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1.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 182-192, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002535

ABSTRACT

Ecklonia cava Kjellman (Laminareaceae) grows along the coast of Jeju Island, Korea, and is wellknown in Korea for its use as a food ingredient, animal feed, and medicine. This seaweed contains phlorotannins, polymerized units of phloroglucinol, a term derived from phloroglucinol, the building block of these complex molecules, which is also the common name for these compounds. Phlorotannins are secondary metabolites that hold significance for human health due to their various beneficial properties, including antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-allergy, and anti-HIV activities. In this study, 10 phlorotannins (1–10) were isolated from an 80% EtOH extract of E. cava. The structures of these compounds were determined through spectroscopic analysis and comparison with the literature. The inhibitory effects of compounds 1–10 on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) were investigated. In an AChE inhibition assay, compounds 1, 2, 4, and 6–10 had IC50 values ranging from 0.9 ± 0.8 to 66.5 ± 0.4 µM; compounds 4, 6, and 9 had potent BuChE inhibitory effects, with IC50 values ranging from 1.4 ± 3.8 to 25.2 ± 0.1 µM. Furthermore, enzyme kinetics and molecular docking simulations were conducted to gain insights into the inhibition mode, binding mechanism, and crucial interactions between these active compounds and the target enzyme. This indicates that E. cava is a potentially valuable natural source of AChE and BuChE inhibitors.

2.
Gut and Liver ; : 430-440, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000378

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The clinical efficacy and safety of CT-P13 are comparable to originator infliximab for Crohn’s disease in CT-P13 3.4 study (NCT02096861). We performed a multivariate logistic analysis to demonstrate the association between early infliximab trough levels and treatment outcomes of CT-P13 and originator infliximab. @*Methods@#Early serum infliximab trough levels and anti-drug antibody (ADA) levels were compared between CT-P13 (n=100) and originator infliximab (n=98) groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and multivariate logistic analysis were conducted to identify optimal cutoffs of serum infliximab trough levels and predictive factors for clinical outcomes. @*Results@#The median infliximab trough levels were not different between CT-P13 and originator infliximab groups at week 6, week 14, and in median ADA levels at week 14, respectively. ROC analysis found an infliximab concentration threshold of 4.5 μg/mL at week 6 and 4.0 μg/mL at week 14 as the cutoff value with the highest accuracy for the prediction of clinical outcomes. Serum infliximab trough levels at weeks 6 and 14 predicted clinical remission at weeks 30 and 54, and endoscopic remission at week 54. The combinations of clinical remission or C-reactive protein normalization with an early infliximab trough level improved the prediction of long-term clinical or endoscopic remission. @*Conclusions@#A threshold in serum infliximab trough level at week 6 and week 14 was highly predictive for long-term clinical outcomes. There were no statistical differences in serum infliximab trough levels and ADA levels between CT-P13 and originator infliximab.

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 174-191, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971702

ABSTRACT

The development of drug-resistant influenza and new pathogenic virus strains underscores the need for antiviral therapeutics. Currently, neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors are commonly used antiviral drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the prevention and treatment of influenza. Here, we show that vitisin B (VB) inhibits NA activity and suppresses H1N1 viral replication in MDCK and A549 cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), which frequently occur during viral infection, increase virus replication by activating the NF-κB signaling pathway, downmodulating glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) expression, and decreasing the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidant response activity. VB decreased virus-induced ROS generation by increasing G6PD expression and Nrf2 activity, and inhibiting NF-κB translocation to the nucleus through IKK dephosphorylation. In addition, VB reduced body weight loss, increased survival, decreased viral replication and the inflammatory response in the lungs of influenza A virus (IAV)-infected mice. Taken together, our results indicate that VB is a promising therapeutic candidate against IAV infection, complements existing drug limitations targeting viral NA. It modulated the intracellular ROS by G6PD, Nrf2 antioxidant response pathway, and NF-κB signaling pathway. These results demonstrate the feasibility of a multi-targeting drug strategy, providing new approaches for drug discovery against IAV infection.

