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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e73-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967464

ABSTRACT

Background@#The epidemiology of pathogenic bacteria varies according to the socioeconomic status and antimicrobial resistance status. However, longitudinal epidemiological studies to evaluate the changes in species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic bacteria nationwide are lacking. We retrospectively investigated the nationwide trends in species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic bacteria over the last 20 years in Korea. @*Methods@#From 1997 to 2016, annual cumulative antimicrobial susceptibility and species distribution data were collected from 12 university hospitals in five provinces and four metropolitan cities in South Korea. @*Results@#The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was the highest (13.1%) until 2012 but decreased to 10.3% in 2016, consistent with the decrease in oxacillin resistance from 76.1% in 2008 to 62.5% in 2016. While the cefotaxime resistance of Escherichia coli increased from 9.0% in 1997 to 34.2% in 2016, E. coli became the most common species since 2013, accounting for 14.5% of all isolates in 2016. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii rose to third and fifth places in 2008 and 2010, respectively, while imipenem resistance increased from 13.9% to 30.8% and 0.7% to 73.5% during the study period, respectively.Streptococcus agalactiae became the most common pathogenic streptococcal species in 2016, as the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae decreased since 2010. During the same period, pneumococcal penicillin susceptibility decreased to 79.0%, and levofloxacin susceptibility of S. agalactiae decreased to 77.1% in 2016. @*Conclusion@#The epidemiology of pathogenic bacteria has changed significantly over the past 20 years according to trends in antimicrobial resistance in Korea. Efforts to confine antimicrobial resistance would change the epidemiology of pathogenic bacteria and, consequently, the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases.

2.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 717-723, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939381

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The prevalence of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonization in pregnant Korean women is increasing; however, nationwide studies are lacking. Therefore, we aimed to analyze regional colonization rates and antimicrobial susceptibility for GBS in pregnant Korean women through a nationwide survey. @*Materials and Methods@#From January 2018 to December 2020, data from the Seoul Clinical Laboratories on vaginal swab cultures were retrospectively analyzed to detect maternal GBS carriers. Each swab specimen was inoculated onto a 5% blood agar plate and incubated at 35°C–37°C in a 5% CO 2 incubator for 24 h. GBS isolates were identified using a Microflex MALDI Biotyper. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using the Vitek 2 automated system. @*Results@#The overall nationwide GBS colonization rate in pregnant Korean women was found to be 10.6% (3578/33721). The maternal GBS colonization rates ranged from 10.5%–10.8% over the 3-year study period. The GBS colonization rates by province, in descending order, were as follows: Jeolla-do, 13.2%; Gangwon-do, 12.0%; Chungcheong-do, 11.8%; Gyeonggi-do, 11.3%; Seoul, 10.2%; and Gyeongsang-do, 9.6%. During the study period, the resistance rates against chloramphenicol, levofloxacin, clindamycin, erythromycin, and tetracycline were 2.6%–2.7%, 18.2%–19.6%, 33.4%–35.7%, 35.6%–36.8%, and 50.5%–53.3%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#In pregnant Korean women, GBS colonization rates were in the range of 9.6%–13.2%, with Gyeongsang-do being the lowest and Jeolla-do the highest. The resistance rate against clindamycin was high (33.4%–35.7%). GBS colonization rates during pregnancy should be studied nationwide according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-recommended guidelines with periodic antimicrobial resistance monitoring.

3.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e191-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938070

ABSTRACT

Background@#The Korea National Antimicrobial Use Analysis System (KONAS), a benchmarking system for antimicrobial use in hospitals, provides Korean Standardized Antimicrobial Administration Ratio (K-SAAR) for benchmarking. This article describes K-SAAR predictive models to enhance the understanding of K-SAAR, an important benchmarking strategy for antimicrobial usage in KONAS. @*Methods@#We obtained medical insurance claims data for all hospitalized patients aged ≥ 28 days in all secondary and tertiary care hospitals in South Korea (n = 347) from January 2019 to December 2019 from the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service. Modeling was performed to derive a prediction value for antimicrobial use in each institution, which corresponded to the denominator value for calculating K-SAAR. The prediction values of antimicrobial use were modeled separately for each category, for all inpatients and adult patients (aged ≥ 15 years), using stepwise negative binomial regression. @*Results@#The final models for each antimicrobial category were adjusted for different significant risk factors. In the K-SAAR models of all aged patients as well as adult patients, most antimicrobial categories included the number of hospital beds and the number of operations as significant factors, while some antimicrobial categories included mean age for inpatients, hospital type, and the number of patients transferred from other hospitals as significant factors. @*Conclusion@#We developed a model to predict antimicrobial use rates in Korean hospitals, and the model was used as the denominator of the K-SAAR.

