Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 18 de 18
Filter
1.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2017004-2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721265

ABSTRACT

After publishing results of a study that revealed diarrheagenic and emetic activity in 4-5-day old mice infected with Kudoa septempunctata (K. septempunctata) spores, the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported 11 events of “Kudoa food poisoning” in 2015. The epidemiological design of the previous study was descriptive rather than analytical; therefore, this study aimed to further investigate the pathogenicity of K. septempunctata. Academic articles showing evidence of the pathogenicity of K. septempunctata were searched via PubMed using the citation discovery tool. Information regarding the kinds of experimental animals and inoculum spores used, as well as study results were extracted. Four articles evaluating the pathogenicity of Myxospran parasites were selected; the first article suggested the pathogenicity of K. septempunctata, while the remaining three articles reported no abnormal symptoms or histopathologic changes. Our findings indicate that there is weak evidence supporting the pathogenicity of K. septempunctata. Further studies evaluating the pathogenicity of K. septempunctata are needed urgently.


Subject(s)
Animals , Food Parasitology , Foodborne Diseases , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic , Korea , Mice , Myxozoa , Parasites , Spores , Virulence
2.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2017004-2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786814

ABSTRACT

After publishing results of a study that revealed diarrheagenic and emetic activity in 4-5-day old mice infected with Kudoa septempunctata (K. septempunctata) spores, the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported 11 events of “Kudoa food poisoning” in 2015. The epidemiological design of the previous study was descriptive rather than analytical; therefore, this study aimed to further investigate the pathogenicity of K. septempunctata. Academic articles showing evidence of the pathogenicity of K. septempunctata were searched via PubMed using the citation discovery tool. Information regarding the kinds of experimental animals and inoculum spores used, as well as study results were extracted. Four articles evaluating the pathogenicity of Myxospran parasites were selected; the first article suggested the pathogenicity of K. septempunctata, while the remaining three articles reported no abnormal symptoms or histopathologic changes. Our findings indicate that there is weak evidence supporting the pathogenicity of K. septempunctata. Further studies evaluating the pathogenicity of K. septempunctata are needed urgently.


Subject(s)
Animals , Food Parasitology , Foodborne Diseases , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic , Korea , Mice , Myxozoa , Parasites , Spores , Virulence
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-168703

ABSTRACT

A case of Taenia asiatica infection detected by small bowel series and colonoscopy is described. The patient was a 42-year-old Korean man accompanied by discharge of movable proglottids via anus. He used to eat raw pig liver but seldom ate beef. Small bowel series radiologic examinations showed flat tape-like filling defects on the ileum. By colonoscopy, a moving flat tapeworm was observed from the terminal ileum to the ascending colon. The tapeworm was identified as T. asiatica by mitochondrial DNA sequencing. The patient was prescribed with a single oral dose (16 mg/kg) of praziquantel.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anal Canal , Cestoda , Colon, Ascending , Colonoscopy , DNA, Mitochondrial , Humans , Ileum , Liver , Praziquantel , Red Meat , Taenia
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51111

ABSTRACT

Panonychus citri damages the leaves of citrus trees, causing defoliation, and induces T-helper type 2 (TH2) immune responses (occupational asthma) via a hitherto unknown mechanism. This is a particular problem on Jeju Island, which is located to the south of the Korean peninsula. In this study, we show for the first time how P. citri induces TH2 immunity. Exposure to P. citri induces the production of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) by either basophils or CD4+ T cells (it is not certain which), which results in the production of interleukin 4 (IL-4). IL-4 promotes the production of immunoglobulin E (IgE), which ultimately contributes to the process of allergic inflammation. Therefore, TSLP plays an important role in the P. citri-induced TH2 immune response.