4.
The Korean Journal of Orthodontics ; : 3-19, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919280

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of one-step automated orthodontic diagnosis of skeletodental discrepancies using a convolutional neural network (CNN) and lateral cephalogram images with different qualities from nationwide multi-hospitals. @*Methods@#Among 2,174 lateral cephalograms, 1,993 cephalograms from two hospitals were used for training and internal test sets and 181 cephalograms from eight other hospitals were used for an external test set. They were divided into three classification groups according to anteroposterior skeletal discrepancies (Class I, II, and III), vertical skeletal discrepancies (normodivergent, hypodivergent, and hyperdivergent patterns), and vertical dental discrepancies (normal overbite, deep bite, and open bite) as a gold standard. Pre-trained DenseNet-169 was used as a CNN classifier model. Diagnostic performance was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, t-stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE), and gradientweighted class activation mapping (Grad-CAM). @*Results@#In the ROC analysis, the mean area under the curve and the mean accuracy of all classifications were high with both internal and external test sets (all, > 0.89 and > 0.80). In the t-SNE analysis, our model succeeded in creating good separation between three classification groups. Grad-CAM figures showed differences in the location and size of the focus areas between three classification groups in each diagnosis. @*Conclusions@#Since the accuracy of our model was validated with both internal and external test sets, it shows the possible usefulness of a one-step automated orthodontic diagnosis tool using a CNN model. However, it still needs technical improvement in terms of classifying vertical dental discrepancies.

5.
The Korean Journal of Orthodontics ; : 66-74, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919275

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate demographic and skeletodental characteristics of one-jaw (1J-OGS) and two-jaw orthognathic surgery (2J-OGS) in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion. @*Methods@#750 skeletal Class III patients who underwent OGS at 10 university hospitals in Korea between 2015 and 2019 were investigated; after dividing them into the 1J-OGS (n = 186) and 2J-OGS groups (n = 564), demographic and skeletodental characteristics were statistically analyzed. @*Results@#2J-OGS was more frequently performed than 1J-OGS (75.2 vs. 24.8%), despite regional differences (capital area vs. provinces, 86.6 vs. 30.7%, p 0.05). The most prevalent skeletal patterns in both groups were hyper-divergent pattern (50.0 and 54.4%, respectively) and left-side chin point deviation (both 49.5%).Maxillary spacing (odds ratio [OR], 3.645; p < 0.001) increased the probability of 2J-OGS, while maxillary crowding (OR, 0.672; p < 0.05) and normo-divergent pattern (OR, 0.615; p < 0.05) decreased the probability of 2J-OGS. @*Conclusions@#In both groups, males outnumbered females, and their mean operation age was older. The most frequent ALD was crowding in the 1J-OGS group, and spacing in the 2J-OGS group, while skeletal characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups.

6.
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology ; : 91-99, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925711

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. Intratympanic dexamethasone injection (ITDI) has been introduced as a treatment option for subjective tinnitus. However, the effects of ITDI on patients with tinnitus remain unclear. In the present systematic review and metaanalysis, we evaluated the effectiveness of ITDI for tinnitus treatment. @*Methods@#. We searched Medline, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Embase. Four double-blind randomized controlled trials that tested the efficacy of ITDI compared with a placebo were deemed eligible for a quantitative meta-analysis, while four prospective studies and seven retrospective studies reporting the effectiveness of ITDI on tinnitus treatment were included in a qualitative synthesis. @*Results@#. In the four studies included in the quantitative meta-analysis, ITDI did not show evidence of tinnitus improvement compared with placebo (odds ratio [OR], 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.53–3.61). In the 11 studies included in the qualitative synthesis, seven retrospective studies without controls reported rates of tinnitus improvement after ITDI ranging from 35.9% to 91.3%. In the four prospective studies with controls, ITDI seemed to be effective when combined with other drugs for tinnitus treatment. @*Conclusion@#. ITDI alone did not show a significant effect for treating tinnitus compared with placebo. However, the potential of combination treatment of ITDI with other drugs for tinnitus therapy should be further studied in more systematic research.