4.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 59-65, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937127

ABSTRACT

Background@#Recently, CrpP enzymes have been described as a novel cause of ciprofloxacin resistance. The crpP gene encodes a novel protein that specifically confers resistance to ciprofloxacin through an adenosine triphosphate-dependent mechanism that phosphorylates the antimicrobial. In this study, the current prevalence of the crpP gene in carbapenemaseproducing Pseudomonas aeruginosa blood isolates was evaluated. @*Methods@#During the study of the Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System in Korea, 22 blood isolates of carbapenemase-producing P. aeruginosa were collected from nine general hospitals and two nursing homes in the year 2020. Resistance genes and phylogenic trees were analyzed with the whole genome sequencing data. @*Results@#A total of 11 P. aeruginosa blood isolates coharbored the crpP and carbapenemase genes (nine IMP-6 producers and two GES-5-producers). Nine NDM-1-producers coharbored aac(6')-Ib-cr and qnrVC1 . One GES-9-producer also carried aac(6')-Ib-cr, and one NDM-1-producer also carried qnrVC1. The phylogenic tree showed no epidemiologic link among the 22 carbapenemase-producing P. aeruginosa isolates. @*Conclusion@#This is the first report on the current prevalence of the crpP gene in carbapenemaseproducing P. aeruginosa blood isolates in Korea.

5.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 483-492, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-946171

ABSTRACT

Background@#It is necessary to develop a roadmap for antimicrobial usage monitoring in order to perform monitoring of antimicrobial use at the national level properly. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a roadmap for establishing surveillance and monitoring of antimicrobial use in medical institutions at the national level. @*Materials and Methods@#A modified Delphi study was conducted, including 3 rounds of an online survey and a virtual meeting with 16 expert panels. The survey items were developed based on a literature review of the surveillance systems for antimicrobial use in 12 countries and interviews with experts. The questionnaire was designed to include both the surveillance and benchmarking systems. @*Results@#Regarding the scope of target institutions to be included in the surveillance system, medical institutions for sentinel surveillance had the highest proportion of agreement among the panels (75.0%, 9/12). For the benchmarking system, “tertiary- and secondarycare hospitals” were accepted as the scope of target institutions at the current moment.Furthermore, the National Health Insurance claims and prescription data of individual hospitals were considered appropriate data sources for the surveillance system. As for the measures to promote the participation of hospitals in the benchmarking system, “compensation through the establishment of antimicrobial management fees” and “set the participation in the program as a quality evaluation or accreditation index for hospital evaluation” were accepted. @*Conclusion@#This study provides a roadmap for establishing an antimicrobial use monitoring and benchmarking system for medical institutions at a national level in Korea.

6.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 145-153, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966219

ABSTRACT

Background@#We compared the antimicrobial resistance rates (AMRs) of major glucose nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, under different clinical conditions. The purpose of the study was to provide useful background data to set up infection control strategies for infection-vulnerable patients. @*Methods@#The AMRs of blood isolates were compared in various clinical conditions, using data from the Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System in Korea. @*Results@#A. baumannii blood isolates from patients with healthcare-associated infections, inpatients, or intensive care unit (ICU)-admitted patients consistently exhibited higher AMRs to most antimicrobials, except minocycline, tigecycline, and colistin, compared with those from patients with community-acquired infections, outpatients, or non-ICU-admitted patients, respectively. P. aeruginosa blood isolates from patients with healthcare-associated infections showed higher AMRs to most antimicrobials, except ceftazidime and aztreonam, compared with those from patients with community-acquired infections, but not compared to those from inpatients or ICU-admitted patients. @*Conclusion@#Higher AMRs were associated with A. baumannii bloodstream infections under various clinical conditions, such as healthcare-associated infections and infections in inpatients and ICU-admitted patients. Considering the high AMRs and the limited number of treatment options of A. baumannii, vigorous efforts should be used to prevent the spreading of A. baumannii infections in patients with vulnerable conditions.

