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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919280

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of one-step automated orthodontic diagnosis of skeletodental discrepancies using a convolutional neural network (CNN) and lateral cephalogram images with different qualities from nationwide multi-hospitals. @*Methods@#Among 2,174 lateral cephalograms, 1,993 cephalograms from two hospitals were used for training and internal test sets and 181 cephalograms from eight other hospitals were used for an external test set. They were divided into three classification groups according to anteroposterior skeletal discrepancies (Class I, II, and III), vertical skeletal discrepancies (normodivergent, hypodivergent, and hyperdivergent patterns), and vertical dental discrepancies (normal overbite, deep bite, and open bite) as a gold standard. Pre-trained DenseNet-169 was used as a CNN classifier model. Diagnostic performance was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, t-stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE), and gradientweighted class activation mapping (Grad-CAM). @*Results@#In the ROC analysis, the mean area under the curve and the mean accuracy of all classifications were high with both internal and external test sets (all, > 0.89 and > 0.80). In the t-SNE analysis, our model succeeded in creating good separation between three classification groups. Grad-CAM figures showed differences in the location and size of the focus areas between three classification groups in each diagnosis. @*Conclusions@#Since the accuracy of our model was validated with both internal and external test sets, it shows the possible usefulness of a one-step automated orthodontic diagnosis tool using a CNN model. However, it still needs technical improvement in terms of classifying vertical dental discrepancies.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919275

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate demographic and skeletodental characteristics of one-jaw (1J-OGS) and two-jaw orthognathic surgery (2J-OGS) in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion. @*Methods@#750 skeletal Class III patients who underwent OGS at 10 university hospitals in Korea between 2015 and 2019 were investigated; after dividing them into the 1J-OGS (n = 186) and 2J-OGS groups (n = 564), demographic and skeletodental characteristics were statistically analyzed. @*Results@#2J-OGS was more frequently performed than 1J-OGS (75.2 vs. 24.8%), despite regional differences (capital area vs. provinces, 86.6 vs. 30.7%, p 0.05). The most prevalent skeletal patterns in both groups were hyper-divergent pattern (50.0 and 54.4%, respectively) and left-side chin point deviation (both 49.5%).Maxillary spacing (odds ratio [OR], 3.645; p < 0.001) increased the probability of 2J-OGS, while maxillary crowding (OR, 0.672; p < 0.05) and normo-divergent pattern (OR, 0.615; p < 0.05) decreased the probability of 2J-OGS. @*Conclusions@#In both groups, males outnumbered females, and their mean operation age was older. The most frequent ALD was crowding in the 1J-OGS group, and spacing in the 2J-OGS group, while skeletal characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901950

ABSTRACT

Background@#Ultrasonography is an effective noninvasive imaging modality for the diagnosis of subcutaneous masses. To date, few studies have reported skin ultrasonography using deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs).We investigated the accuracy of DCNNs for the diagnosis of epidermal cysts, lipomas, and other subcutaneous masses. @*Objective@#The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether DCNNs could diagnose subcutaneous masses with ultrasonographic images at level of competence comparable to dermatologists. @*Methods@#We created a dataset of 1,361 skin ultrasonography images obtained from 202 patients diagnosed with epidermal cysts, lipomas, and other subcutaneous masses, to train the DCNNs using ResNet18. Performance was compared with another set of 93 ultrasonographic images (24 epidermal cysts, 25 lipomas, and 44 other subcutaneous masses) from open-access articles. @*Results@#The DCNNs yielded 87.10% classification accuracy and 86.10% F1-scores. The area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity were 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86∼0.98), 75.00%, and 98.55% for epidermal cysts; 0.93 (95% CI 0.88∼0.98), 80.00%, and 94.12% for lipomas; and 0.97 (95% CI 0.93∼1.00), 97.73%, and 85.71% for other subcutaneous masses, respectively. Analysis using gradient-weighted class activation mapping revealed that the DCNNs could detect specific ultrasonographic findings of epidermal cysts and lipomas. @*Conclusion@#We propose that DCNNs combined with ultrasonography may aid in the diagnosis of subcutaneous masses in outpatient settings.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904095