7.
Gut and Liver ; : 216-227, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925011

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The long-term course of Crohn’s disease (CD) has never been evaluated in non-Caucasian population-based cohorts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the longterm prognosis of Korean CD patients in the well-defined population-based Songpa-Kangdong inflammatory bowel disease cohort. @*Methods@#Outcomes of disease and their predictors were evaluated for 418 patients diagnosed with CD between 1986 and 2015. @*Results@#During a median of 123 months, systemic corticosteroids, thiopurines, and anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents were administered to 58.6%, 81.3%, and 37.1% of patients, respectively. Over time, the cumulative probability of starting corticosteroids significantly decreased (p=0.001), whereas that of starting thiopurines and anti-TNFs significantly increased (both p<0.001). The cumulative probability of behavioral progression was 54.5% at 20 years, and it significantly decreased during the anti-TNF era. Intestinal resection was required for 113 patients (27.0%). The cumulative probabilities of intestinal resection at 1, 5, 10, 20, and 25 years after CD diagnosis were 12.7%, 16.5%, 23.8%, 45.1%, and 51.2%, respectively. Multivariable Cox regression analysis identified stricturing behavior at diagnosis (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.55 to 4.71), penetrating behavior at diagnosis (aHR, 11.15; 95% CI, 6.91 to 17.97), and diagnosis of CD during the anti-TNF era (aHR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.76) as independently associated with intestinal resection. The standardized mortality ratio among CD patients was 1.36 (95% CI, 0.59 to 2.68). @*Conclusions@#The long-term prognosis of Korean patients with CD is at least as good as that of Western CD patients, as indicated by the low intestinal resection rate. Moreover, behavioral progression and intestinal resection rates have decreased over the past 3 decades.

8.
The Korean Journal of Orthodontics ; : 287-297, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939113

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the pattern of accuracy change in artificial intelligence-assisted landmark identification (LI) using a convolutional neural network (CNN) algorithm in serial lateral cephalograms (Lat-cephs) of Class III (C-III) patients who underwent twojaw orthognathic surgery. @*Methods@#A total of 3,188 Lat-cephs of C-III patients were allocated into the training and validation sets (3,004 Lat-cephs of 751 patients) and test set (184 Lat-cephs of 46 patients; subdivided into the genioplasty and non-genioplasty groups, n = 23 per group) for LI. Each C-III patient in the test set had four Lat-cephs: initial (T0), pre-surgery (T1, presence of orthodontic brackets [OBs]), post-surgery (T2, presence of OBs and surgical plates and screws [S-PS]), and debonding (T3, presence of S-PS and fixed retainers [FR]). After mean errors of 20 landmarks between human gold standard and the CNN model were calculated, statistical analysis was performed. @*Results@#The total mean error was 1.17 mm without significant difference among the four timepoints (T0, 1.20 mm; T1, 1.14 mm; T2, 1.18 mm; T3, 1.15 mm). In comparison of two time-points ([T0, T1] vs. [T2, T3]), ANS, A point, and B point showed an increase in error (p < 0.01, 0.05, 0.01, respectively), while Mx6D and Md6D showeda decrease in error (all p < 0.01). No difference in errors existed at B point, Pogonion, Menton, Md1C, and Md1R between the genioplasty and non-genioplasty groups. @*Conclusions@#The CNN model can be used for LI in serial Lat-cephs despite the presence of OB, S-PS, FR, genioplasty, and bone remodeling.

9.
Intestinal Research ; : 350-360, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937722

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study assessed the efficacy and safety of adalimumab (ADA) and explored predictors of response in Korean patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). @*Methods@#A prospective, observational, multicenter study was conducted over 56 weeks in adult patients with moderately to severely active UC who received ADA. Clinical response, remission, and mucosal healing were assessed using the Mayo score. @*Results@#A total of 146 patients were enrolled from 17 academic hospitals. Clinical response rates were 52.1% and 37.7% and clinical remission rates were 24.0% and 22.0% at weeks 8 and 56, respectively. Mucosal healing rates were 39.0% and 30.1% at weeks 8 and 56, respectively. Prior use of anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF-α) did not affect clinical and endoscopic responses. The ADA drug level was significantly higher in patients with better outcomes at week 8 (P<0.05). In patients with lower endoscopic activity, higher body mass index, and higher serum albumin levels at baseline, the clinical response rate was higher at week 8. In patients with lower Mayo scores and C-reactive protein levels, clinical responses, and mucosal healing at week 8, the clinical response rate was higher at week 56. Serious adverse drug reactions were identified in 2.8% of patients. @*Conclusions@#ADA is effective and safe for induction and maintenance in Korean patients with UC, regardless of prior anti-TNF-α therapy. The ADA drug level is associated with the efficacy of induction therapy. Patients with better short-term outcomes were predictive of those with an improved long-term response.