Subject(s)
Asthma, Occupational , Basophils , Citrus , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Inflammation , Interleukin-4 , T-Lymphocytes , Trees
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14498

ABSTRACT

Several studies have reported that the citrus red mites Panonychus citri were an important allergen of citrus-cultivating farmers in Jeju Island. The aim of the present study was to purify and assess properties of a cysteine protease from the mites acting as a potentially pathogenic factor to citrus-cultivating farmers. A cysteine protease was purified using column chromatography of Mono Q anion exchanger and Superdex 200 HR gel filtration. It was estimated to be 46 kDa by gel filtration column chromatography and consisted of 2 polypeptides, at least. Cysteine protease inhibitors, such as trans poxy-succinyl-L-leucyl-amido (4-guanidino) butane (E-64) and iodoacetic acid (IAA) totally inhibited the enzyme activities, whereas serine or metalloprotease inhibitors did not affect the activities. In addition, the purified enzyme degraded human IgG, collagen, and fibronectin, but not egg albumin. From these results, the cysteine protease of the mites might be involved in the pathogenesis such as tissue destruction and penetration instead of nutrient digestion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, Gel , Chromatography, Ion Exchange , Collagen/metabolism , Cysteine Proteases/chemistry , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/metabolism , Fibronectins/metabolism , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Molecular Weight , Protein Subunits/chemistry , Proteolysis , Substrate Specificity , Tetranychidae/enzymology
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99070

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Recent studies have used the term "gastroallergic anisakiasis" to describe incidental gastrointestinal infection with Anisakis spp. larvae, proposed as a causative agent of food hypersensitivity. However, it is unknown whether this condition represents an independent disease entity distinguishable from acute gastric anisakiasis. To better understand the role of the allergic response in Anisakis infections we examined the clinical and immunological implications of Anisakis-specific IgE. METHODS: A prospective study was performed in a geographic region where the consumption of raw seafood is common. Case subjects who had been clinically diagnosed with gastroallergic anisakiasis were selected, along with controls who frequently ate raw seafood but had never experienced gastroallergic anisakiasis-like symptoms. Clinical and immunological features were compared based on atopic status, sensitization rates to Anisakis, and serum titer of Anisakis-specific IgE. RESULTS: Seventeen case subjects and 135 controls were included in this study. The case subjects had experienced gastrointestinal symptoms after raw seafood ingestion, along with additional mucocutaneous, respiratory, or multisystemic symptoms. Case subjects were significantly sensitized to Anisakis excretory-secretory product and crude extract compared with controls (76.5% vs. 19.3%, P17.5 kU/L) were found to be reliable indicators for the diagnosis of gastroallergic anisakiasis. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients presenting acute gastric anisakiasis-like symptoms, a diagnosis of gastroallergic anisakiasis may be strongly supported by a high Anisakis-specific IgE titer.


Subject(s)
Anisakiasis , Anisakis , Diagnosis , Eating , Food Hypersensitivity , Humans , Hypersensitivity, Immediate , Immunoglobulin E , Immunologic Tests , Larva , Nematode Infections , Prospective Studies , Seafood , Skin , Skin Tests
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-133543

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to determine the Toxocara seropositive rate among healthy people with eosinophilia. A total of 97 people residing in Seoul who were healthy and whose blood eosinophilia was over 10%, as shown by regular health check-ups in 2004, were subjected to this study. Their sera were tested by immunoblotting and ELISA with the antigen of larval Toxocara canis excretory-secretory (ES) protein. Sixty-five sera were band-positive (67.0%). The seropositve control sera were positive to band sizes of 66 kDa, 56 kDa, 32 kDa, and 13 kDa. In ELISA, 63 sera (65.0%) were positive to T. canis ES protein. There was no significant correlation between the IgG ELISA titer and the level of eosinophilia (r = 0.156, P = 0.156). As there were insufficient data to determine whether there were cross-reactions with other helminthic infections, or whether atopy occurred, further studies are required to verify the cause of the seropositive reactions against T. canis ES antigen. Toxocariasis seropositivity is suggested to be the major cause of eosinophilia, since the Toxocara seroprevalence among Korean rural adults was shown to be approximately 5%.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Helminth/blood , Carrier State/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Eosinophilia/complications , Health , Humans , Immunoblotting , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxocariasis/blood
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-133542

