of an object based on short-range communication technology; high-speed communication network-based services based on new wireless communication technology; Internet of Things-based services that connect objects embedded with sensors and communication functions to the internet; mobile health services such as mobile phones, tablets, and wearables; artificial intelligence-based services for the diagnosis and prediction of diseases; robot services provided on behalf of humans in various medical fields; extended reality services that apply hyper-realistic immersive technology to medical practice; and telehealth using ICT. @*Conclusions@#Smart hospitals can influence health and medical policies and create new medical value by defining and quantitatively measuring detailed indicators based on data collected from existing hospitals. Simultaneously, appropriate government incentives, consolidated interdisciplinary research, and active participation by industry are required to foster and facilitate smart hospitals.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914207

ABSTRACT

Background@#It is unclear whether glycemic variability (GV) is a risk factor for diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), and whether control of GV is beneficial for DPN. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of GV on peripheral nerve damage by inducing glucose fluctuation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. @*Methods@#Rats were divided into four groups: normal (normal glucose group [NOR]), diabetes without treatment (sustained severe hyperglycemia group; diabetes mellitus [DM]), diabetes+once daily insulin glargine (stable hyperglycemia group; DM+LAN), and diabetes+once daily insulin glargine with twice daily insulin glulisine (unstable glucose fluctuation group; DM+Lantus [LAN]+Apidra [API]). We measured anti-oxidant enzyme levels and behavioral responses against tactile, thermal, and pressure stimuli in the plasma of rats. We also performed a quantitative comparison of cutaneous and sciatic nerves according to glucose fluctuation. @*Results@#At week 24, intraepidermal nerve fiber density was less reduced in the insulin-administered groups compared to the DM group (P0.05; 16.2±1.6, 12.4±2.0, 14.3±0.9, and 13.9±0.6 for NOR, DM, DM+LAN, and DM+LAN+API, respectively). The DM group exhibited significantly decreased glutathione levels compared to the insulin-administered groups (2.64±0.10 μmol/mL, DM+LAN; 1.93±0.0 μmol/mL, DM+LAN+API vs. 1.25±0.04 μmol/mL, DM; P<0.05). @*Conclusion@#Our study suggests that glucose control itself is more important than glucose fluctuation in the prevention of peripheral nerve damage, and intra-day glucose fluctuation has a limited effect on the progression of peripheral neuropathy in rats with diabetes.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914176

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose: Verbal and nonverbal fluency tests are the conventional methods for examining executive function in the elderly population. However, differences in impairments result in fluency tests in patients with mild cognitive impairments (MCIs) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and in neural correlates underlying the tests still necessitate concrete evidence. @*Methods@#We compared the test performances in 27 normal controls, 28 patients with MCI, and 20 with AD, and investigated morphological changes in association with the test performances using structural magnetic imaging. @*Results@#Patients with AD performed poorly across all the fluency tests, and a receiver operating characteristics curve analysis revealed that only category fluency test discriminated all the 3 groups. Association, category, and design fluency tests involved temporal and frontal regions, while letter fluency involved the cerebellum and caudate. @*Conclusions@#Category fluency is a reliable measure for screening patients with AD and MCI, and this efficacy might be related to morphological correlates that underlie semantic and executive processing.

19.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 67-76, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914031

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) seroconversion may occur during screening for gastric cancer. Our study aimed to assess the number of seroconverted subjects with H. pylori and their results in follow-up tests. @*Methods@#Data were consecutively collected on subjects who were H. pylori-seronegative and presented for gastric cancer screening. Subjects who were followed up using the same serology test and pepsinogen (PG) assays on the day of endoscopy were included in the study. @*Results@#During the follow-up of 57.7 ± 21.4 months, 61 (15.0%) of 407 seronegative subjects showed seroconversion. H. pylori infection was detected in six (9.8%) of 61 seroconverted subjects. A diffuse red fundal appearance, with a significant increase in the Kyoto classification scores for gastritis, was observed in the infected subjects (p<0.001). Compared to the false-seropositive subjects, infected subjects showed higher serology titers (p<0.001) and PG II levels (p<0.001), and lower PG I/II ratios (p=0.002), in the follow-up tests. @*Conclusions@#Seroconversion occurred in 3.3% of seronegative subjects per year; however, only 9.8% had H. pylori infection. The majority (90.2%) of the seroconverted subjects showed false seropositivity without significant changes in the follow-up test results. The diffuse red fundal appearance could be an indicator of H. pylori infection.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913834

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to evaluate the effect of waiting time, from diagnosis to initiation of definitive concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT), on overall survival in cervical cancer patients. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients with cervical cancer who were treated with definitive CCRT between 2000 and 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Time from initial pathological diagnosis to definitive CCRT was analyzed both as a continuous variable (per day) and as a categorical variable in two groups (group 1 ≤ median, group 2 > median). Patients with a waiting time of more than 60 days were excluded. @*Results@#The median waiting time was 14 days (0-60). There were differences between group 1 and group 2 in age and chemotherapy regimens. However, no significant difference was found in the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, cell type, or the number of cycles of chemotherapy received during CCRT. A longer waiting time was associated with poorer overall survival on the Kaplan-Meier curve (group 1 vs. group 2, p=0.042). On multivariate analysis, intervals as either a continuous variable (hazard ratio [HR], 1.023; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.006 to 1.040; p=0.007) or a categorical variable (HR, 1.513; 95% CI, 1.073 to 2.134; p=0.018), FIGO stage, cell type, and the number of cycles of chemotherapy received during CCRT were significant independent prognostic factors for overall survival. @*Conclusion@#A shorter waiting time from pathological diagnosis to definitive CCRT showed benefit on overall survival. Our findings suggest that an effort to minimize waiting times should be recommended in cervical cancer patients who are candidates for CCRT.

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