10.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 453-465, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904095

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Autologous nerve grafts are the gold standard treatment for peripheral nerve injury treatment. However, this procedure cannot avoid sacrificing other nerves as a major limitation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) embedded in a nerve conduit. @*METHODS@#A 10-mm segment of the sciatic nerve was resected in 21 rats, and the nerve injury was repaired with one of the following (n = 7 per group): autologous nerve graft, poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) conduit and OECs, and PCL conduit only. The consequent effect on nerve regeneration was measured based on the nerve conduction velocity (NCV), amplitude of the compound muscle action potential (ACMAP), wet muscle weight, histomorphometric analysis, and nerve density quantification. @*RESULTS@#Histomorphometric analysis revealed nerve regeneration and angiogenesis in all groups. However, there were significant differences (p  0.05). No significant results in NCV, wet muscle weight, and nerve density quantification were observed among the 3 groups. @*CONCLUSION@#A PCL conduit with OECs enhances the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves, offering a good alternative to autologous nerve grafts.

11.
The Korean Journal of Orthodontics ; : 145-156, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903772

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the midfacial soft tissue changes following maxillary expansion using micro-implantsupported maxillary skeletal expanders (MSEs) in young adults by cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) and to evaluate the correlations between hard and soft tissue changes after MSE usage. @*Methods@#Twenty patients (mean age, 22.4 years; range, 17.6–27.1) with maxillary transverse deficiency treated with MSEs were selected. Mean expansion amount was 6.5 mm. CBCT images taken before and after expansion were superimposed to measure the changes in soft and hard tissue landmarks. Statistical analyses were performed using paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation analysis on the basis of the normality of data. @*Results@#Average lateral movement of the cheek points was 1.35 mm (right) and 1.08 mm (left), and that of the alar curvature points was 1.03 mm (right) and 1.02 mm (left). Average forward displacement of the cheek points was 0.59 mm (right) and 0.44 mm (left), and that of the alar curvature points was 0.61 mm (right) and 0.77 mm (left) (p < 0.05). Anterior nasal spine (ANS), posterior nasal spine (PNS), and alveolar bone width showed significant increments (p < 0.05). Changes in the cheek and alar curvature points on both sides significantly correlated with hard tissue changes (p < 0.05). @*Conclusions@#Maxillary expansion using MSEs resulted in significant lateral and forward movements of the soft tissues of cheek and alar curvature points on both sides in young adults and correlated with the maxillary suture opening at the ANS and PNS.

12.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 227-230, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903595

ABSTRACT

With the increasing incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children and its impact throughout life, transition care has become an important issue. In Korea, no guidelines have been proposed to support the transition from the pediatric clinic to the adult IBD clinic. This paper reviews the current issues related to IBD patient care during the transition from pediatrics to adults to identify the barriers and critical elements for a successful transition. Thus far, a multi-disciplinary pediatric/adult clinic or alternate visits between pediatric and adult health care providers is the best model for pediatric to adult IBD clinics. Self-reliance and independence of patients with pediatric IBD are also essential for a successful transition. In addition, the timing of the transition from a pediatric clinic to an adult IBD clinic should not be determined because the issue is not the chronological age but rather the individual maturity.

13.
The Korean Journal of Orthodontics ; : 407-418, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919268

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate differences in the heritability of skeletodental characteristics between twin pairs with skeletal Class I and Class II malocclusions. @*Methods@#Forty Korean adult twin pairs were divided into Class I (C-I) group (0° ≤ angle between point A, nasion, and point B [ANB]) ≤ 4°; mean age, 40.7 years) and Class II (C-II) group (ANB > 4°; mean age, 43.0 years). Each group comprised 14 monozygotic and 6 dizygotic twin pairs. Thirty-three cephalometric variables were measured using lateral cephalograms and were categorized as the anteroposterior, vertical, dental, mandible, and cranial base characteristics. The ACE model was used to calculate heritability (A > 0.7, high heritability). Thereafter, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed. @*Results@#Twin pairs in C-I group exhibited high heritability values in the facial anteroposterior characteristics, inclination of the maxillary and mandibular incisors, mandibular body length, and cranial base angles. Twin pairs in C-II group showed high heritability values in vertical facial height, ramus height, effective mandibular length, and cranial base length. PCA extracted eight components with 88.3% in the C-I group and seven components with 91.0% cumulative explanation in the C-II group. @*Conclusions@#Differences in the heritability of skeletodental characteristics between twin pairs with skeletal Class I and II malocclusions might provide valuable information for growth prediction and treatment planning.

