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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925690

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to compare the outcomes of primary radiotherapy (RT) versus surgery in early-stage human papilloma virus–positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (hpv+OPC), and investigate the preoperative clinical factors that can predict the requirement for postoperative adjuvant treatment. @*Materials and Methods@#This multicenter study included 166 patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer 8th edition-Stages I-II hpv+OPC. Sixty (36.1%) and 106 (63.9%) patients underwent primary (concurrent chemo)radiotherapy [(CC)RT] and surgery, respectively. Seventy-eight patients (73.6%) in the surgery group received postoperative (CC)RT. @*Results@#With a median follow-up of 45.6 months for survivors, the 2-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and locoregional control (LC) for RT/surgery were 97.8%/96.4%, 91.1%/92.0%, and 92.9%/93.3%, respectively. In multivariate analyses, patients with synchronous radiologic extranodal extension and conglomeration (ENEcong) of metastatic lymph nodes (LNs) showed significantly poorer OS (p=0.047), PFS (p=0.001), and LC (p=0.003). In patients undergoing primary surgery, two or more clinically positive LN metastases (odds ratio [OR], 5.15; p=0.004) and LN metastases with ENEcong (OR, 3.75; p=0.009) were predictors of postoperative chemoradiotherapy. No patient in the primary RT group demonstrated late severe toxicity whereas three (2.8%), one (0.9%), and one (0.9%) patient in the surgery group showed grade 3 dysphagia, grade 3 xerostomia, and fatal oral cavity bleeding. @*Conclusion@#We found no differences in OS, PFS, and LC between upfront RT and surgery in stage I-II hpv+OPC which warrants comparison through a prospective trial in the treatment de-escalation era. However, most early-stage hpv+OPC patients undergoing surgery received adjuvant (CC)RT. Pretreatment LN findings were prognostic and predictive for adjuvant treatment.

2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920263

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Scalp angiosarcoma is a rare but aggressive vascular malignancy. It is often found in the advanced state and tends to cause distant metastasis at an early stage. There is no consensus on a treatment modality, although wide excision followed by adjuvant therapy is currently used. The purpose of this study was to analyze the treatment results and disease progress pattern of scalp angiosarcoma in a single institution.Subjects and Method We enrolled patients who diagnosed with scalp angiosarcoma at Asan Medical Center from March 2011 to September 2019. Disease course and prognostic factors were analyzed by estimating overall survival rate and disease free survival. @*Results@#A total 12 patients were enrolled in this study. The median overall survival was 16.0 months. The 3-year-survival rate was 10.6%, and the median disease free survival was 5.0 months. On the average, it took 11.4 months till death after recurrence. @*Conclusion@#Although wide surgical excision and multiple adjuvant therapies are employed, scalp angiosarcoma showed frequent recurrences and metastasis which led to poor outcomes. Further investigations for scalp angiosarcoma are necessary to improve treatment outcomes.

3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920228

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@# The ideal flap for head and neck reconstruction should be pliable, have sufficiently long pedicle and minimize donor defects. Anterolateral thigh free flap (ALTFF) and radial forearm free flap (RFFF) have been the workhorse flaps for head and neck reconstruction. However, ALTFF is too bulky and RFFF leaves a conspicuous scar on the donner site. Medial sural artery perforator free flap (MSAPFF) is a possible alternative, which has the benefit of thin RFFF and low donor site morbidity of ALTFF. Here, we evaluated for the first time the usefulness of MSAPF for head and neck reconstruction in Korean patients. Subjects and Method We carried out a retrospective study of patients who underwent MSAPFF for head and neck reconstruction from October 2018 to July 2019 by retrieving their data from electronic medical records. Patient characteristics, flap characteristics, surgical outcomes, and complications of donor sites were analyzed. @*Results@# Eight patients underwent MSAPFF reconstruction after head and neck surgery. The recipient sites were the following: the floor of the mouth, palate, tongue, the base of the tongue and nasolabial fold. The average median flap size was 34.1 cm2 (range 17.5-50 cm2), length 7.1 cm (5.0-10.0 cm), width 4.7 cm (range 3.5-5.0 cm), and pedicle length 9.2 cm (range 8-10 cm). There was one flap failure because of pedicle arterial insufficiency. All donor sites were closed primarily without any complication. @*Conclusion@# Based on the findings of this study, MSAPFF may be a new workhorse flap because it has thin, pliable tissue with low donor-site morbidity for head and neck reconstruction.