7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 903-910, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904289

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Despite decreased prevalence of tuberculosis, the incidence of the diseases associated with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been increasing in South Korea and around the world. The present retrospective study was conducted to determine longitudinal changes in the epidemiology and distribution of NTM over 13 years at a tertiary care hospital in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed data on Mycobacterium species over 13 years (January 2007 to December 2019) by utilizing the laboratory information system. Mycobacterium species were identified using biochemical tests and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and Mycobacteria GenoBlot assays. @*Results@#After excluding duplicates from the initial pool of 17996 mycobacterial isolates, 7674 strains were analyzed and 2984 (38.9%) NTM were isolated. The proportion of NTM continuously increased over the 13-year period, from 17.0% in 2007 to 57.5% in 2019. Among the NTM isolates, the most common species were Mycobacterium intracellulare (50.6%), M. avium (18.3%), M. fortuitum complex (4.9%), M. abscessus (4.5%), M. gordonae (3.3%), M. kansasii (1.1%), M. chelonae (1.0%), and M. massiliense (0.9%).In patients over the age of 70 years, the proportion of NTM among the isolates increased from 26.6% in 2007 to 62.0% in 2019, and that of M. intracellulare isolates among the NTM increased from 13.9% (11/79) in 2007 to 37.4% (175/468) in 2019. @*Conclusion@#The number of NTM isolates continuously increased over the study period, and the increase in the proportion of M. intracellulare in patients aged over 70 years was notable.

8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 903-910, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896585

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Despite decreased prevalence of tuberculosis, the incidence of the diseases associated with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been increasing in South Korea and around the world. The present retrospective study was conducted to determine longitudinal changes in the epidemiology and distribution of NTM over 13 years at a tertiary care hospital in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed data on Mycobacterium species over 13 years (January 2007 to December 2019) by utilizing the laboratory information system. Mycobacterium species were identified using biochemical tests and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and Mycobacteria GenoBlot assays. @*Results@#After excluding duplicates from the initial pool of 17996 mycobacterial isolates, 7674 strains were analyzed and 2984 (38.9%) NTM were isolated. The proportion of NTM continuously increased over the 13-year period, from 17.0% in 2007 to 57.5% in 2019. Among the NTM isolates, the most common species were Mycobacterium intracellulare (50.6%), M. avium (18.3%), M. fortuitum complex (4.9%), M. abscessus (4.5%), M. gordonae (3.3%), M. kansasii (1.1%), M. chelonae (1.0%), and M. massiliense (0.9%).In patients over the age of 70 years, the proportion of NTM among the isolates increased from 26.6% in 2007 to 62.0% in 2019, and that of M. intracellulare isolates among the NTM increased from 13.9% (11/79) in 2007 to 37.4% (175/468) in 2019. @*Conclusion@#The number of NTM isolates continuously increased over the study period, and the increase in the proportion of M. intracellulare in patients aged over 70 years was notable.

9.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 380-385, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874153

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonization rate among pregnant Korean women is lower than that among women from many Western countries, recent data show an upward trend. We investigated recent epidemiological changes in GBS among pregnant Korean women in terms of colonization rate, antimicrobial susceptibility, serotype, and resistance genotype. @*Methods@#Vaginal and anorectal swab specimens from 379 pregnant Korean women were cultured on Strep B Carrot Broth with GBS Detect (Hardy Diagnostics, USA), selective Todd-Hewitt broth (Becton Dickinson, USA), and Granada agar plate medium (Becton Dickinson). The antimicrobial susceptibility, serotypes, and macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS B) resistance genes of the GBS isolates were tested. @*Results@#The GBS colonization rate among pregnant Korean women was 19.8% (75/379).Colonization rates using Strep B Carrot Broth with GBS Detect, selective Todd-Hewitt broth, and Granada agar plate medium cultures were 19.5%, 19.3%, and 15.0%, respectively.Six pregnant women were colonized by non-beta-hemolytic GBS and were detected only in Strep B Carrot Broth with GBS Detect. Resistance rates of GBS to clindamycin, erythromycin, and tetracycline were 16.0%, 28.0%, and 42.7%, respectively. The most common GBS serotypes were V (22.7%), VIII (20.0%), and III (20.0%). The frequency of MLS B resistance genes erm(B) and erm(TR) were 63.6% and 36.4%, respectively. @*Conclusions@#The GBS colonization rate among pregnant Korean women has risen to levels observed in Western countries. To accurately evaluate GBS epidemiology among pregnant Korean women, periodic studies in multiple centers, including primary clinics, are necessary.

