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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 903-910, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904289

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Despite decreased prevalence of tuberculosis, the incidence of the diseases associated with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been increasing in South Korea and around the world. The present retrospective study was conducted to determine longitudinal changes in the epidemiology and distribution of NTM over 13 years at a tertiary care hospital in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed data on Mycobacterium species over 13 years (January 2007 to December 2019) by utilizing the laboratory information system. Mycobacterium species were identified using biochemical tests and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and Mycobacteria GenoBlot assays. @*Results@#After excluding duplicates from the initial pool of 17996 mycobacterial isolates, 7674 strains were analyzed and 2984 (38.9%) NTM were isolated. The proportion of NTM continuously increased over the 13-year period, from 17.0% in 2007 to 57.5% in 2019. Among the NTM isolates, the most common species were Mycobacterium intracellulare (50.6%), M. avium (18.3%), M. fortuitum complex (4.9%), M. abscessus (4.5%), M. gordonae (3.3%), M. kansasii (1.1%), M. chelonae (1.0%), and M. massiliense (0.9%).In patients over the age of 70 years, the proportion of NTM among the isolates increased from 26.6% in 2007 to 62.0% in 2019, and that of M. intracellulare isolates among the NTM increased from 13.9% (11/79) in 2007 to 37.4% (175/468) in 2019. @*Conclusion@#The number of NTM isolates continuously increased over the study period, and the increase in the proportion of M. intracellulare in patients aged over 70 years was notable.

2.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 903-910, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896585

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Despite decreased prevalence of tuberculosis, the incidence of the diseases associated with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been increasing in South Korea and around the world. The present retrospective study was conducted to determine longitudinal changes in the epidemiology and distribution of NTM over 13 years at a tertiary care hospital in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed data on Mycobacterium species over 13 years (January 2007 to December 2019) by utilizing the laboratory information system. Mycobacterium species were identified using biochemical tests and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and Mycobacteria GenoBlot assays. @*Results@#After excluding duplicates from the initial pool of 17996 mycobacterial isolates, 7674 strains were analyzed and 2984 (38.9%) NTM were isolated. The proportion of NTM continuously increased over the 13-year period, from 17.0% in 2007 to 57.5% in 2019. Among the NTM isolates, the most common species were Mycobacterium intracellulare (50.6%), M. avium (18.3%), M. fortuitum complex (4.9%), M. abscessus (4.5%), M. gordonae (3.3%), M. kansasii (1.1%), M. chelonae (1.0%), and M. massiliense (0.9%).In patients over the age of 70 years, the proportion of NTM among the isolates increased from 26.6% in 2007 to 62.0% in 2019, and that of M. intracellulare isolates among the NTM increased from 13.9% (11/79) in 2007 to 37.4% (175/468) in 2019. @*Conclusion@#The number of NTM isolates continuously increased over the study period, and the increase in the proportion of M. intracellulare in patients aged over 70 years was notable.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874153

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonization rate among pregnant Korean women is lower than that among women from many Western countries, recent data show an upward trend. We investigated recent epidemiological changes in GBS among pregnant Korean women in terms of colonization rate, antimicrobial susceptibility, serotype, and resistance genotype. @*Methods@#Vaginal and anorectal swab specimens from 379 pregnant Korean women were cultured on Strep B Carrot Broth with GBS Detect (Hardy Diagnostics, USA), selective Todd-Hewitt broth (Becton Dickinson, USA), and Granada agar plate medium (Becton Dickinson). The antimicrobial susceptibility, serotypes, and macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS B) resistance genes of the GBS isolates were tested. @*Results@#The GBS colonization rate among pregnant Korean women was 19.8% (75/379).Colonization rates using Strep B Carrot Broth with GBS Detect, selective Todd-Hewitt broth, and Granada agar plate medium cultures were 19.5%, 19.3%, and 15.0%, respectively.Six pregnant women were colonized by non-beta-hemolytic GBS and were detected only in Strep B Carrot Broth with GBS Detect. Resistance rates of GBS to clindamycin, erythromycin, and tetracycline were 16.0%, 28.0%, and 42.7%, respectively. The most common GBS serotypes were V (22.7%), VIII (20.0%), and III (20.0%). The frequency of MLS B resistance genes erm(B) and erm(TR) were 63.6% and 36.4%, respectively. @*Conclusions@#The GBS colonization rate among pregnant Korean women has risen to levels observed in Western countries. To accurately evaluate GBS epidemiology among pregnant Korean women, periodic studies in multiple centers, including primary clinics, are necessary.