4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917695

ABSTRACT

Background/Objectives@#Shoulder function is an important aspect of health related quality of life (QOL). Neck dissection impairment index (NDII) is a simple shoulder-specific questionnaire. This study aimed to evaluate the association between QOL and NDII in patients who underwent neck dissection to validate the Korean version of NDII.Materials & Methods: This study enrolled 74 patients with head and neck cancer who underwent neck dissection from December 2013 to April 2014. Patients completed questionnaires on QOL including the European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer 30-item Core QOL questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and NDII which was translated into Korean. Validity was evaluated by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient between NDII and EORTC QLQ-C30. @*Results@#We compared preoperative, postoperative within a week, 1st and 3rd months NDII scores. The total NDII scores were 14.7, 47.4, 33.7 and 34.3 each. Clinical variables including gender, site of primary tumor, performing revision neck dissection, radiotherapy and flap reconstruction were not significantly associated with NDII. However NDII mean score of patients who underwent unilateral neck dissection over 3 levels is most increased after operation. During all periods NDII scores were significantly associated with functioning score. Although other scores are lower correlation than function scores, global health status scores and symptom scores are also correlation with NDII. @*Conclusion@#NDII was valid instrument and can be used not only in the clinical practice to assess shoulder dysfunction but also in the simple instrument to evaluate global QOL in Korea patients with having neck dissection.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831314

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. To evaluate the feasibility of brachial plexus schwannoma enucleation under intraoperative neuromonitoring. @*Methods@#. Five patients who were treated for brachial plexus schwannoma under intraoperative neuromonitoring from 2008 to 2018 were included in this retrospective review. Neuromonitoring was performed with a 100-μV event threshold of the neuromonitoring system (NIM-2 or 3) at the deltoid, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, and brachioradialis muscles. Patient characteristics, tumor size and location, intraoperative neuromonitoring findings, and postoperative function were evaluated. @*Results@#. The intraoperative neuromonitoring findings were in accordance with the preoperative assessment of the included nerve root. Three patients had no postoperative morbidity, one patient had temporary paresthesia of the forearm for 2 months, and one patient mild loss of grip strength for 1 month. @*Conclusion@#. Intraoperative neuromonitoring of the arm and forearm muscles during enucleation of brachial plexus schwannoma promoted confident and successful surgery with minimal postoperative morbidity.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765133

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) lymphadenitis is an under-recognized entity, and data of the true burden in children are limited. Without a high index of suspicion, diagnosis may be delayed and microbiological detection is challenging. Here, we report a cluster of NTM lymphadenitis experienced in Korean children. METHODS: Subjects under 19 years of age diagnosed with NTM lymphadenitis during November 2016–April 2017 and April 2018 were included. Electronic medical records were reviewed for clinical, laboratory and pathological findings. Information regarding underlying health conditions and environmental exposure factors was obtained through interview and questionnaires. RESULTS: A total of ten subjects were diagnosed during 18 months. All subjects were 8–15 years of age, previously healthy, male and had unilateral, nontender, cervicofacial lymphadenitis for more than 3 weeks with no significant systemic symptoms and no response to empirical antibiotics. Lymph nodes involved were submandibular (n = 8), preauricular (n = 6) and submental (n = 1). Five patients had two infected nodes and violaceous discoloration was seen in seven subjects. Biopsy specimens revealed chronic granulomatous inflammation and acid-fast bacteria culture identified Mycobacterium haemophilum in two cases and NTM polymerase chain reaction was positive in two cases. Survey revealed various common exposure sources. CONCLUSION: NTM lymphadenitis is rare but increasing in detection and it may occur in children and adolescents. Diagnosis requires high index of suspicion and communication between clinicians and the laboratory is essential for identification of NTM.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteria , Biopsy , Child , Diagnosis , Electronic Health Records , Environmental Exposure , Humans , Inflammation , Lymph Nodes , Lymphadenitis , Male , Mycobacterium , Mycobacterium haemophilum , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Tuberculosis, Lymph Node
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741944