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to determine the Toxocara seropositive rate among healthy people with eosinophilia. A total of 97 people residing in Seoul who were healthy and whose blood eosinophilia was over 10%, as shown by regular health check-ups in 2004, were subjected to this study. Their sera were tested by immunoblotting and ELISA with the antigen of larval Toxocara canis excretory-secretory (ES) protein. Sixty-five sera were band-positive (67.0%). The seropositve control sera were positive to band sizes of 66 kDa, 56 kDa, 32 kDa, and 13 kDa. In ELISA, 63 sera (65.0%) were positive to T. canis ES protein. There was no significant correlation between the IgG ELISA titer and the level of eosinophilia (r = 0.156, P = 0.156). As there were insufficient data to determine whether there were cross-reactions with other helminthic infections, or whether atopy occurred, further studies are required to verify the cause of the seropositive reactions against T. canis ES antigen. Toxocariasis seropositivity is suggested to be the major cause of eosinophilia, since the Toxocara seroprevalence among Korean rural adults was shown to be approximately 5%.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Helminth/blood , Carrier State/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Eosinophilia/complications , Health , Humans , Immunoblotting , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxocariasis/blood
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-35030

ABSTRACT

Helminthic cysteine proteases are well known to play critical roles in tissue invasion, nutrient uptake, and immune evasion of the parasites. In the same manner, the sparganum, the plerocercoid of Spirometra mansoni, is also known to secrete a large amount of cysteine proteases. However, cysteine protease inhibitors regulating the proteolytic activities of the cysteine protease are poorly illustrated. In this regard, we partially purified an endogenous cysteine protease inhibitor from spargana and characterized its biochemical properties. The cysteine protease inhibitor was purified by sequential chromatographies using Resource Q anion exchanger and Superdex 200 HR gel filtration from crude extracts of spargana. The molecular weight of the purified protein was estimated to be about 11 kD on SDS-PAGE. It was able to inhibit papain and 27 kDa cysteine protease of spargana with the ratio of 25.7% and 49.1%, respectively, while did not inhibit chymotrypsin. This finding suggests that the cysteine protease inhibitor of spargana may be involved in regulation of endogenous cysteine proteases of the parasite, rather than interact with cysteine proteases from their hosts.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cystatins/pharmacology , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Helminth Proteins/metabolism , Spirometra/metabolism
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-188651

ABSTRACT

Eosinophil degranulation plays a crucial role in tissue inflammatory reactions associated with helminth parasitic nfections and allergic diseases. Paragonimus westermani, a lung fluke causing human paragonimiasis, secretes a large amount of cysteine proteases, which are involved in nutrient uptake, tissue invasion, and modulation of hos's immune responses. There is, however, limited information about the response of eosinophils to direct stimulation by cysteine proteases (CP) secreted by P. westermani. In the present study, we tested whether degranulation and superoxide production from human eosinophils can be induced by stimulation of the 2 CP (27 kDa and 28 kDa) purified from excretory-secretory products (ESP) of P. westermani newly excysted metacercariae (PwNEM). A large quantity of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) was detected in the culture supernatant when human eosinophils isolated from the peripheral blood were incubated with the purified 27 kDa CP. Furthermore, the 27 kDa CP induced superoxide anion production by eosinophils in time- and dose-dependent manners. In contrast, the purified 28 kDa CP did not induce superoxide production and degranulation. These findings suggest that the 27 kDa CP secreted by PwNEM induces superoxide production and degranulation of human eosinophils, which may be involved in eosinophil-mediated tissue inflammatory responses during the larval migration in human paragonimiasis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Astacoidea/parasitology , Cell Degranulation , Cysteine Endopeptidases/immunology , Eosinophils/immunology , Helminth Proteins/immunology , Humans , Paragonimiasis/immunology , Paragonimus westermani/enzymology , Superoxides/immunology
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-215234