4.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 154-160, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-782196

ABSTRACT

0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) was 0.922 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89–0.95]. In external validation, the discrimination was good, with an AUC value of 0.833 (95% CI 0.70–0.92) for this model. Nomogram calibration plots indicated good agreement between the predicted and observed outcomes, exhibiting close approximation between the predicted and observed probability.CONCLUSION: We constructed a scoring model for predicting massive transfusion during cesarean section in women with placenta previa. This model may help in determining the need to prepare an appropriate amount of blood products and the optimal timing of blood transfusion.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Blood Transfusion , Calibration , Cesarean Section , Cohort Studies , Discrimination, Psychological , Early Intervention, Educational , Erythrocytes , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Maternal Age , Nomograms , Placenta Previa , Placenta , Placentation , Postpartum Hemorrhage , Pregnancy , ROC Curve , Ultrasonography
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785400

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Interpretation of changes in serial laboratory results is necessary for both clinicians and laboratories; however, setting decision limits is not easy. Although the reference change value (RCV) has been widely used for auto-verification, it has limitations in clinical settings. We introduce the concept of overlapping confidence intervals (CIs) to determine whether the changes are statistically significant in clinical chemistry laboratory test results.METHODS: In total, 1,202,096 paired results for 33 analytes routinely tested in our clinical chemistry laboratory were analyzed. The distributions of delta% absolute values and cut-off values for certain percentiles were calculated. The CIs for each analyte were set based on biological variation, and data were analyzed at various confidence levels. Additionally, we analyzed the data using RCVs and compared their clinical utility.RESULTS: Most analytes had low indexes of individuality with large inter-individual variability. The 97.5th percentile cut-offs for each analyte were much larger than conventional RCVs. The percentages of results exceeding RCV(95%) and RCV(99%) corresponded to those with no overlap at the 83.4% and 93.2% confidence levels, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: The use of overlapping CIs in serial clinical chemistry test results can overcome the limitations of existing RCVs and replace them, especially for analytes with large intra-individual variation.


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Clinical , Clinical Chemistry Tests , Confidence Intervals , Individuality
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rapid and accurate detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is of primary importance for infection control and selection of anti-tuberculosis drugs. However, most clinical laboratories report MTB complex (MTC) without reporting MTB because MTC comprising MTB, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium microti, Mycobacterium caprae and Mycobacterium pinnipedii have 99.9% similarity at the nucleotide level and identical 16S rRNA sequences. This study was conducted to analyze the species frequency of MTC isolates obtained from clinical specimen.METHODS: Of 310 MTC isolates obtained from clinical samples in a tertiary care hospital from February 2017 to August 2018, MolecuTech Real TB-Taq (YD Diagnostics, Korea) real-time PCR was performed, specifically to detect MTB. For DNA showing MTB negative results by MTB-specific real-time PCR or pyrazinamide-resistant strains, PCR-based MTC typing, spoligotyping, and exact tandem repeat D gene sequencing were performed.RESULTS: All the 310 MTC isolates were identified to be MTB. Two MTB strains of East-African-Indian 4-Vietnam genotype, which have not been reported in Korea, were also found.CONCLUSION: There was no zoonotic tuberculosis in this study. Since we investigated only 310 MTC isolates detected in only one medical institution, multi-center study is needed to accurately know the prevalence of zoonotic tuberculosis in Korea.