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Autologous nerve grafts are the gold standard treatment for peripheral nerve injury treatment. However, this procedure cannot avoid sacrificing other nerves as a major limitation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) embedded in a nerve conduit. @*METHODS@#A 10-mm segment of the sciatic nerve was resected in 21 rats, and the nerve injury was repaired with one of the following (n = 7 per group): autologous nerve graft, poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) conduit and OECs, and PCL conduit only. The consequent effect on nerve regeneration was measured based on the nerve conduction velocity (NCV), amplitude of the compound muscle action potential (ACMAP), wet muscle weight, histomorphometric analysis, and nerve density quantification. @*RESULTS@#Histomorphometric analysis revealed nerve regeneration and angiogenesis in all groups. However, there were significant differences (p  0.05). No significant results in NCV, wet muscle weight, and nerve density quantification were observed among the 3 groups. @*CONCLUSION@#A PCL conduit with OECs enhances the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves, offering a good alternative to autologous nerve grafts.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903772

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the midfacial soft tissue changes following maxillary expansion using micro-implantsupported maxillary skeletal expanders (MSEs) in young adults by cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) and to evaluate the correlations between hard and soft tissue changes after MSE usage. @*Methods@#Twenty patients (mean age, 22.4 years; range, 17.6–27.1) with maxillary transverse deficiency treated with MSEs were selected. Mean expansion amount was 6.5 mm. CBCT images taken before and after expansion were superimposed to measure the changes in soft and hard tissue landmarks. Statistical analyses were performed using paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation analysis on the basis of the normality of data. @*Results@#Average lateral movement of the cheek points was 1.35 mm (right) and 1.08 mm (left), and that of the alar curvature points was 1.03 mm (right) and 1.02 mm (left). Average forward displacement of the cheek points was 0.59 mm (right) and 0.44 mm (left), and that of the alar curvature points was 0.61 mm (right) and 0.77 mm (left) (p < 0.05). Anterior nasal spine (ANS), posterior nasal spine (PNS), and alveolar bone width showed significant increments (p < 0.05). Changes in the cheek and alar curvature points on both sides significantly correlated with hard tissue changes (p < 0.05). @*Conclusions@#Maxillary expansion using MSEs resulted in significant lateral and forward movements of the soft tissues of cheek and alar curvature points on both sides in young adults and correlated with the maxillary suture opening at the ANS and PNS.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903595

ABSTRACT

With the increasing incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children and its impact throughout life, transition care has become an important issue. In Korea, no guidelines have been proposed to support the transition from the pediatric clinic to the adult IBD clinic. This paper reviews the current issues related to IBD patient care during the transition from pediatrics to adults to identify the barriers and critical elements for a successful transition. Thus far, a multi-disciplinary pediatric/adult clinic or alternate visits between pediatric and adult health care providers is the best model for pediatric to adult IBD clinics. Self-reliance and independence of patients with pediatric IBD are also essential for a successful transition. In addition, the timing of the transition from a pediatric clinic to an adult IBD clinic should not be determined because the issue is not the chronological age but rather the individual maturity.

7.
Gut and Liver ; : 77-84, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874580

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Although localized lymphoid hyperplasia (LLH) of the rectum is occasionally observed, its clinical implications are unclear. This study aimed to investigate the clinical course and significance of LLH of the rectum. @*Methods@#We identified 65 patients diagnosed with LLH of the rectum using a histopathologic examination and who received follow-up endoscopies between January 2009 and June 2015. Patients with a history of inflammatory bowel disease, lymphoma, familial adenomatous polyposis, or uncontrolled malignancy and patients who underwent scar biopsy after endoscopic resection or surgery were excluded. Endoscopic findings and clinical courses were analyzed. @*Results@#During the median follow-up of 31 months (interquartile range, 19 to 40 months), 81.5% (53/65) of LLHs of the rectum were resolved. Clinically significant diseases, including ulcerative colitis (UC, n=5) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma (n=1), were diagnosed in 9.2% of patients (6/65). The other six patients showed no significant changes in the lesion (n=3) or a waxing and waning appearance (n=3). According to endoscopic findings, all of the 47 polypoid types showed resolution or waxing and waning patterns. Five of the 11 nodular types (45.5%) developed into UC. One of the seven submucosal tumor (SMT)-like types (14.3%) developed into MALT lymphoma. @*Conclusions@#LLH of the rectum with persistent symptoms or the endoscopic appearance of the nodular or SMT-like type may lead to clinically significant disease. Risk stratification according to endoscopic findings and careful surveillance are required for these lesions.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919268