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the prognostic value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG PET) with computed tomography (CT) before and during radiotherapy (RT) in patients with head and neck cancer. METHODS: Twenty patients with primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma were enrolled in this study, of whom 6 had oropharyngeal cancer, 10 had hypopharyngeal cancer, and 4 had laryngeal cancer. Fifteen patients received concurrent cisplatin and 2 received concurrent cetuximab chemotherapy. FDG PET/CT was performed before RT and in the 4th week of RT. The parameters of maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) of the primary tumor were measured, and the prognostic significance of each was analyzed with the Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: Higher TLG (>19.0) on FDG PET/CT during RT was a poor prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) (p = 0.001) and progression-free survival (PFS) (p = 0.007). In the multivariate analysis, TLG during RT as a continuous variable was significantly associated with OS and PFS rate (p = 0.023 and p = 0.016, respectively). Tumor response worse than partial remission at 1 month after RT was another independent prognostic factor for PFS (p = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: Higher TLG of the primary tumor on FDG PET/CT during RT was a poor prognostic factor for OS and PFS in patients with head and neck cancer.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cetuximab , Cisplatin , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Glycolysis , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Head , Humans , Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms , Laryngeal Neoplasms , Multivariate Analysis , Neck , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms , Positron-Emission Tomography , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Proportional Hazards Models , Radiotherapy , Tumor Burden
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713343

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Circulating patterns of predominant respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) genotypes in the community may be helpful in understanding molecular epidemiology and predicting future outbreaks of the RSV genotype. We investigated the association of genetic variations in RSV with acute severe bronchiolitis in infants. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of infants younger than 1 year of age hospitalized due to acute bronchiolitis between November 2016 and February 2017. Subjects were classified as severe or mild based on the use of mechanical or noninvasive ventilation. The associations between severity of the disease, sex, age at admission, oxygen saturation at admission and laboratory test results were analyzed. RSV sequence analysis was performed in the severe group. RESULTS: Among 114 infants, 80 underwent respiratory viral polymerase chain reaction using nasopharyngeal swab; of these, 53 (66.3%) showed positive for RSV. Of the 53 RSV-positive samples, 9 were categorized as the severe group and 44 were categorized as the mild group. Male sex, young age, longer duration of admission, minimum SaO2 at admission and bronchiolitis severity score were significantly correlated with disease severity in the severe group than in the mild group (all variables, P < 0.001). Phylogenetic and sequence analysis in the severe group revealed 8 RSV-A, ON1 genotype and 1 RSV-B, BA4 genotype. CONCLUSION: Phylogenetic types of RSV in subjects of the severe group were RSV-A, ON1 genotype or RSV-B, BA4 genotype which were prevalent in the Korean community at the same time. Our study showed that disease severity was not significantly associated with RSV genotypic evolution or antigenic drift in Korea during winter season 2016–17.


Subject(s)
Bronchiolitis , Disease Outbreaks , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Humans , Infant , Korea , Male , Medical Records , Molecular Epidemiology , Noninvasive Ventilation , Oxygen , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , Seasons , Sequence Analysis
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758502

ABSTRACT

Patients who have the head and neck cancer are usually treated by surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or combinations of them. These treatments can induce variable degree of aspiration with dysphagia. The type and severity of aspiration depends on the size and location of the original tumor, the structures involved, and the treatment modality used for treatment. The management of aspiration after the head and neck cancer's treatment begins with an accurate evaluation for the cause and mechanism of aspiration through modified barium swallow (MBS) and fiberoptic endoscopic examination of swallowing (FEES). Then, the clinician can use postures, maneuvers, and exercises to treat the swallow disorder and to help the patient achieve optimal function. To achieve optimal swallowing without aspiration, multidimensional rehabilitation by various medical personnel is definitely necessary.