Subject(s)
DNA , Genotype , Goats , Infection Control , Korea , Mycobacterium bovis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Mycobacterium , Prevalence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis , Tandem Repeat Sequences , Tertiary Healthcare , Tuberculosis
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739013

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates producing CTX-M extendedspectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) were assessed for antimicrobial resistance phenotypes varied by group of enzymes. METHODS: A total of 1,338 blood isolates, including 959 E. coli and 379 K. pneumoniae, were studied. All the strains were collected between January and July 2017 from eight general hospitals in South Korea. The species were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined by disk diffusion methods and ESBL phenotypes by double-disk synergy tests using disks containing cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime, aztreonam, and clavulanic acid (CA). The genes for β-lactamases were identified by PCR and sequencing. RESULTS: Of total microbes, 31.6% (303/959) E. coli and 24.0% (91/379) K. pneumoniae were resistant to cefotaxime and 28.1% (269/959) E. coli and 20.1% (76/379) K. pneumoniae were CTX-M-type ESBL producers. Among the detected CTX-M ESBLs, 58.0% (156/269) in E. coli and 86.8% (66/76) in K. pneumoniae belonged to group 1, 46.8% (126/269) in E. coli and 14.5% (11/76) in K. pneumoniae were group 9. Ten E. coli and one K. pneumoniae isolates co-produced both groups of CTX-M ESBL. The group 1 CTX-M producers had a higher level of resistance to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime, and aztreonam and exhibited stronger synergistic activities when combined with CA compared to group 9. CONCLUSION: ESBL phenotypes differ by CTX-M ESBL group and phenotype testing with drugs including 4th generation cephalosporins and monobactams is critical for screening CTX-M-producers with better sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Aztreonam , Cefotaxime , Ceftazidime , Cephalosporins , Clavulanic Acid , Diffusion , Escherichia coli , Hospitals, General , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Korea , Mass Screening , Mass Spectrometry , Monobactams , Phenotype , Pneumonia , Polymerase Chain Reaction
8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 592-596, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762074

ABSTRACT

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious zoonosis caused by the SFTS virus. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening syndrome associated with excessive immune activation. Cytokine storms are often seen in both SFTS and HLH, resulting in rapid disease progression and poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to identify whether SFTS cases complicated by HLH are related to higher rates of mortality. Descriptive analysis of the frequency of clinical and laboratory data, complications, treatment outcomes, and HLH-2004 criteria was performed. Cases presenting with five or more clinical or laboratory findings corresponding to the HLH-2004 diagnostic criteria were defined as SFTS cases complicated by HLH. Eighteen cases of SFTS were identified during a 2-year study period, with a case-fatality proportion of 22.2% (4 among 18 cases, 95% confidence interval 9%–45.2%). SFTS cases complicated by HLH were identified in 33.3% (6 among 18 cases). A mortality rate of 75% (3 among 4 cases) was recorded among SFTS cases complicated by HLH. Although there were no statistically significant differences in outcomes, fatal cases exhibited more frequent correlation with HLH-2004 criteria than non-fatal cases [3/14 (21.4%) vs. 3/4 (75%), p=0.083]. In conclusion, the present study suggests the possibility that SFTS cases complicated by HLH are at higher risk of poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Disease Progression , Fatal Outcome , Fever , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Mortality , Prognosis , Thrombocytopenia
9.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 153-160, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760501