ABSTRACT

A 29 kDa cysteine protease of Taenia solium metacestodes was purified by Mono Q anion-exchanger and Superose 6 HR gel filtration chromatography. The enzyme was effectively inhibited by cysteine protease inhibitors, such as iodoacetic acid (IAA) and trans-epoxy-succinyl-L-leucyl-amido (4-guanidino) butane (E-64) while inhibitors acting on serine- or metallo-proteases did not affect the enzyme activity. The purified enzyme degraded human immunoglobulin G (IgG), collagen and bovine serum albumin (BSA), but human IgG was more susceptible for proteolysis by the enzyme. To define the precise biological roles of the enzyme, more detailed biochemical and functional studies would be required.


Subject(s)
Taenia solium/enzymology , Serum Albumin, Bovine/metabolism , Leucine/analogs & derivatives , Iodoacetic Acid/pharmacology , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Humans , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Collagen/metabolism , Chromatography, Ion Exchange , Chromatography, Gel , Animals
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14971

ABSTRACT

Eosinophil degranulation is considered to be a key effector function for the killing of helminthic worms and tissue inflammation at worm-infected lesion sites. However, relatively little data are available with regard to eosinophil response after stimulation with worm-secreted products which contain a large quantity of cysteine proteases. In this study, we attempted to determine whether the degranulation of human eosinophils could be induced by the direct stimulation of the excretory-secretory products (ESP) of Paragonimus westermani, which causes pulmonary paragonimiasis in human beings. Incubation of eosinophils for 3 hr with Paragonimus-secreted products resulted in marked degranulation, as evidenced by the release of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) in the culture supernatants. Moreover, superoxide anion was produced by eosinophils after stimulation of the ESP. The ESP-induced EDN release was found to be significantly inhibited when the ESP was pretreated with protease inhibitor cocktail or the cysteine protease inhibitor, E-64. These findings suggest that human eosinophils become degranulated in response to P. westermani-secreted proteases, which may contribute to in vivo tissue inflammation around the worms.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Degranulation , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Eosinophil-Derived Neurotoxin/metabolism , Eosinophils/physiology , Humans , Paragonimus westermani/enzymology , Superoxides/metabolism , Time Factors
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-188037

ABSTRACT

A highly specific antigenic protein of 31 kDa from plerocercoid of Spirometra mansoni (sparganum) was obtained by gelatin affinity and Mono Q anion-exchange column chromatography. The purified 31 kDa protein was subjected to N-glycan enzymatic digestion for structural analysis. The relative electrophoretic mobility was analyzed by SDS-PAGE, before and after digestion. On SDS-PAGE after enzymatic digestion, the 31 kDa protein showed a molecular shift of approximately 2 kDa, which indicated the possession of complex N-linked oligosaccharides (N-glycosidase F sensitive) but not of high-mannose oligosaccharides (endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H, non-sensitive). Chemically periodated 31 kDa protein showed statistically non-significant changes with human sparganosis sera by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Therefore, the dominant epitopes of the 31 kDa molecule in human sparganosis were found to be mainly polypeptide, while N-glycans of the antigenic molecule in sparganum was minimal in anti-carbohydrate antibody production.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigens, Helminth/analysis , Carbohydrates/analysis , Chromatography, Affinity , Chromatography, Ion Exchange , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epitopes/analysis , Hexosaminidases/metabolism , Humans , /metabolism , Periodic Acid/chemistry , Sparganosis/parasitology , Sparganum/immunology , Spirometra/immunology
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-188032