14.
Gut and Liver ; : 77-84, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874580

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Although localized lymphoid hyperplasia (LLH) of the rectum is occasionally observed, its clinical implications are unclear. This study aimed to investigate the clinical course and significance of LLH of the rectum. @*Methods@#We identified 65 patients diagnosed with LLH of the rectum using a histopathologic examination and who received follow-up endoscopies between January 2009 and June 2015. Patients with a history of inflammatory bowel disease, lymphoma, familial adenomatous polyposis, or uncontrolled malignancy and patients who underwent scar biopsy after endoscopic resection or surgery were excluded. Endoscopic findings and clinical courses were analyzed. @*Results@#During the median follow-up of 31 months (interquartile range, 19 to 40 months), 81.5% (53/65) of LLHs of the rectum were resolved. Clinically significant diseases, including ulcerative colitis (UC, n=5) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma (n=1), were diagnosed in 9.2% of patients (6/65). The other six patients showed no significant changes in the lesion (n=3) or a waxing and waning appearance (n=3). According to endoscopic findings, all of the 47 polypoid types showed resolution or waxing and waning patterns. Five of the 11 nodular types (45.5%) developed into UC. One of the seven submucosal tumor (SMT)-like types (14.3%) developed into MALT lymphoma. @*Conclusions@#LLH of the rectum with persistent symptoms or the endoscopic appearance of the nodular or SMT-like type may lead to clinically significant disease. Risk stratification according to endoscopic findings and careful surveillance are required for these lesions.

15.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 513-520, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901950

ABSTRACT

Background@#Ultrasonography is an effective noninvasive imaging modality for the diagnosis of subcutaneous masses. To date, few studies have reported skin ultrasonography using deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs).We investigated the accuracy of DCNNs for the diagnosis of epidermal cysts, lipomas, and other subcutaneous masses. @*Objective@#The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether DCNNs could diagnose subcutaneous masses with ultrasonographic images at level of competence comparable to dermatologists. @*Methods@#We created a dataset of 1,361 skin ultrasonography images obtained from 202 patients diagnosed with epidermal cysts, lipomas, and other subcutaneous masses, to train the DCNNs using ResNet18. Performance was compared with another set of 93 ultrasonographic images (24 epidermal cysts, 25 lipomas, and 44 other subcutaneous masses) from open-access articles. @*Results@#The DCNNs yielded 87.10% classification accuracy and 86.10% F1-scores. The area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity were 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86∼0.98), 75.00%, and 98.55% for epidermal cysts; 0.93 (95% CI 0.88∼0.98), 80.00%, and 94.12% for lipomas; and 0.97 (95% CI 0.93∼1.00), 97.73%, and 85.71% for other subcutaneous masses, respectively. Analysis using gradient-weighted class activation mapping revealed that the DCNNs could detect specific ultrasonographic findings of epidermal cysts and lipomas. @*Conclusion@#We propose that DCNNs combined with ultrasonography may aid in the diagnosis of subcutaneous masses in outpatient settings.

16.
Gut and Liver ; : 742-751, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898477

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and long-term prognosis of elderly-onset ulcerative colitis (EOUC) in Korean patients over a 30-year period using a wellestablished population-based cohort in the Songpa-Kangdong district of Seoul, Korea. @*Methods@#Clinical characteristics and prognosis were compared between two groups: EOUC,defined as UC diagnosed in individuals aged ≥60 years and non-EOUC (N-EOUC), defined asUC diagnosed in individuals aged 18 to 59 years. @*Results@#We identified 99 patients with EOUC (10.3%) and 866 patients with N-EOUC (89.7%) between 1986 and 2015. During the median follow-up of 104.5 months, the overall exposure tomedications was comparable between patients with EOUC and N-EOUC (p=0.091 for corticosteroids, p=0.794 for thiopurines, and p=0.095 for anti-tumor necrosis factor agents). The cumula-tive risks of disease outcomes were also comparable between patients with EOUC and N-EOUC (22.4% vs 30.4% for proximal disease extension [p=0.351], 11.9% vs 18.1% for hospitalization [p=0.240], and 2.3% vs 1.8% for colectomy [p=0.977]) at 10 years after diagnosis. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that corticosteroid use at diagnosis was an independent predic-tor of proximal disease extension (hazard ratio [HR], 6.216; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.314 to 28.826) and hospitalization (HR, 11.241; 95% CI, 3.027 to 41.742) in patients with EOUC. @*Conclusions@#In this population-based study from Korea, the pattern of medication use seemed comparable between the EOUC and N-EOUC groups. Moreover, patients with EOUC and those with N-EOUC have a similar disease course in terms of proximal disease extension, hospitaliza-tion, and colectomy.