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Liver fibrosis evaluation is an important issue in chronic liver disease patients. We aimed to develop noninvasive liver fibrosis biomarkers based on transient elastography (TE, FibroScan®) through retrospective review of clinicopathological data. METHODS: We recruited 278 chronic hepatitis B patients who underwent Fibroscan and HBV DNA testing. A total of 115 HBeAg-positive and 159 HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B patients were analyzed. A total of 100 hepatitis C patients were analyzed. Successful fibroscan data, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) to platelet ratio (GPR), platelet count, AST, ALT, international normalized ratio of prothrombin time, total cholesterol, triglycerides, bilirubin, mean platelet volume, AST to platelet ratio index, fibrosis index based on four factors (FIB-4), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and NLR to platelet ratio were analyzed to determine the new noninvasive markers for assessing liver fibrosis. RESULTS: Elevated GPR (OR=9.1, P=0.011) and FIB-4 (OR=2.3, P=0.01) were associated with greater risk of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B patients. FIB-4 (OR=6.04, P=0.005) was a risk factor for liver fibrosis in HBeAg-positive patients. FIB-4 (OR=2.371, P=0.015) and GPR (OR=33.78, P=0.003) were liver fibrosis risk factor in HBeAg-negative patients. In chronic hepatitis C patients, GGT (OR=1.033, P=0.002), triglyceride (OR=−0.990, P=0.038) and FIB-4 (OR=3.499, P=0.006) showed statistical significances. The AUCs were 0.816 in FIB-4 (P<0.001) and 0.849 in GPR (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: FIB-4 and GPR may be useful blood markers for assessing liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C patients. Further well-designed prospective study is required to validate these noninvasive blood markers in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Bilirubin , Biomarkers , Blood Platelets , Cholesterol , DNA , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Fibrosis , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis , Hepatitis, Chronic , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Diseases , Liver , Lymphocytes , Mean Platelet Volume , Neutrophils , Platelet Count , Prospective Studies , Prothrombin Time , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Transferases , Triglycerides
10.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 177-182, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914575

ABSTRACT

Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is an important and increasing threat to global health. From July to September 2017, 20 inpatients at a tertiary care hospital in Korea were either colonized or infected with carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli strains. All of E. coli isolates co-produced bla(NDM-5) and bla(OXA-181) carbapenemase genes and shared ≥88% clonal relatedness on the basis of a cladistic calculation of the distribution of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. Rapid detection of CPE is one of the most important factors to prevent CPE dissemination because it takes long time for CPE to become negative.

11.
Korean Medical Education Review ; (3): 112-117, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760427

ABSTRACT

Attending the operation room is an essential part of surgical clerkships. Syncope or presyncopal attacks in the operation room may negatively affect students' learning and career development. This study set out to identify the prevalence of syncope and presyncopal attacks in the operation room during medical students' surgical clerkships. Data from 420 medical students (303 men and 117 women) in their 3rd year of clerkship were collected between 2014 and 2017. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to assess the prevalence and degree of syncope and presyncopal symptoms. A total of 27% of the respondents had experienced syncope or presyncopal symptoms, 49.6% of the female students and 18.8% of the male students (p < 0.001). Fifty students (43.5%) had been attending as observers at the time of the syncopal attack, while 65 students (56.5%) had been participating as assistants. Thirty-four students (29.6%) had recently eaten at the time of the syncopal attack, while 81 students (70.4%) had not recently eaten. Prodromal symptoms included the urge to sit down (21.2%), sweating (19.3%), nausea (16.9%), a feeling of warmth (13.3%), darkened vision (12.6%), yawning (11.7%), palpitation (11.0%), ear fullness (10.2%), black spots in one's vision (7.6%), and hyperventilation (7.1%). This study showed the prevalence of syncope and presyncopal symptoms in the operation room during surgical clerkships. For students' safety and effective clerkship learning, thorough proactive education on syncopal attacks is required.


Subject(s)
Anonyms and Pseudonyms , Clinical Clerkship , Ear , Education , Female , Humans , Hyperventilation , Learning , Male , Nausea , Operating Rooms , Prevalence , Prodromal Symptoms , Students, Medical , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sweat , Sweating , Syncope , Yawning
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715233

ABSTRACT

Globicatella sanguinis is an unusual pathogen causing bacteremia, meningitis, and urinary tract infection, and can be misidentified as Streptococcus pneumoniae or viridans streptococci due to its colonial morphology. A 76-year-old female patient with hypertension and degenerative arthritis was admitted to the hospital complaining of knee joint pain. Blood culture revealed the presence of Gram-positive cocci, and the isolated organism was equally identified as S. pneumoniae using the MicroScan identification system (Beckman Coulter, USA) and Vitek 2 identification system (bioMérieux, USA). However, the isolate showed optochin resistance based on the optochin disk susceptibility test. The organism was finally confirmed to be G. sanguinis based on 16S rRNA sequencing and hydrogen sulfide production testing. Accurate identification of G. sanguinis isolated from aseptic body fluids including blood is important for appropriate antibiotic selection based on accurate application of interpretative criteria of antimicrobial susceptibility test.