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate differences in the heritability of skeletodental characteristics between twin pairs with skeletal Class I and Class II malocclusions. @*Methods@#Forty Korean adult twin pairs were divided into Class I (C-I) group (0° ≤ angle between point A, nasion, and point B [ANB]) ≤ 4°; mean age, 40.7 years) and Class II (C-II) group (ANB > 4°; mean age, 43.0 years). Each group comprised 14 monozygotic and 6 dizygotic twin pairs. Thirty-three cephalometric variables were measured using lateral cephalograms and were categorized as the anteroposterior, vertical, dental, mandible, and cranial base characteristics. The ACE model was used to calculate heritability (A > 0.7, high heritability). Thereafter, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed. @*Results@#Twin pairs in C-I group exhibited high heritability values in the facial anteroposterior characteristics, inclination of the maxillary and mandibular incisors, mandibular body length, and cranial base angles. Twin pairs in C-II group showed high heritability values in vertical facial height, ramus height, effective mandibular length, and cranial base length. PCA extracted eight components with 88.3% in the C-I group and seven components with 91.0% cumulative explanation in the C-II group. @*Conclusions@#Differences in the heritability of skeletodental characteristics between twin pairs with skeletal Class I and II malocclusions might provide valuable information for growth prediction and treatment planning.

9.
Gut and Liver ; : 742-751, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898477

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and long-term prognosis of elderly-onset ulcerative colitis (EOUC) in Korean patients over a 30-year period using a wellestablished population-based cohort in the Songpa-Kangdong district of Seoul, Korea. @*Methods@#Clinical characteristics and prognosis were compared between two groups: EOUC,defined as UC diagnosed in individuals aged ≥60 years and non-EOUC (N-EOUC), defined asUC diagnosed in individuals aged 18 to 59 years. @*Results@#We identified 99 patients with EOUC (10.3%) and 866 patients with N-EOUC (89.7%) between 1986 and 2015. During the median follow-up of 104.5 months, the overall exposure tomedications was comparable between patients with EOUC and N-EOUC (p=0.091 for corticosteroids, p=0.794 for thiopurines, and p=0.095 for anti-tumor necrosis factor agents). The cumula-tive risks of disease outcomes were also comparable between patients with EOUC and N-EOUC (22.4% vs 30.4% for proximal disease extension [p=0.351], 11.9% vs 18.1% for hospitalization [p=0.240], and 2.3% vs 1.8% for colectomy [p=0.977]) at 10 years after diagnosis. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that corticosteroid use at diagnosis was an independent predic-tor of proximal disease extension (hazard ratio [HR], 6.216; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.314 to 28.826) and hospitalization (HR, 11.241; 95% CI, 3.027 to 41.742) in patients with EOUC. @*Conclusions@#In this population-based study from Korea, the pattern of medication use seemed comparable between the EOUC and N-EOUC groups. Moreover, patients with EOUC and those with N-EOUC have a similar disease course in terms of proximal disease extension, hospitaliza-tion, and colectomy.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897314

ABSTRACT

Extracellular beta amyloid (Aβ) plaques are the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Accordingly, reducing Aβ levels is considered a promising strategy for AD prevention. 3’-O-acetyl-24-epi-7,8-didehydrocimigenol-3-O-β-D-xylopryranoside significantly decreased the Aβ production and this effect was accompanied with reduced sAPPβ production known as a soluble ectodomain APP fragment through β-secretases in HeLa cells overexpressing amyloid precursor proteins (APPs). This compound also increased the level of sAPPα, which is a proteolytic fragment of APP by α-secretases. In addition, 3’-O-acetyl-24-epi-7,8-didehydrocimigenol-3-O-β-D-xylopryranoside decreased the protein level of β-secretases, but the protein levels ofA disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) family, especially ADAM10 and ADAM17, are increased. Thus, 3’-O-acetyl-24-epi-7,8-didehydrocimigenol-3-O-β-D-xylopryranoside could be useful in the development of AD treatment in the aspect of amyloid pathology.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896391