Subject(s)
Barium , Deglutition , Deglutition Disorders , Drug Therapy , Exercise , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Head , Humans , Neck , Posture , Rehabilitation
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718068

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to tobacco smoke causing irritation and inflammation in the airways tends to reduce serum periostin concentrations in adults. We now investigate prospective cross-sectional study on 135 Korean students aged 7 years in the first grade who were participating in the Seongnam Atopy Project for Children's Happiness 2016 (SAP2016) cohort. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show significant inverse correlations between serum periostin concentration and exposure to xylene and formaldehyde in children. Our findings suggested the need for caution in using the serum periostin level as a marker for allergic diseases, since exposure to volatile organic compounds and formaldehyde may confound the interpretation of these results.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Epidemiologic Studies , Formaldehyde , Happiness , Humans , Inflammation , Prospective Studies , Smoke , Tobacco , Volatile Organic Compounds , Xylenes
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114709

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: It is well known that respiratory viral infection has epidemiological characteristics, including season. This study aimed to investigate the patterns of the prevalence of common respiratory viruses during a period of 10 years with regard to age, sex, and season in Korean children. METHODS: From June 2006 to November 2016, we obtained 11,798 specimens from patients aged less than 18 years who were admitted with lower respiratory infections. Ten respiratory viruses were detected using multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Of 11,798 specimens, at least 1 virus was detected in 4,845 (41.1%). Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, 18.9%) was the most common virus detected, followed by human rhinovirus (HRV, 14.8%), adenovirus (9.5%), and human bocavirus (HBoV, 7.4%). The detection rate of HRV was higher in male subjects (male 60.0% vs. female 40.0%, P=0.004), but the other viruses had no significant differences with regard to sex. The subjects who were positive for RSV test were youngest (median, 10.5 months; interquartile range, 3.0–25.0 months), followed by human coronavirus (median, 13.0 months), HRV (median, 14 months), and parainfluenza (median, 14 months). HBoV was most commonly detected in spring (29.3%), enterovirus in summer (25.8%), HRV in fall (22.6%), and RSV in October and winter (22.6%). CONCLUSION: We found that the prevalence of respiratory viruses in Korean children during a period of 10 years was associated with age, sex, and season when the infection occurred. Further nationwide data is warranted to infer clinical implication of our results.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae , Child , Coronavirus , Enterovirus , Female , Human bocavirus , Humans , Male , Paramyxoviridae Infections , Prevalence , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , Respiratory Tract Infections , Rhinovirus , Seasons
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-179287

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Limited data is available on the prevalence and risk factors of acute and chronic urticaria in children. Our purpose was to determine the prevalence and identify the risk factors of acute and chronic urticaria in Korean children. METHODS: This population-based study examined 4,076 children (age 4 to 13 years) who were enrolled in the 2015 prospective Seongnam Atopy Project (SAP 2015) in Korea. The parents completed an urticaria questionnaire that included questions regarding the duration, severity, and triggering factors of urticaria. Blood sampling (n=464) was performed to measure vitamin D, total eosinophil count (TEC), and total IgE levels, and skin prick tests (n=503) were done. RESULTS: The prevalences of the life-time, acute, and chronic urticaria were 22.5%, 13.9%, and 1.8% (chronic continuous urticaria, 0.7%; and chronic recurrent urticaria, 1.1%), respectively. Acute urticaria was significantly associated with allergic diseases and parental history of allergy (P<0.001), but chronic urticaria was not associated with these clinical factors. There was no significant difference in the 25-hydroxyvitamin D level between subjects with chronic urticaria and controls (P=0.124). Chronic continuous urticaria was associated with living in a new residence (aOR=2.38, 95% CI=1.02-5.54, P=0.044) and belonging to a family with a high income (aOR=4.24, 95% CI=1.24-14.56, P=0.022). CONCLUSIONS: A total of 1.8% of children were found to have chronic urticaria. Living in a new residence and belonging to a family with a high income increased the risk of chronic continuous urticaria.