17.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 290-294, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897314

ABSTRACT

Extracellular beta amyloid (Aβ) plaques are the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Accordingly, reducing Aβ levels is considered a promising strategy for AD prevention. 3’-O-acetyl-24-epi-7,8-didehydrocimigenol-3-O-β-D-xylopryranoside significantly decreased the Aβ production and this effect was accompanied with reduced sAPPβ production known as a soluble ectodomain APP fragment through β-secretases in HeLa cells overexpressing amyloid precursor proteins (APPs). This compound also increased the level of sAPPα, which is a proteolytic fragment of APP by α-secretases. In addition, 3’-O-acetyl-24-epi-7,8-didehydrocimigenol-3-O-β-D-xylopryranoside decreased the protein level of β-secretases, but the protein levels ofA disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) family, especially ADAM10 and ADAM17, are increased. Thus, 3’-O-acetyl-24-epi-7,8-didehydrocimigenol-3-O-β-D-xylopryranoside could be useful in the development of AD treatment in the aspect of amyloid pathology.

18.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 453-465, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896391

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Autologous nerve grafts are the gold standard treatment for peripheral nerve injury treatment. However, this procedure cannot avoid sacrificing other nerves as a major limitation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) embedded in a nerve conduit. @*METHODS@#A 10-mm segment of the sciatic nerve was resected in 21 rats, and the nerve injury was repaired with one of the following (n = 7 per group): autologous nerve graft, poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) conduit and OECs, and PCL conduit only. The consequent effect on nerve regeneration was measured based on the nerve conduction velocity (NCV), amplitude of the compound muscle action potential (ACMAP), wet muscle weight, histomorphometric analysis, and nerve density quantification. @*RESULTS@#Histomorphometric analysis revealed nerve regeneration and angiogenesis in all groups. However, there were significant differences (p  0.05). No significant results in NCV, wet muscle weight, and nerve density quantification were observed among the 3 groups. @*CONCLUSION@#A PCL conduit with OECs enhances the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves, offering a good alternative to autologous nerve grafts.

19.
The Korean Journal of Orthodontics ; : 145-156, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896068

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the midfacial soft tissue changes following maxillary expansion using micro-implantsupported maxillary skeletal expanders (MSEs) in young adults by cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) and to evaluate the correlations between hard and soft tissue changes after MSE usage. @*Methods@#Twenty patients (mean age, 22.4 years; range, 17.6–27.1) with maxillary transverse deficiency treated with MSEs were selected. Mean expansion amount was 6.5 mm. CBCT images taken before and after expansion were superimposed to measure the changes in soft and hard tissue landmarks. Statistical analyses were performed using paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation analysis on the basis of the normality of data. @*Results@#Average lateral movement of the cheek points was 1.35 mm (right) and 1.08 mm (left), and that of the alar curvature points was 1.03 mm (right) and 1.02 mm (left). Average forward displacement of the cheek points was 0.59 mm (right) and 0.44 mm (left), and that of the alar curvature points was 0.61 mm (right) and 0.77 mm (left) (p < 0.05). Anterior nasal spine (ANS), posterior nasal spine (PNS), and alveolar bone width showed significant increments (p < 0.05). Changes in the cheek and alar curvature points on both sides significantly correlated with hard tissue changes (p < 0.05). @*Conclusions@#Maxillary expansion using MSEs resulted in significant lateral and forward movements of the soft tissues of cheek and alar curvature points on both sides in young adults and correlated with the maxillary suture opening at the ANS and PNS.

20.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 227-230, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895891

ABSTRACT

With the increasing incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children and its impact throughout life, transition care has become an important issue. In Korea, no guidelines have been proposed to support the transition from the pediatric clinic to the adult IBD clinic. This paper reviews the current issues related to IBD patient care during the transition from pediatrics to adults to identify the barriers and critical elements for a successful transition. Thus far, a multi-disciplinary pediatric/adult clinic or alternate visits between pediatric and adult health care providers is the best model for pediatric to adult IBD clinics. Self-reliance and independence of patients with pediatric IBD are also essential for a successful transition. In addition, the timing of the transition from a pediatric clinic to an adult IBD clinic should not be determined because the issue is not the chronological age but rather the individual maturity.

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