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Autologous nerve grafts are the gold standard treatment for peripheral nerve injury treatment. However, this procedure cannot avoid sacrificing other nerves as a major limitation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) embedded in a nerve conduit. @*METHODS@#A 10-mm segment of the sciatic nerve was resected in 21 rats, and the nerve injury was repaired with one of the following (n = 7 per group): autologous nerve graft, poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) conduit and OECs, and PCL conduit only. The consequent effect on nerve regeneration was measured based on the nerve conduction velocity (NCV), amplitude of the compound muscle action potential (ACMAP), wet muscle weight, histomorphometric analysis, and nerve density quantification. @*RESULTS@#Histomorphometric analysis revealed nerve regeneration and angiogenesis in all groups. However, there were significant differences (p  0.05). No significant results in NCV, wet muscle weight, and nerve density quantification were observed among the 3 groups. @*CONCLUSION@#A PCL conduit with OECs enhances the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves, offering a good alternative to autologous nerve grafts.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896068

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the midfacial soft tissue changes following maxillary expansion using micro-implantsupported maxillary skeletal expanders (MSEs) in young adults by cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) and to evaluate the correlations between hard and soft tissue changes after MSE usage. @*Methods@#Twenty patients (mean age, 22.4 years; range, 17.6–27.1) with maxillary transverse deficiency treated with MSEs were selected. Mean expansion amount was 6.5 mm. CBCT images taken before and after expansion were superimposed to measure the changes in soft and hard tissue landmarks. Statistical analyses were performed using paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation analysis on the basis of the normality of data. @*Results@#Average lateral movement of the cheek points was 1.35 mm (right) and 1.08 mm (left), and that of the alar curvature points was 1.03 mm (right) and 1.02 mm (left). Average forward displacement of the cheek points was 0.59 mm (right) and 0.44 mm (left), and that of the alar curvature points was 0.61 mm (right) and 0.77 mm (left) (p < 0.05). Anterior nasal spine (ANS), posterior nasal spine (PNS), and alveolar bone width showed significant increments (p < 0.05). Changes in the cheek and alar curvature points on both sides significantly correlated with hard tissue changes (p < 0.05). @*Conclusions@#Maxillary expansion using MSEs resulted in significant lateral and forward movements of the soft tissues of cheek and alar curvature points on both sides in young adults and correlated with the maxillary suture opening at the ANS and PNS.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895891

ABSTRACT

With the increasing incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children and its impact throughout life, transition care has become an important issue. In Korea, no guidelines have been proposed to support the transition from the pediatric clinic to the adult IBD clinic. This paper reviews the current issues related to IBD patient care during the transition from pediatrics to adults to identify the barriers and critical elements for a successful transition. Thus far, a multi-disciplinary pediatric/adult clinic or alternate visits between pediatric and adult health care providers is the best model for pediatric to adult IBD clinics. Self-reliance and independence of patients with pediatric IBD are also essential for a successful transition. In addition, the timing of the transition from a pediatric clinic to an adult IBD clinic should not be determined because the issue is not the chronological age but rather the individual maturity.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894246

ABSTRACT

Background@#Ultrasonography is an effective noninvasive imaging modality for the diagnosis of subcutaneous masses. To date, few studies have reported skin ultrasonography using deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs).We investigated the accuracy of DCNNs for the diagnosis of epidermal cysts, lipomas, and other subcutaneous masses. @*Objective@#The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether DCNNs could diagnose subcutaneous masses with ultrasonographic images at level of competence comparable to dermatologists. @*Methods@#We created a dataset of 1,361 skin ultrasonography images obtained from 202 patients diagnosed with epidermal cysts, lipomas, and other subcutaneous masses, to train the DCNNs using ResNet18. Performance was compared with another set of 93 ultrasonographic images (24 epidermal cysts, 25 lipomas, and 44 other subcutaneous masses) from open-access articles. @*Results@#The DCNNs yielded 87.10% classification accuracy and 86.10% F1-scores. The area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity were 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86∼0.98), 75.00%, and 98.55% for epidermal cysts; 0.93 (95% CI 0.88∼0.98), 80.00%, and 94.12% for lipomas; and 0.97 (95% CI 0.93∼1.00), 97.73%, and 85.71% for other subcutaneous masses, respectively. Analysis using gradient-weighted class activation mapping revealed that the DCNNs could detect specific ultrasonographic findings of epidermal cysts and lipomas. @*Conclusion@#We propose that DCNNs combined with ultrasonography may aid in the diagnosis of subcutaneous masses in outpatient settings.