Subject(s)
Child , Eosinophils , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin E , Korea , Parents , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Skin , Urticaria , Vitamin D
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-49035

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The nature of allergic rhinitis (AR) in preschool aged children remains incompletely characterized. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of AR and its associated risk factors in preschool-aged children and to assess the clinical utility of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). METHODS: This general population-based, cross-sectional survey included 933 preschool-aged (3- to 7-year-old) children from Korea. Current AR was defined as having nasal symptoms within the last 12 months and physician-diagnosed AR. RESULTS: The prevalence of current AR in preschool children was 17.0% (156/919). Mold exposure (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-2.43) and the use of antibiotics (aOR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.33-2.90) during infancy were associated with an increased risk of current AR, whereas having an older sibling (aOR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.35-0.75) reduced the risk. Children with current atopic AR had significantly higher geometric mean levels of FeNO compared to those with non-atopic rhinitis (12.43; range of 1standard deviation [SD], 7.31-21.14 vs 8.25; range of 1SD, 5.62-12.10, P=0.001) or non-atopic healthy children (8.58; range of 1SD, 5.51-13.38, P<0.001). The FeNO levels were higher in children with current atopic AR compared with atopic healthy children (9.78; range of 1SD, 5.97-16.02, P=0.083). CONCLUSIONS: Mold exposure and use of antibiotics during infancy increases the risk of current AR, whereas having an older sibling reduces it. Children with current atopic AR exhibit higher levels of FeNO compared with non-atopic rhinitis cases, suggesting that FeNO levels may be a useful discriminatory marker for subtypes of AR in preschool children.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fungi , Humans , Korea , Nitric Oxide , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , Rhinitis , Rhinitis, Allergic , Risk Factors , Siblings
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72769

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Chest radiography is often performed on patients hospitalized with typical clinical manifestations of bronchiolitis. We aimed to determine the proportion of subjects with pathologic chest radiographic findings and the clinical predictors associated with pathologic chest radiographic findings in young children admitted with the typical presentation of bronchiolitis. METHODS: We obtained the following data at admission: sex, age, neonatal history, past history of hospitalization for respiratory illnesses, heart rate, respiratory rate, the presence of fever, total duration of fever, oxygen saturation, laboratory parameters (i.e., complete blood cell count, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP], etc.), and chest radiography. RESULTS: The study comprised 279 young children. Of these, 26 had a chest radiograph revealing opacity (n=24) or atelectasis (n=2). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that after adjustment for confounding factors, the clinical predictors associated with pathologic chest radiographic findings in young children admitted with bronchiolitis were elevated hs-CRP level (>0.3 mg/dL) and past history of hospitalization for respiratory illnesses (all P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The current study suggests that chest radiographs in young children with typical clinical manifestations of bronchiolitis have limited value. Nonetheless, young children with clinical factors such as high hs-CRP levels at admission or past history of hospitalization for respiratory illnesses may be more likely to have pathologic chest radiographic findings.


Subject(s)
Blood Cell Count , Bronchiolitis , C-Reactive Protein , Child , Fever , Heart Rate , Hospitalization , Humans , Logistic Models , Oxygen , Pulmonary Atelectasis , Radiography , Radiography, Thoracic , Respiratory Rate , Thorax
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23543

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the incidence of neovascularization of the iris (NVI) and clinical features of patients with NVI following acute central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO). METHODS: A retrospective review of 214 consecutive CRAO patients who visited one tertiary hospital between January 2009 and January 2015 was conducted. In total, 110 patients were eligible for this study after excluding patients with arteritic CRAO, a lack of follow-up, iatrogenic CRAO secondary to cosmetic filler injection, or NVI detected before CRAO attack. Fluorescein angiography (FA) was applied until retinal arterial reperfusion was achieved, typically within 1 to 3 months. RESULTS: The incidence of NVI was 10.9% (12 out of 110 patients). Neovascular glaucoma was found in seven patients (6.4%). The mean time to NVI diagnosis after CRAO events was 3.0 months (range, 1 week to 15 months). The cumulative incidence was 5.5% at 3 months, 7.3% at 6 months, and 10.9% at 15 months. Severely narrowed ipsilateral carotid arteries were observed in only three patients (27.3%). The other nine patients (75.0%) showed no predisposing conditions for NVI, such as proliferative diabetic retinopathy or central retinal vein occlusion. Reperfusion rate and prevalence of diabetes were significantly different between patients with NVI and patients without NVI (reperfusion: 0% [NVI] vs. 94.7% [no NVI], p < 0.001; diabetes: 50.0% [NVI] vs. 17.3% [no NVI], p = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: CRAO may lead to NVI and neovascular glaucoma caused by chronic retinal ischemia from reperfusion failure. Our results indicate that follow-up fluorescein angiography is important to evaluate retinal artery reperfusion after acute CRAO events, and that prophylactic treatment such as panretinal photocoagulation should be considered if retinal arterial perfusion is not recovered.