Subject(s)
Aged , Bacteremia , Body Fluids , Female , Gram-Positive Cocci , Humans , Hydrogen Sulfide , Hypertension , Knee Joint , Meningitis , Osteoarthritis , Pneumonia , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Urinary Tract Infections , Viridans Streptococci
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) infection represents a global public health emergency. We evaluated the usefulness of a newly developed multiplexed, bead-based bioassay (Quantamatrix Multiplexed Assay Platform [QMAP], QuantaMatrix, Seoul, Korea) to rapidly identify the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and detect rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistance-associated mutations. METHODS: A total of 200 clinical isolates from respiratory samples were used. Phenotypic anti-TB drug susceptibility testing (DST) results were compared with those of the QMAP system, reverse blot hybridization (REBA) MTB-MDR assay, and gene sequencing analysis. RESULTS: Compared with the phenotypic DST results, the sensitivity and specificity of the QMAP system were 96.4% (106/110; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9072–0.9888) and 80.0% (72/90; 95% CI 0.7052–0.8705), respectively, for RIF resistance and 75.0% (108/144; 95% CI 0.6731–0.8139) and 96.4% (54/56; 95% CI 0.8718–0.9972), respectively, for INH resistance. The agreement rates between the QMAP system and REBA MTB-MDR assay for RIF and INH resistance detection were 97.6% (121/124; 95% CI 0.9282–0.9949) and 99.1% (109/110; 95% CI 0.9453–1.0000), respectively. Comparison between the QMAP system and gene sequencing analysis showed an overall agreement of 100% for RIF resistance (110/110; 95% CI 0.9711–1.0000) and INH resistance (124/124; 95% CI 0.9743–1.0000). CONCLUSIONS: The QMAP system may serve as a useful screening method for identifying and accurately discriminating MTBC from non-tuberculous mycobacteria, as well as determining RIF- and INH-resistant MTB strains.


Subject(s)
Biological Assay , Emergencies , Isoniazid , Mass Screening , Methods , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Mycobacterium , Prevalence , Public Health , Rifampin , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seoul , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225911

ABSTRACT

Biofilms are commonly associated with an increased risk of catheter-associated infection. To study the efficacy of materials designed to reduce biofilm formation, microbial biofilms on clinically used urinary catheter were examined. We performed 2, 3-bis (2-methyoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfo-phenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction assay to determine of biofilm formation ability and observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyze biofilm architecture. Additionally, we calculated relative cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) to measure hydrophobicity of microorganisms. On SEM, catheter surfaces made of latex or anti-infective (IC)-latex were rough but those of silicone, hydrogel-coated silicone (HCS), or silver-alloy-coated silicone (SCS) were relatively smoother. According to XTT reduction assay, biofilm formation was reduced on the surface of smooth silicone-based catheters compared to rough latex-based catheters. The greatest to lowest formation of microbial biofilm were as follows for these material types: silicone-elastomer-coated (SEC) latex > latex > silicone > IC-latex > HCS > SCS. Catheter materials can affect the microbial biofilm formations. First, rougher surfaces on the catheter made the microbial attachment easier and a greater amount of biofilm was formed. Second, when chemicals that inhibit growth and attachment of microorganisms on the inner and outer surfaces of the catheters were applied, the biofilm formation was inhibited. SCS was found to be the most effective in reducing the microbial biofilm formation. These results indicate that microbial biofilm formation may be closely related to the surface roughness and microbial CSH.