15.
Gut and Liver ; : 742-751, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890773

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and long-term prognosis of elderly-onset ulcerative colitis (EOUC) in Korean patients over a 30-year period using a wellestablished population-based cohort in the Songpa-Kangdong district of Seoul, Korea. @*Methods@#Clinical characteristics and prognosis were compared between two groups: EOUC,defined as UC diagnosed in individuals aged ≥60 years and non-EOUC (N-EOUC), defined asUC diagnosed in individuals aged 18 to 59 years. @*Results@#We identified 99 patients with EOUC (10.3%) and 866 patients with N-EOUC (89.7%) between 1986 and 2015. During the median follow-up of 104.5 months, the overall exposure tomedications was comparable between patients with EOUC and N-EOUC (p=0.091 for corticosteroids, p=0.794 for thiopurines, and p=0.095 for anti-tumor necrosis factor agents). The cumula-tive risks of disease outcomes were also comparable between patients with EOUC and N-EOUC (22.4% vs 30.4% for proximal disease extension [p=0.351], 11.9% vs 18.1% for hospitalization [p=0.240], and 2.3% vs 1.8% for colectomy [p=0.977]) at 10 years after diagnosis. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that corticosteroid use at diagnosis was an independent predic-tor of proximal disease extension (hazard ratio [HR], 6.216; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.314 to 28.826) and hospitalization (HR, 11.241; 95% CI, 3.027 to 41.742) in patients with EOUC. @*Conclusions@#In this population-based study from Korea, the pattern of medication use seemed comparable between the EOUC and N-EOUC groups. Moreover, patients with EOUC and those with N-EOUC have a similar disease course in terms of proximal disease extension, hospitaliza-tion, and colectomy.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889610

ABSTRACT

Extracellular beta amyloid (Aβ) plaques are the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Accordingly, reducing Aβ levels is considered a promising strategy for AD prevention. 3’-O-acetyl-24-epi-7,8-didehydrocimigenol-3-O-β-D-xylopryranoside significantly decreased the Aβ production and this effect was accompanied with reduced sAPPβ production known as a soluble ectodomain APP fragment through β-secretases in HeLa cells overexpressing amyloid precursor proteins (APPs). This compound also increased the level of sAPPα, which is a proteolytic fragment of APP by α-secretases. In addition, 3’-O-acetyl-24-epi-7,8-didehydrocimigenol-3-O-β-D-xylopryranoside decreased the protein level of β-secretases, but the protein levels ofA disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) family, especially ADAM10 and ADAM17, are increased. Thus, 3’-O-acetyl-24-epi-7,8-didehydrocimigenol-3-O-β-D-xylopryranoside could be useful in the development of AD treatment in the aspect of amyloid pathology.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811412

ABSTRACT

Giant cell hepatitis with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AHA) is a rare disease of infancy characterized by the presence of both Coombs-positive hemolytic anemia and progressive liver disease with giant cell transformation of hepatocytes. Here, we report a case involving a seven-month-old male infant who presented with AHA followed by cholestatic hepatitis. The clinical features included jaundice, pallor, and red urine. Physical examination showed generalized icterus and splenomegaly. The laboratory findings suggested warm-type AHA with cholestatic hepatitis. Liver biopsy revealed giant cell transformation of hepatocytes and moderate lobular inflammation. The patient was successfully treated with four doses of rituximab. Early relapse of hemolytic anemia and hepatitis was observed, which prompted the use of an additional salvage dose of rituximab. He is currently in clinical remission.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Hemolytic , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune , Biopsy , Giant Cells , Hepatitis , Hepatocytes , Humans , Infant , Inflammation , Jaundice , Liver , Liver Diseases , Male , Pallor , Physical Examination , Rare Diseases , Recurrence , Rituximab , Splenomegaly
18.
Intestinal Research ; : 402-411, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834432