Subject(s)
Carotid Arteries , Diabetic Retinopathy , Diagnosis , Fluorescein Angiography , Follow-Up Studies , Glaucoma, Neovascular , Humans , Incidence , Iris , Ischemia , Light Coagulation , Perfusion , Prevalence , Reperfusion , Retinal Artery Occlusion , Retinal Artery , Retinal Vein , Retinaldehyde , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-652317

ABSTRACT

Ranulas are pseudocysts on the floor of the mouth resulting from the retention or extravasation of saliva from the sublingual gland (SLG). The etiology of ranulas is unknown, but they have been associated with local trauma or previous surgery. The anatomic variation of the ductal system of the SLG such as Bartholin's duct might be a possible cause of ranulas. Treatment modalities range from conservative to various surgical techniques, including sclerotherapy, marsupialization, excision of the ranulas with or without excision of the SLG and botox injection. Recently, less invasive treatment modality such as micro-marsupialization has been introduced. It was able to easily and safely treat the ranulas. But it also has the possibility of recurrence, especially in cases having anatomic variation of the ductal system of the SLG. A definitive and reliable treatment choice is surgical resection of the SLG with or without marsupialization than other, more conservative treatments.


Subject(s)
Anatomic Variation , Mouth , Ranula , Recurrence , Saliva , Salivary Ducts , Sclerotherapy , Sublingual Gland
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160934

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the surgical outcome of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation (AVI) combined with 23-gauge vitrectomy in eyes with medically uncontrolled neovascular glaucoma (NVG). METHODS: Thirty six eyes of 35 NVG patients who underwent AVI combined with 23-gauge vitrectomy and have been followed-up at least 6 months after surgery and were retrospectively reviewed. Surgical success was defined as the control of intraocular pressure (IOP) between 6 and 21 mm Hg, irrespective of the use of topical IOP lowering medications. Surgical failure was defined as the failure of IOP control or visual acuity aggravated to no light perception after the surgery. Overall success rate, median survival time, and clinical factors associated with survival time were investigated. RESULTS: The overall success rate was 63.2% after a mean of 34.0 ± 31.7 months postoperative follow-up. The success rate was 83.3% at postoperative 6 months, 72.7% at postoperative 12 months and 63.2% at postoperative 3 years. The underlying retinal diseases were proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR; n = 20, 55.5%), central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO; n = 12, 33.3%), ocular ischemic syndrome (n = 2, 5.6%), and other retinal vascular diseases (n = 2, 5.6%). The survival times were significantly shorter in eyes with CRVO (20.2 ± 30.5 months) compared to PDR (33.1 ± 30.8 months), and in phakic eyes (33.1 ± 30.8 months) compared to pseudophakic eyes (37.7 ± 35.4 months) (p < 0.05). In the multivariate analysis, preoperative phakic eyes were significantly associated with a shorter survival time (hazard ratio = 5.626, p = 0.030). CONCLUSIONS: Combined surgery of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation and 23-gauge vitrectomy showed favorable outcome in the treatment of medically uncontrolled NVG. Preoperative lens status may affect the long-term success rate in such patients.


Subject(s)
Diabetic Retinopathy , Follow-Up Studies , Glaucoma , Glaucoma, Neovascular , Humans , Intraocular Pressure , Multivariate Analysis , Retinal Diseases , Retinal Vein , Retinaldehyde , Retrospective Studies , Vascular Diseases , Visual Acuity , Vitrectomy
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90236