ABSTRACT

The 150 kDa protein of cyst fluid (CF) of Taenia solium metacestodes was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and Superose 6 HR gel filtration chromatography. The purified protein consisted of three subunits (15, 10 and 7 kDa proteins), which were analyzed with the use of a 7.5-15% gradient sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Immunofluorescence study was carried out by using immunize specific polyclonal antibody. Positive reactions were noticed at bladder walls, calcareous corpuscles, granules of cyst fluid and some host tissue surrounding the bladder wall of the metacestodes. These results suggest that the 150 kDa protein was secreted into host tissues, inducing immune responses in the host, and it may play important roles in the cellular physiology of the parasites.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chemical Fractionation , Chromatography, Gel , Cyst Fluid/chemistry , Cysticercosis/metabolism , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Helminth Proteins/chemistry , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Molecular Weight , Swine , Swine Diseases/parasitology , Taenia solium/metabolism
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-187051

ABSTRACT

Papilledema, pupillary abnormalities, and nystagmus are common neuro-ophthalmologic signs in neurocysticercosis (NCC). Oculomotor palsy rarely occurs and usually accompanies compression of the midbrain by supratentorial or subarachonoid lesions with or without inflammation and hydrocephalus. Oculomotor palsy from NCC involving the midbrain parenchyme has rarely been described. We report on a patient who presented with oculomotor palsy caused by mesencephalic NCC. The patient showed recurrences of symptoms in association with steroid tapering.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hydrocephalus , Inflammation , Mesencephalon , Neurocysticercosis , Papilledema , Paralysis , Recurrence
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-206118

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to detect and evaluate an antigenicity of low molecular weight proteins of Fasciola hepatica in fascioliasis. Low molecular weight protein of F. hepatica was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and Sephacryl S-100 HR gel filtration. The protein obtained was estimated to be 8 kDa on 7.5-15% gradient sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. Immunoblotting studies showed that the 8 kDa protein reacted with human fascioliasis sera, but not other trematodiasis sera. This result suggests that the 8 kDa protein of F. hepatica is one of diagnostic antigens in human fascioliasis without cross-reaction with other human trematodiasis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigens, Helminth/isolation & purification , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Fasciola hepatica/immunology , Fascioliasis/blood , Helminth Proteins/isolation & purification , Humans , Immunoblotting
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-95664

ABSTRACT

The 8 kDa antigenic protein of Clonorchis sinensis was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and subsequently by a column chromatographic steps. The purified protein was separated into 7 and 8 kDa protein bands through SDS-tricine gel electrophoresis, while the protein was found to migrate to a 8 kDa band in 7.5-15% SDS-PAGE. The molecular weight of the antigen was estimated to be 110 kDa by Superose 6 HR 10/30 gel filtration. The purified antigen strongly reacted with the human sera of clonorchiasis. The hyperimmune sera of BALB/c mice immunized against the 8 kDa protein were reacted with both the crude extract and the excretory-secretory product of adult worms, but not with the metacercarial extract. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that the protein was distributed to the tegument and subtegumental cells and also to the seminal receptacle. The present findings suggest that the 8 kDa protein is a partition of the multicomplex protein originating from various organs of adult C. sinensis, and that it is composed of several 7 and 8 kDa proteins.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigens, Helminth/immunology , Clonorchiasis/immunology , Clonorchis sinensis/anatomy & histology , Helminth Proteins/immunology , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Molecular Weight
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-95663

ABSTRACT

The cysteine proteases of Paragonimus westermani metacercariae are involved in metacercarial excystment, host immune modulation, and possibly in tissue penetration. In order to clarify the origin of the enzymes, 28 and 27 kDa cysteine proteases in metacercarial excretory-secretory products were purified through the FPLC system using Mono Q column chromatography. The polyclonal antibodies to the enzymes were produced in BALB/c mice. Immunolocalization studies revealed that both cysteine proteases were distributed at the linings of excretory bladder and excretory concretions of the metacercariae. It was suggested that the excretory epithelium of P. westermani undertake the secretory function of metacercarial cysteine proteases, in addition to its role as a route for eliminating waste products.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, Liquid , Computational Biology , Cysteine Endopeptidases/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Paragonimus/anatomy & histology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL