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1.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 52-61, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968550

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We aimed to elucidate public mental health problems and associated factors during the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Furthermore, we evaluated people’s attitudes toward digital therapeutics during the pandemic. @*Methods@#Data was collected online from participants, aged between 20–50 without any history of mental illness, from June 1st to June 30th 2021. The survey consisted of questions regarding demographics, changes during pandemic and attitude towards digital therapeutics, and mental health measures. @*Results@#Among the total of 445 participants, 49.2% reported significant level of stress and 13.5% and 7.0% met the screening criteria for major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder, respectively. Significant predictive factors for mental health problems were-younger age group, female sex, currently being treated for medical or surgical disease, change in the amount of time spent on mobile device or computer after pandemic, change in household income, and change in work environment due to pandemic. Furthermore, 35.1% of participants, considered psychiatric consultation, at least slightly, but were hesitant to receive it due to the fear of contacting COVID-19 at the clinics. Instead, 54.4% of them preferred using digital therapeutics as an alternative to visiting offline clinics. @*Conclusion@#We demonstrated that COVID-19 increased mental health problems along with access problems and identified their predictive factors. Digital therapeutics emerged as a viable solution to mental health problems and it was well-received by those in need of psychiatric consultation. Therefore, development and implementation of digital therapeutics should be considered to improve the mental health of people.

2.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e335-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915445

ABSTRACT

Background@#Firefighters inevitably encounter emotionally and physically stressful situations at work. Even firefighters without diagnosed post-traumatic stress disorder receive clinical attention because the nature of the profession exposes them to repetitive trauma and high occupational stress. This study investigated gray matter abnormalities related to high occupational stress in firefighters using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and surface-based morphometry (SBM). @*Methods@#We assessed 115 subjects (112 males and 3 females) using magnetic resonance imaging and evaluated occupational stress by the Korean Occupational Stress Scale-26 (KOSS-26). Subjects were classified into highly or lowly stressed groups based on the median value of the KOSS-26. @*Results@#In VBM analysis, we found that firefighters with high occupational stress had lower gray matter volume (GMV) in both sides of the insula, the left amygdala, the right medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and the anterior cingulate cortex than firefighters with low occupational stress. In SBM analysis based on regions of interest, the GMV of the bilateral insula and right mPFC were also lower in the highly stressed group. Within the highly stressed group, low GMV of the insula was significantly correlated with the length of service (left: r = −0.347, P = 0.009; right: r = −0.333, P = 0.012). @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggest that regional GMV abnormalities are related to occupational stress. Regional gray matter abnormalities and related emotional dysregulation may contribute to firefighter susceptibility to burnout.

3.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 159-163, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875590

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Nearly one third of all patients with an eating disorder (ED) present with non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Although it is necessary to pay attention clinically to NSSI in ED patients due to an increased suicidal risk, there are limited data on potential predictors of NSSI in ED. We conducted this study to uncover predictors of NSSI in ED. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 1355 ED patients who visited an ED clinic was evaluated through structured interviews by psychiatrists. The demographic and clinical characteristics of ED patients with NSSI (NSSI group) and ED patients without NSSI (non-NSSI group) were analyzed to identify potential predictors of NSSI in ED. @*Results@#Among all ED individuals, 242 (17.9%) reported a history of NSSI. Compared to the non-NSSI group, the NSSI group reported more severe eating symptomatology, more comorbid psychiatric disease, and more suicidal risk. Comorbid alcohol use disorder, depressive disorder, purging behavior, history of suicide attempt, and rumination symptoms were uncovered as predictors of NSSI in ED. @*Conclusion@#The findings of the study are meaningful in that they highlight predictors of NSSI in ED in a large clinical sample. Understanding risk factors of NSSI and offering appropriate interventions are important to preventing suicidality in ED.

4.
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing ; : 333-348, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834510

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The present study investigated the association between nurse staffing and health outcomes among psychiatric inpatients in Koreaby assessing National Health Insurance claims data. @*Methods@#The dataset included 70,136 patients aged 19 years who were inpatientsin psychiatric wards for at least two days in 2016 and treated for mental and behavioral disorders due to use of alcohol; schizophrenia,schizotypal and delusional disorders; and mood disorders across 453 hospitals. Nurse staffing levels were measured in three ways: registerednurse-to-inpatient ratio, registered nurse-to-adjusted inpatient ratio, and nursing staff-to-adjusted inpatient ratio. Patient outcomesincluded length of stay, readmission within 30 days, psychiatric emergency treatment, use of injected psycholeptics for chemical restraint,and hypnotics use. Relationships between nurse staffing levels and patient outcomes were analyzed considering both patient and systemcharacteristics using multilevel modeling. @*Results@#Multilevel analyses revealed that more inpatients per registered nurse, adjusted inpatientsper registered nurse, and adjusted inpatients per nursing staff were associated with longer lengths of stay as well as a higher risk of readmission.More adjusted inpatients per registered nurse and adjusted inpatients per nursing staff were also associated with increased hypnoticsuse but a lower risk of psychiatric emergency treatment. Nurse staffing levels were not significantly associated with the use of injectedpsycholeptics for chemical restraint. @*Conclusion@#Lower nurse staffing levels are associated with negative health outcomes of psychiatricinpatients. Policies for improving nurse staffing toward an optimal level should be enacted to facilitate better outcomes for psychiatricinpatients in Korea.

6.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 151-151, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765215

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Humans , Outpatients
7.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 167-172, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765212

ABSTRACT

Clinical studies published over the past two decades have consistently demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy and safety of anti-craving medications. To use anti-craving agents more effectively in clinical settings, it is important to set clear treatment goals. Because alcoholic patients have lost control of drinking alcohol, it is recommended to set ‘abstinence’ as a goal rather than ‘controlled drinking’. Indeed, the therapeutic effects of anti-craving medication are higher when abstinence is set as the target. On the other hand, if abstinence is the sole criterion, it is difficult to elicit the motivation of a patient who lacks motivation in clinical practice. In the case of patients who have not yet gained insight, the initial goal might be set to gradually reduce the amount of alcohol consumed and prevent at-risk heavy drinking. Even in this case, anti-craving can help clinically. To increase the effectiveness of anti-craving medications, it is best to start at least four to seven days after the patient has stopped drinking. If the patient has alcohol withdrawal symptoms, they should be treated first.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alcoholics , Craving , Drinking , Hand , Motivation , Naltrexone , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome , Therapeutic Uses
8.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 335-335, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713801

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Authorship
9.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 322-329, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-133698

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of depression on emotional regulation in adolescents with internet gaming disorder. METHODS: A stroop Match-to-Sample task with emotional interference was applied to 36 male adolescents to investigate how emotional stimuli (angry faces) interfered with performance of the stroop task in male adolescents with internet gaming disorder. For evaluation of psychiatric symptoms and personal characteristics, participants were asked to complete self-reports, including Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and the Aggression Questionnaire. RESULTS: In emotionally interfered conditions, there was no significant difference of reaction time between the internet gaming disorder group and the healthy control group. However, the internet gaming disorder group showed a tendency of longer reaction time and lower accuracy rate in emotionally interfered condition, which can account for emotion regulation difficulties in the internet gaming disorder group. According to analysis of covariance and stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, BDI score showed association with reaction time of results. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that adolescents with internet gaming disorder may experience more difficulties in emotion regulation during attention-required situations than those in the control group, and comorbid depression contributes to faulty emotional regulation in adolescents with internet gaming disorder.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Humans , Aggression , Anxiety , Depression , Internet , Linear Models , Reaction Time
10.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 322-329, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-133695

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of depression on emotional regulation in adolescents with internet gaming disorder. METHODS: A stroop Match-to-Sample task with emotional interference was applied to 36 male adolescents to investigate how emotional stimuli (angry faces) interfered with performance of the stroop task in male adolescents with internet gaming disorder. For evaluation of psychiatric symptoms and personal characteristics, participants were asked to complete self-reports, including Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and the Aggression Questionnaire. RESULTS: In emotionally interfered conditions, there was no significant difference of reaction time between the internet gaming disorder group and the healthy control group. However, the internet gaming disorder group showed a tendency of longer reaction time and lower accuracy rate in emotionally interfered condition, which can account for emotion regulation difficulties in the internet gaming disorder group. According to analysis of covariance and stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, BDI score showed association with reaction time of results. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that adolescents with internet gaming disorder may experience more difficulties in emotion regulation during attention-required situations than those in the control group, and comorbid depression contributes to faulty emotional regulation in adolescents with internet gaming disorder.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Humans , Aggression , Anxiety , Depression , Internet , Linear Models , Reaction Time
11.
Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine ; : 3-11, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-63607

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the influence of parental behaviors on the onset and severity of eating disorders, this study compared aspects of perceived parental styles, according to eating disorder subtypes and age at onset in Korean women with eating disorders. METHODS: One hundred and sixty-seven patients with eating disorders[Anorexia Nervosa (AN), N=49; Bulimia Nervosa(BN), N=118] were recruited for this study. Perceived parent behaviors were assessed with Parental Behavior Inventory(PBI) self-rating scale. The study subjects also completed the Eating Disorder Inventory -2 (EDI-2) to assess the severity of eating disorder symptoms. RESULTS: In anorexia nervosa, early onset group(<16 years) reported low paternal affection and high paternal rational expression, low maternal interference than group with age at onset over 16 years. The severity of eating disorder symptoms was negatively associated with mother affection and rational expression in two subtypes of eating disorder(AN and BN). On stepwise regression analysis, paternal affection and maternal over-protection were associated with age of onset only in AN group and maternal affection was associated with the severity of symptoms in both groups of eating disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the role of family function and perceived parental styles could help improve the management of eating disorders. These results emphasize the importance of fathers' role in the eating disorder on the age of onset, a relatively unexplored area of eating disorder research. Also, we investigated the importance of mothers' affection on the severity of symptoms.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Age of Onset , Anorexia Nervosa , Bulimia , Bulimia Nervosa , Eating , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Mothers , Parents
12.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 266-272, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-88912

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Alcohol dependence is characterized by persistent alcohol-seeking despite negative consequences. Previous studies suggest that maladaptive persistent behaviors reflect alcohol-induced brain changes that cause alterations in the cortico-striatal-limbic circuit. METHODS: Twenty one alcohol dependent patients and 24 age-matched healthy controls performed a decision-making task during functional MRI. We defined the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) as a region-of-interest and performed seed-based functional connectivity analysis. RESULTS: Healthy controls were more flexible in adapting an alternative behavioral strategy, which correlated with stronger mOFC-dorsal striatum functional connectivity. In contrast, alcohol dependent patients persisted to the first established behavioral strategy. The mOFC-dorsal striatum functional connectivity was impaired in the alcohol-dependent patients, but increased in correlation with the duration of abstinence. CONCLUSION: Our findings support that the disruption of the mOFC-striatal circuitry contribute to the maldaptive persistent behaviors in alcohol dependent patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alcoholics , Alcoholism , Brain , Decision Making , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
13.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 126-131, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44840

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: It has been reported that working and learning efficiency might be increased through artificially controlling the color temperature and brightness of light. However, the neurological bases of these outcomes are not well established. Our study was designed to observe whether electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha frequency, as a candidate biological marker, demonstrates significant changes in response to alterations of specific light parameters. METHODS: Thirty-two healthy subjects performed cognitive tasks under four different polychromatic light conditions: a combination of two different levels of color temperature (2766K vs. 5918K) and brightness (300 lux vs. 600 lux). Spectrum analyses were performed on alpha frequency. RESULTS: Subjects reported that they felt more pleasant in bright conditions and more relaxed in warm color temperature conditions. Our findings indicate that alpha power increases in warm, low-light and cool, high-light conditions, and there is a significant interaction between color temperature and brightness. CONCLUSION: EEGs might serve as a useful biological marker for further research related to the effects of polychromatic light on cognitive function.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Electroencephalography , Learning
14.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1099-1106, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-41585

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Korean version of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) in Korean patients with eating disorders and healthy controls, and to investigate cultural differences of EDI-2 between a Korean group and a North American standardization sample. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Korean version of the EDI-2 was prepared after comprehensive clinical assessment of Korean patients with eating disorders (n=327) as well as female undergraduates (n=176). Results were compared between eating disorder subgroups (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorders not otherwise specified) and those of a North American standardization sample and healthy controls. RESULTS: The results showed that the Korean EDI-2 had adequate internal consistency (0.77-0.93) and discriminated well between patients with eating disorders and healthy controls on all subscales. Significant differences in EDI-2 subscale scores between the eating disorder groups and the healthy control group were observed; however, there was no discernible difference among the eating disorder subgroups. When compared with a North American standardization sample, the Korean control group showed significantly higher scores for drive for thinness and asceticism. When patient groups were compared, the Korean group showed significantly lower scores for perfectionism. CONCLUSION: As expected, the results accurately reflected psychometric properties of the Korean version of EDI-2 for eating disorder patients in Korea. These findings also suggest that common characteristics for the eating disorder exist as a whole rather than with significant difference between each subgroup. In addition, significant differences between the Korean and the North American groups for both patients and controls also demonstrated specific cultural differences.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Asian People , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Feeding and Eating Disorders/psychology , Psychometrics
15.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 323-328, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-205262

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) patients in alcoholics and to evaluate the utility of Caine's criteria as a screening test. METHODS: We made an admission note including Caine's criteria and applied it to patients who were admitted to an alcohol treatment unit. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected on 204 alcoholics. Our alcoholics who met more than one of Caine's criteria were considered at risk for WE and were given high-dose thiamine IV therapy. RESULTS: We was diagnosed in 15.2% of the alcoholic patients. Age and head trauma history were risk factors of WE. The sensitivity of Caine's criteria was 97% and specificity was 54%. High-dose thiamine IV therapy appeared to be a safe and cost-effective method to prevent the serious complications of WE. CONCLUSION: Caine's criteria is useful as a screening test for WE among alcoholic patients. High-dose thiamine IV therapy is cost-effective for alcoholic patients who are considered to be at risk for WE.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alcoholics , Alcoholism , Craniocerebral Trauma , Mass Screening , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thiamine , Thiamine Deficiency , Wernicke Encephalopathy
16.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 139-147, 2011.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-117228

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Readiness to Change Questionnaire-Treatment version (RCQTV-K). METHODS: The participants were 92 patients who were seeking treatment of alcoholism in two hospitals for alcoholism. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed to test whether the factor structure of the RCQTV-K was consistent with the English version. Convergent validity was assessed by correlating the scores on the RCQTV-K with those on other scales (Alcohol Abstinence Self-Efficacy Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Korean Version of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). RESULTS: The factor structure of the RCQTV-K was consistent with the three-factor structure established for the original RCQTV. Cronbach's alpha was high, indicating that the reliability of the items for each subscale was satisfactory. Allocated stage of change showed significant differences among the scores on the other scales. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study indicate that the RCQTV-K is an effective and valid scale for evaluating the stage of readiness to change in patients seeking treatment for alcoholism. The findings suggest that the RCQTV-K is a promising assessment tool for use in the treatment and study of alcoholism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alcoholism , Depression , Psychometrics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Weights and Measures
17.
Korean Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology ; : 103-107, 2010.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-53055

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was performed to examine the effects of image filter on observer performance by counting the number of holes at each wedge step on a radiographic image. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An aluminum step wedge with 11 steps ranged in thickness from 1.5 mm to 16.5 mm in 1.5 mm increments was fabricated for this study. Each step had 10 notched holes with 1.0 mm diameter on the bottom of the step wedge which were ranged in depths from 0.1 mm to 1.0 mm in 0.1 mm increments. Digital radiographic raw images of the aluminum step wedge were acquired by using CCD intraoral sensor. The images were processed using several types of noise reduction filters and kernel sizes. Three observers counted the number of holes which could be discriminated on each step. The data were analyzed by ANOVA. RESULTS: The number of holes at each step was decreased as the thickness of step was increased. The number of holes at each step on the raw images was significantly higher than that on the processed images. The number of holes was different according to the types and kernel sizes of the image filters. CONCLUSION: The types and kernel sizes of image filters on observer performance were important, therefore, they should be standardized for commercial digital imaging systems.


Subject(s)
Aluminum , Noise , Radiographic Image Enhancement , Radiography, Dental , Task Performance and Analysis
18.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 239-243, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180647

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to assess the interaction between alcohol cues and social pressure in the induction of alcohol craving. METHODS: Fourteen male patients with alcohol dependence and 14 age-matched social drinkers completed a virtual reality coping skill training program composed of four blocks according to the presence of alcohol cues (x2) and social pressure (x2). Before and after each block, the craving levels were measured using a visual analogue scale. RESULTS: Patients with alcohol dependence reported extremely high levels of craving immediately upon exposure to a virtual environment with alcohol cues, regardless of social pressure. In contrast, the craving levels of social drinkers were influenced by social pressure from virtual avatars. CONCLUSION: Our findings imply that an alcohol cue-laden environment should interfere with the ability to use coping skills against social pressure in real-life situations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adaptation, Psychological , Alcoholism , Cues , Education
19.
Journal of the Korean Society of Biological Psychiatry ; : 129-141, 2007.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725095

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Empathy has been conceptualized as the ability of emotional resonance and perspective-taking. Emotional awareness has been proposed as the basis of empathy. In this study we examined the relationship between empathy and mood awareness and their neural correlates in resting-state activity in normal controls and patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Empathy and mood awareness scale scores were compared between 29 patients with schizophrenia and 21 normal controls by voxel-based t-tests and voxel-based correlation analyses of resting-state 18F-FDG PET images. RESULTS: Empathy and mood labeling scale scores were significantly decreased in schizophrenic patients. Mood monitoring was positively correlated with empathy score in normal controls, but not in schizophrenic patients. In normal controls, empathy was positively correlated with resting-state activities in the intraparietal sulcus and mood monitoring was positively correlated with the temporal pole, frontopolar cortex, inferior temporal gyrus, entorhinal cortex and the subgenual prefrontal cortex resting activities. The orbitofrontal cortex resting activity was positively correlated with mood monitoring-related subgenual prefrontal cortex activity in the normal controls. Patients with schizophrenia showed decreased orbitofrontal resting activity and loss of its correlations with mood monitoring-related regional activities. CONCLUSION: This study showed that alteration in the resting-state activity in schizophrenia may reflect dysfunctional empathy and distorted characteristic of emotional awareness. However, the resting-state activity may not reflect the relationship between emotional awareness and empathy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain , Empathy , Entorhinal Cortex , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Prefrontal Cortex , Schizophrenia
20.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 499-506, 2007.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25242

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The relationship between substance dependence and poor decision making has received much attention in recent years. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that alcohol dependent subjects would demonstrate a more perseverative decision-making pattern, during ambiguous situations. METHODS: 15 alcohol dependent patients and 15 healthy normal controls performed a novel computerized decision-making task, which presented figures of coins. The subjects were instructed to guess whether the total number of coins was 'odd' or 'even'. Besides these two response, one could select a third alternative - 'pass' - in case the chances were assumed to be low. RESULTS: There was significant difference in performance between the two groups (F=4.339, p=0.008). The control group gained 15.4+/-14.4 points, whereas the alcohol dependent group lost 0.6+/-5.3 points. The normal control group demonstrated a tendency to make more pass responses as the trials were repeated. In contrast, the alcohol dependent group didn't make use of the alternative, but kept challenging between 'odd' and 'even', although they sensed that the chances were low. CONCLUSION: The alcohol dependent patients demonstrated a more rigid and perseverative response pattern and showed deficits in making use of compromise alternatives.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alcoholism , Decision Making , Numismatics , Substance-Related Disorders
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