ABSTRACT

Microbial colonization of the infant gut is unstable and shows a wide range of diversity between individuals. Gut microbiota play an important role in the development of the immune system, and an imbalance in these organisms can affect health, including an increased risk of allergic diseases. Microbial colonization of young infants is affected by the delivery mode at birth and the consequent alterations of gut microbiota in early life affect the development of allergic diseases. We investigated the effects of the delivery mode on the temporal dynamics of gut microbiota in healthy Korean infants. Fecal samples were collected at 1-3 days, 1 month, and 6 months after birth in six healthy infants. Microbiota were characterized by 16S rRNA shotgun sequencing. At the first and third days of life, infants born by vaginal delivery showed a higher richness and diversity of gut microbiota compared with those born by cesarean section. However, these differences disappeared with age. The Bacteroides genus and Bacteroidetes phylum were abundant in infants born by vaginal delivery, whereas Bacilli and Clostridium g4 were increased in infants born by cesarean section. The Firmicutes phylum and Bacteroides genus showed convergent dynamics with age. This study demonstrated the effect of delivery mode on the dynamics of gut microbiota profiles in healthy Korean infants.


Subject(s)
Bacteroides , Bacteroidetes , Cesarean Section , Clostridium , Colon , Female , Firmicutes , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Immune System , Infant , Microbiota , Parturition , Pregnancy
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-49806

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: It is recommended to use 200 (2 puffs) or 400 (4 puffs) µg of salbutamol in the bronchodilator response (BDR) test. We aimed to compare the difference between these 2 doses with regard to small airway dysfunction. METHODS: One hundred sixteen subjects who visited the hospital for diagnosis or follow-up of asthma were consecutively enrolled between June 1 and November 31, 2013. The subjects were randomly assigned to the BDR test at the 2 doses (200 or 400 µg of salbutamol), with physicians blinded to the group each subject was assigned to and undertook the BDR test using the spirometry and impulse oscillometry system (IOS). RESULTS: A total of 116 subjects participated in this study; the mean age was 7.8±3.6 years. The number of participants who were assigned to 2 and 4 puffs groups was 59 and 57, respectively. The mean age was older in the 4 puffs group than in the 2 puffs group (P=0.008). There were no significant difference in spirometric and oscillometric parameters between the 2 and 4 puffs groups. However, in subgroup analysis of asthmatic patients on maintenance therapy (n=21), there was a significant difference in relative changes in Rrs5 between the 2 and 4 puffs groups (16.4%±9.6% vs. 28.7%±8.8%, P=0.035). The forced expiratory volume of 1 second showed a significant correlation with resistance in the 2 puffs group and with reactance in the 4 puffs group. CONCLUSION: There was a significant relationship between the amounts of bronchodilators administered and the small airway dysfunction in children with asthma on maintenance therapy. Further research is warranted to delineate changes in spirometric and IOS measures in accordance with the different amounts of bronchodilators administered.


Subject(s)
Airway Resistance , Albuterol , Asthma , Bronchodilator Agents , Child , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Jupiter , Oscillometry , Respiratory Function Tests , Spirometry
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-49793

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Nonallergenic irritants can aggravate the symptoms of rhinitis. We investigated the clinical responses of children with allergic rhinitis (AR) and nonallergic rhinitis (NAR) to nonallergenic irritants, and identified factors associated with these responses. METHODS: Children with chronic rhinitis (n=208) were classified as having AR or NAR based on the presence of aeroallergen-specific IgE. Healthy controls (n=24) were recruited for comparison. The Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) guidelines were used to classify patients, and their irritant score (0-21 points) and current symptom score (5-35 points) were measured. Subjects with irritant scores ≥3 and <3 were classified as having irritant and nonirritant rhinitis, respectively. RESULTS: The mean age of enrolled subjects was 6.8 years (range: 1.8-16.0 years). The AR and NAR groups had similar irritant scores (P=0.394) and proportions of subjects with irritant scores ≥3 (P=0.105). Irritant score correlated positively with symptom score (P=0.005), and the proportion of subjects with irritant scores ≥3 was greater in children with moderate-severe rhinitis than in those with mild rhinitis (P=0.046). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the presence of atopic eczema increased the risk for sensitivity to a nonallergenic irritant (aOR=2.928, 95% CI 1.567-5.473, P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Response to a nonallergenic irritant was useful for gauging the severity of rhinitis, but not for differentiating AR from NAR. AR and NAR patients with atopic eczema may increase nasal sensitivity to nonallergenic irritants.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Child , Dermatitis, Atopic , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Irritants , Logistic Models , Rhinitis
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