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The modulation of CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells by glycolipids has been considered as a potential therapy against immunologic diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease. A recently identified a glycolipid analog, 7DW8-5, which is derived from α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), is as much as 100-fold more active at stimulating both human and mice NKT cells when compared to α-GalCer. We explored the effects of 7DW8-5 in mouse models of acute and chronic colitis. @*Methods@#We investigated the effects of 7DW8-5 on intestinal inflammation by assessing the effects of 7dW8-5 on a murine dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis model and a chronic colitis-associated tumor model. @*Results@#The acute DSS-induced colitis model showed a dose-dependent response to 7DW8-5, as mice administered 7DW8-5 showed a significant improvement in DSS-induced colitis based on their disease activity index, histologic analysis, and serum C-reactive protein levels, when compared to mice administered vehicle alone. However, DSS-induced colitis in CD1d-KO mice showed no response to 7DW8-5. A fluorescence-activating cell sorting analysis revealed an increase in NKT cells in colonic tissues of 7DW8-5-treated mice. RNA-seq and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed a significant increase in the expression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, and interferon-gamma in 7DW8-5-treated mice. In addition, 7DW8-5 treatment reduced colitis-associated tumor development in an azoxymethane/DSS mouse model. @*Conclusions@#7DW8-5 activates NKT cells through CD1d and provides a protective effect against intestinal inflammation in mice. Therefore, 7DW8-5 may be a promising therapeutic agent for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

19.
Intestinal Research ; : 45-55, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834396

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#PF-00547659 is a monoclonal antibody against human mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) that prevents the binding of α4β7+ lymphocytes to MAdCAM-expressing sites in the gastrointestinal tract with high affinity and selectivity, and is being developed for the treatment of Crohn’s disease (CD). @*Methods@#OPERA is a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to investigate the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of PF-00547659 following subcutaneous administration in subjects with active CD, a history of failure or intolerance to anti-tumor necrosis factor and/or immunosuppressants, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein > 3.0 mg/L, and ulcers on colonoscopy. The primary endpoint was Crohn’s Disease Activity Index-70 response at week 8 or 12. Subpopulation analyses for Asian subjects were performed as some differences are observed in genetics and clinical phenotypes in Asian CD patients compared with Western patients. @*Results@#In this study, 265 CD subjects were randomized, with a subpopulation of 21 subjects (8 Japanese and 13 Korean) defined as the Asian population. In the overall and Asian populations; PF-00547659 was pharmacologically active as evidenced by soluble MAdCAM and circulating β7+ central memory CD4+ T-lymphocytes, although no clear evidence of efficacy was observed in any clinical endpoints; pharmacokinetics of PF-00547659 in the Asian subpopulation was generally comparable to the overall population; and the safety profile of PF-00547659 appeared acceptable up to 12 weeks of treatment. @*Conclusions@#In the overall and Asian populations, efficacy of PF-00547659 could not be demonstrated using any clinical endpoints compared with placebo. Pharmacokinetics and safety of PF-00547659 were generally comparable. Further studies with larger numbers of patients are required to confirm our results. (Trial Registration Number: NCT01276509)

20.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831622

ABSTRACT

Consumptive hypothyroidism is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by excessive inactivation of the thyroid hormones due to increased type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase activity of tumors. We report the case of severe consumptive hypothyroidism in a 1-month-old boy with infantile hepatic hemangiomas who presented with cardiac failure and cholestasis. Diffuse infiltration of hepatic hemangiomas was detected on abdominal imaging studies, and thyroid function screening test revealed severe hypothyroidism, which necessitated the administration of higher-than-usual doses of levothyroxine for the normalization of thyroid function. The patient was successfully treated with propranolol, prednisolone, and levothyroxine, and he showed normal thyroid function at 3 months of age and normal neurodevelopment at 9 months of age. This case highlights the importance of early recognition and prompt management of consumptive hypothyroidism in patients with infantile hepatic hemangiomas.

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