10.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 21-31, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rapid and accurate detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is of primary importance for infection control and selection of anti-tuberculosis drugs. However, most clinical laboratories report MTB complex (MTC) without reporting MTB because MTC comprising MTB, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium microti, Mycobacterium caprae and Mycobacterium pinnipedii have 99.9% similarity at the nucleotide level and identical 16S rRNA sequences. This study was conducted to analyze the species frequency of MTC isolates obtained from clinical specimen.METHODS: Of 310 MTC isolates obtained from clinical samples in a tertiary care hospital from February 2017 to August 2018, MolecuTech Real TB-Taq (YD Diagnostics, Korea) real-time PCR was performed, specifically to detect MTB. For DNA showing MTB negative results by MTB-specific real-time PCR or pyrazinamide-resistant strains, PCR-based MTC typing, spoligotyping, and exact tandem repeat D gene sequencing were performed.RESULTS: All the 310 MTC isolates were identified to be MTB. Two MTB strains of East-African-Indian 4-Vietnam genotype, which have not been reported in Korea, were also found.CONCLUSION: There was no zoonotic tuberculosis in this study. Since we investigated only 310 MTC isolates detected in only one medical institution, multi-center study is needed to accurately know the prevalence of zoonotic tuberculosis in Korea.


Subject(s)
DNA , Genotype , Goats , Infection Control , Korea , Mycobacterium bovis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Mycobacterium , Prevalence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis , Tandem Repeat Sequences , Tertiary Healthcare , Tuberculosis
11.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 201-208, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785400

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Interpretation of changes in serial laboratory results is necessary for both clinicians and laboratories; however, setting decision limits is not easy. Although the reference change value (RCV) has been widely used for auto-verification, it has limitations in clinical settings. We introduce the concept of overlapping confidence intervals (CIs) to determine whether the changes are statistically significant in clinical chemistry laboratory test results.METHODS: In total, 1,202,096 paired results for 33 analytes routinely tested in our clinical chemistry laboratory were analyzed. The distributions of delta% absolute values and cut-off values for certain percentiles were calculated. The CIs for each analyte were set based on biological variation, and data were analyzed at various confidence levels. Additionally, we analyzed the data using RCVs and compared their clinical utility.RESULTS: Most analytes had low indexes of individuality with large inter-individual variability. The 97.5th percentile cut-offs for each analyte were much larger than conventional RCVs. The percentages of results exceeding RCV(95%) and RCV(99%) corresponded to those with no overlap at the 83.4% and 93.2% confidence levels, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: The use of overlapping CIs in serial clinical chemistry test results can overcome the limitations of existing RCVs and replace them, especially for analytes with large intra-individual variation.


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Clinical , Clinical Chemistry Tests , Confidence Intervals , Individuality
12.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 154-160, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-782196

ABSTRACT

0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) was 0.922 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89–0.95]. In external validation, the discrimination was good, with an AUC value of 0.833 (95% CI 0.70–0.92) for this model. Nomogram calibration plots indicated good agreement between the predicted and observed outcomes, exhibiting close approximation between the predicted and observed probability.CONCLUSION: We constructed a scoring model for predicting massive transfusion during cesarean section in women with placenta previa. This model may help in determining the need to prepare an appropriate amount of blood products and the optimal timing of blood transfusion.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Area Under Curve , Blood Transfusion , Calibration , Cesarean Section , Cohort Studies , Discrimination, Psychological , Early Intervention, Educational , Erythrocytes , Logistic Models , Maternal Age , Nomograms , Placenta Previa , Placenta , Placentation , Postpartum Hemorrhage , ROC Curve , Ultrasonography
13.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 177-182, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914575

ABSTRACT

Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is an important and increasing threat to global health. From July to September 2017, 20 inpatients at a tertiary care hospital in Korea were either colonized or infected with carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli strains. All of E. coli isolates co-produced bla(NDM-5) and bla(OXA-181) carbapenemase genes and shared ≥88% clonal relatedness on the basis of a cladistic calculation of the distribution of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. Rapid detection of CPE is one of the most important factors to prevent CPE dissemination because it takes long time for CPE to become negative.

14.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 1-8, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739013

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates producing CTX-M extendedspectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) were assessed for antimicrobial resistance phenotypes varied by group of enzymes. METHODS: A total of 1,338 blood isolates, including 959 E. coli and 379 K. pneumoniae, were studied. All the strains were collected between January and July 2017 from eight general hospitals in South Korea. The species were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined by disk diffusion methods and ESBL phenotypes by double-disk synergy tests using disks containing cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime, aztreonam, and clavulanic acid (CA). The genes for β-lactamases were identified by PCR and sequencing. RESULTS: Of total microbes, 31.6% (303/959) E. coli and 24.0% (91/379) K. pneumoniae were resistant to cefotaxime and 28.1% (269/959) E. coli and 20.1% (76/379) K. pneumoniae were CTX-M-type ESBL producers. Among the detected CTX-M ESBLs, 58.0% (156/269) in E. coli and 86.8% (66/76) in K. pneumoniae belonged to group 1, 46.8% (126/269) in E. coli and 14.5% (11/76) in K. pneumoniae were group 9. Ten E. coli and one K. pneumoniae isolates co-produced both groups of CTX-M ESBL. The group 1 CTX-M producers had a higher level of resistance to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime, and aztreonam and exhibited stronger synergistic activities when combined with CA compared to group 9. CONCLUSION: ESBL phenotypes differ by CTX-M ESBL group and phenotype testing with drugs including 4th generation cephalosporins and monobactams is critical for screening CTX-M-producers with better sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Aztreonam , Cefotaxime , Ceftazidime , Cephalosporins , Clavulanic Acid , Diffusion , Escherichia coli , Hospitals, General , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Korea , Mass Screening , Mass Spectrometry , Monobactams , Phenotype , Pneumonia , Polymerase Chain Reaction
15.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 592-596, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762074

ABSTRACT

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious zoonosis caused by the SFTS virus. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening syndrome associated with excessive immune activation. Cytokine storms are often seen in both SFTS and HLH, resulting in rapid disease progression and poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to identify whether SFTS cases complicated by HLH are related to higher rates of mortality. Descriptive analysis of the frequency of clinical and laboratory data, complications, treatment outcomes, and HLH-2004 criteria was performed. Cases presenting with five or more clinical or laboratory findings corresponding to the HLH-2004 diagnostic criteria were defined as SFTS cases complicated by HLH. Eighteen cases of SFTS were identified during a 2-year study period, with a case-fatality proportion of 22.2% (4 among 18 cases, 95% confidence interval 9%–45.2%). SFTS cases complicated by HLH were identified in 33.3% (6 among 18 cases). A mortality rate of 75% (3 among 4 cases) was recorded among SFTS cases complicated by HLH. Although there were no statistically significant differences in outcomes, fatal cases exhibited more frequent correlation with HLH-2004 criteria than non-fatal cases [3/14 (21.4%) vs. 3/4 (75%), p=0.083]. In conclusion, the present study suggests the possibility that SFTS cases complicated by HLH are at higher risk of poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Disease Progression , Fatal Outcome , Fever , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Mortality , Prognosis , Thrombocytopenia
16.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 153-160, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760501