Subject(s)
Biofilms , Catheter-Related Infections , Catheters , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Latex , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Silicon , Silicones , Urinary Catheters
17.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 157-160, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-116881

ABSTRACT

Streptococcus bovis bacteremia in humans has been traditionally associated with infective endocarditis, colorectal cancer, and liver cirrhosis. S. bovis strains were previously categorized by biotype, but since the 2000s, they have been reclassified by DNA homology. We report a case of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus bacteremia, identified by 16S rRNA sequencing, in a patient diagnosed with liver cirrhosis. A 61-yr-old man with a history of liver cirrhosis presented to the hospital with a complaint of fever. Blood culture revealed the presence of gram-positive cocci, and the isolated organism was identified as S. bovis by the MicroScan identification kit (Beckman Coulter, USA), but as Enterococcus saccharolyticus by the Vitek 2 identification kit (bioMérieux, USA). The organism was finally confirmed as S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus by 16S rRNA sequencing.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Colorectal Neoplasms , DNA , Endocarditis , Enterococcus , Fever , Gram-Positive Cocci , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver , Streptococcus bovis , Streptococcus
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-47834

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Meningitis is a clinically important disease because of its high mortality and morbidity. The epidemiology of this disease has changed remarkably due to the introduction of pneumococcal vaccines and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine. Therefore, it is required to continuously monitor and research the organisms isolated from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures. METHODS: We analyzed trends of bacteria and fungi isolates obtained from CSF cultures between 1997 and 2016 in a tertiary care hospital according to year, month, gender, and age. RESULTS: Out of a total of 38,450 samples, we identified 504 (1.3%) isolates. The isolation rate in the first tested decade (1997–2006) ranged from 1.3% to 3.1%, while that in the second decade (2007–2016) ranged from 0.4% to 1.5%. The most common organisms was coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (31.9%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (9.5%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (7.5%), Acinetobacter baumannii (5.8%), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (5.8%). Monthly isolation rates were highest in May and July and lowest in February and December. Male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The isolation rates of S. pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecium, and Escherichia coli were similar in children and adults, but those of S. aureus, E. faecalis, A. baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, M. tuberculosis, and Cryptococcus neoformans were higher in adults than in children. CONCLUSION: During the last two decades, the isolation rate of CSF culture per year has decreased, with monthly isolation rates being highest in May and July. CoNS, S. aureus, and S. pneumoniae were most common in males, whereas CoNS, S. pneumoniae, and M. tuberculosis were most common in females. While Group B Streptococcus was most common in infants younger than 1 year, S. aureus and C. neoformans were more common in adults.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , Adult , Bacteria , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Child , Cryptococcus neoformans , Enterococcus faecium , Epidemiology , Escherichia coli , Female , Fungi , Haemophilus influenzae type b , Humans , Infant , Male , Meningitis , Mortality , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Pneumonia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Tertiary Healthcare , Tuberculosis
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50241

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Candidemia has increased with an increasing number of people in the high risk group and so has become more important. This study was conducted to investigate the isolation rate of Candida species from candidemia patients and the change in rate of antifungal resistance. METHODS: At a single tertiary care hospital, 1,120 blood cultures positive for Candida species from 1997 to 2016 were investigated according to date of culture, gender, age, and hospital department. RESULTS: During the investigation period, the number of candidemia patients increased from 14 in 1997 to 84 in 2016. The most common organism identified during the two decades was Candida albicans (40.8%), followed by Candida parapsilosis (24.1%), Candida tropicalis (13.2%), and Candida glabrata (12.8%). C. glabrata was relatively common in females (45.5%) compared to males. The age group 40-89 years was more frequently infected than other age groups, and the most frequent isolates according to age group were C. albicans in neonate (66.7%), C. parapsilosis in 1-9-year-olds (41.7%), and C. glabrata in those aged ≥60 years (range; 13.3%–20.0%). According to the visited departments, C. albicans, C. glabrata, and Candida haemulonii were more common in medical departments, while C. parapsilosis was more common in surgical departments. In the antifungal susceptibility test, a rising trend of azole resistance among C. albicans and C. glabrata was observed in recent years. CONCLUSION: In this study, it was confirmed that the isolation rate of Candida species in blood is different by age, gender, and hospital department, and the distribution of isolated Candida species changed over time. The resistance patterns of antifungal agents are also changing, and continuous monitoring and proper selection of antifungal agents are necessary.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents , Candida albicans , Candida glabrata , Candida tropicalis , Candida , Candidemia , Danazol , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Female , Hospital Departments , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Prevalence , Tertiary Healthcare
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