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Liver fibrosis evaluation is an important issue in chronic liver disease patients. We aimed to develop noninvasive liver fibrosis biomarkers based on transient elastography (TE, FibroScan®) through retrospective review of clinicopathological data. METHODS: We recruited 278 chronic hepatitis B patients who underwent Fibroscan and HBV DNA testing. A total of 115 HBeAg-positive and 159 HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B patients were analyzed. A total of 100 hepatitis C patients were analyzed. Successful fibroscan data, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) to platelet ratio (GPR), platelet count, AST, ALT, international normalized ratio of prothrombin time, total cholesterol, triglycerides, bilirubin, mean platelet volume, AST to platelet ratio index, fibrosis index based on four factors (FIB-4), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and NLR to platelet ratio were analyzed to determine the new noninvasive markers for assessing liver fibrosis. RESULTS: Elevated GPR (OR=9.1, P=0.011) and FIB-4 (OR=2.3, P=0.01) were associated with greater risk of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B patients. FIB-4 (OR=6.04, P=0.005) was a risk factor for liver fibrosis in HBeAg-positive patients. FIB-4 (OR=2.371, P=0.015) and GPR (OR=33.78, P=0.003) were liver fibrosis risk factor in HBeAg-negative patients. In chronic hepatitis C patients, GGT (OR=1.033, P=0.002), triglyceride (OR=−0.990, P=0.038) and FIB-4 (OR=3.499, P=0.006) showed statistical significances. The AUCs were 0.816 in FIB-4 (P<0.001) and 0.849 in GPR (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: FIB-4 and GPR may be useful blood markers for assessing liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C patients. Further well-designed prospective study is required to validate these noninvasive blood markers in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Area Under Curve , Bilirubin , Biomarkers , Blood Platelets , Cholesterol , DNA , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Fibrosis , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis , Hepatitis, Chronic , International Normalized Ratio , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Diseases , Liver , Lymphocytes , Mean Platelet Volume , Neutrophils , Platelet Count , Prospective Studies , Prothrombin Time , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Transferases , Triglycerides
17.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 490-491, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717047

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Korea , Pasteurella multocida , Pasteurella
18.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 277-279, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714425

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Korea , Uropathogenic Escherichia coli
19.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 569-577, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) infection represents a global public health emergency. We evaluated the usefulness of a newly developed multiplexed, bead-based bioassay (Quantamatrix Multiplexed Assay Platform [QMAP], QuantaMatrix, Seoul, Korea) to rapidly identify the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and detect rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistance-associated mutations. METHODS: A total of 200 clinical isolates from respiratory samples were used. Phenotypic anti-TB drug susceptibility testing (DST) results were compared with those of the QMAP system, reverse blot hybridization (REBA) MTB-MDR assay, and gene sequencing analysis. RESULTS: Compared with the phenotypic DST results, the sensitivity and specificity of the QMAP system were 96.4% (106/110; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9072–0.9888) and 80.0% (72/90; 95% CI 0.7052–0.8705), respectively, for RIF resistance and 75.0% (108/144; 95% CI 0.6731–0.8139) and 96.4% (54/56; 95% CI 0.8718–0.9972), respectively, for INH resistance. The agreement rates between the QMAP system and REBA MTB-MDR assay for RIF and INH resistance detection were 97.6% (121/124; 95% CI 0.9282–0.9949) and 99.1% (109/110; 95% CI 0.9453–1.0000), respectively. Comparison between the QMAP system and gene sequencing analysis showed an overall agreement of 100% for RIF resistance (110/110; 95% CI 0.9711–1.0000) and INH resistance (124/124; 95% CI 0.9743–1.0000). CONCLUSIONS: The QMAP system may serve as a useful screening method for identifying and accurately discriminating MTBC from non-tuberculous mycobacteria, as well as determining RIF- and INH-resistant MTB strains.


Subject(s)
Biological Assay , Emergencies , Isoniazid , Mass Screening , Methods , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Mycobacterium , Prevalence , Public Health , Rifampin , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seoul , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant
20.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 40-44, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715233

ABSTRACT

Globicatella sanguinis is an unusual pathogen causing bacteremia, meningitis, and urinary tract infection, and can be misidentified as Streptococcus pneumoniae or viridans streptococci due to its colonial morphology. A 76-year-old female patient with hypertension and degenerative arthritis was admitted to the hospital complaining of knee joint pain. Blood culture revealed the presence of Gram-positive cocci, and the isolated organism was equally identified as S. pneumoniae using the MicroScan identification system (Beckman Coulter, USA) and Vitek 2 identification system (bioMérieux, USA). However, the isolate showed optochin resistance based on the optochin disk susceptibility test. The organism was finally confirmed to be G. sanguinis based on 16S rRNA sequencing and hydrogen sulfide production testing. Accurate identification of G. sanguinis isolated from aseptic body fluids including blood is important for appropriate antibiotic selection based on accurate application of interpretative criteria of antimicrobial susceptibility test.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Bacteremia , Body Fluids , Gram-Positive Cocci , Hydrogen Sulfide , Hypertension , Knee Joint , Meningitis , Osteoarthritis , Pneumonia , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Urinary Tract Infections , Viridans Streptococci
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