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1.
Journal of Korean Geriatric Psychiatry ; : 89-96, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-118958

ABSTRACT

Chronic alcohol use may have direct or indirect neurotoxic effects on the brain that can lead to cognitive impairment. However, the precise relationship between alcohol and dementia remains unclear. There are several epidemiological studies suggest that the protective effect of light-moderate alcohol drinking in dementia. But obviously the heavy alcohol drinking can lead to brain damage and increase the risk of various types of dementia. The clinicopathological issues and criteria regarding so-called 'alcoholic dementia' remain under debate. Alcohol-induced persisting amnestic disorder, alcohol-induced persisting dementia, and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (thiamine deficiency) may constitute distinct disease entities, but they may also share some common features. Based on this theory, Oslin and colleagues proposed the broader diagnostic scheme and criteria for Alcohol Related Dementia (ARD), which may include cases of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and also other cases of dementia that appear to be alcohol-related. In pathogenesis of the alcoholic dementia, the chronic exposure to ethanol results in the adaptive up-regulation of NMDA receptor sensitivity, which can result in an increased vulnerability to glutamate induced excitotoxicity. Despite the clinical importance of ARD, few medical treatments for ARD have been proposed and studied. Most of all, the gold standard of the treatment in alcoholic dementia is the maintaining abstinence. Some therapeutic trials with cholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil and rivastigmine) and memantine (NMDA receptor antagonist) have been conducted for the patients with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and alcohol-related dementia, and these studies reported favorable outcomes. Especially memantine can be a more effective agent in the treatment of alcoholic dementia because of anti-craving effect reported in several studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alcohol Amnestic Disorder , Alcohol Drinking , Alcoholics , Brain , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Cognition , Dementia , Ethanol , Glutamic Acid , Korsakoff Syndrome , Memantine , N-Methylaspartate , Up-Regulation
2.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 285-290, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-186567

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Diabetes and alcohol dependence are considered as independent risk factors for cognitive impairment. This research was to investigate whether cognitive functions in diabetic alcohol dependent patients were more impaired than non-diabetic alcohol dependent patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in alcohol dependence patients (n=138). Patients with alcohol dependence diagnosed by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, 4th edition, Text Revision underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, to classify to diabetics group and non-diabetics group. In addition to demographic and clinical characteristics, cognitive functions assessed using the Korean-Mini Mental Status Examination (K-MMSE), word list memory test, and word fluency test, word list recall test from Korean version of the consortium to establish a registry for Alzheimer's disease, and block design test, digit span test, and digit symbol test from Korean-Wechsler Adult Intellogence Scale were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in demographic and other clinical characteristics between the non-diabetic and diabetic alcoholic patients. Compared to non-diabetic alcoholic patients, diabetic alcoholic patients were more impaired on language of K-MMSE (p=0.028) and digit symbol test (p=0.044). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest the more severe impairment of selective cognitive functions in diabetic alcoholic patients than non-diabetic alcoholic patients. Future replication of these findings in a large population is necessary.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Alcoholics , Alcoholism , Alzheimer Disease , Cognition , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus , Glucose Tolerance Test , Memory , Mental Disorders , Risk Factors
3.
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology ; : 731-736, 2003.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-82799

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reperfusion injury often develops after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and MgSO4 is known to be related to such injury. The goal of this study was to determine the hemodynamic and oxygen metabolic effects of administering MgSO4 after cessating cardiopulmonary bypass during coronary bypass surgery in control and nicardipine infusion groups. METHODS: After obtaining hospital ethics committee clearance, we studied 29 patients with coronary artery disease scheduled for CABG, who were randomly assigned to receive nicardipine (0.5 microgram/kg/min, n = 11) or placebo (n = 18). All patients were administered MgSO4 (60 mg/kg) after the cessation of CPB. The hemodynamic variables and oxygen parameters were recorded and calculated by continuous cardiac output and mixed venous oxygen saturation monitoring, through a thermodilution Swan-Ganz catheter before and 20 minutes after MgSO4 administration. RESULTS: Heart rate was reduced after administering MgSO4 in both groups, and the mean arterial pressure was also reduced in the nicardipine group. The cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance index, pulmonary vascular resistance index, right and left stroke work indices were well-maintained after administering MgSO4. Mixed venous oxygen saturation and other oxygen parameters were maintained without change after MgSO4 administration. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that MgSO4 can be used without inducing any significant oxygen metabolism or hemodynamic derangements during CABG. But further work is needed to elucidate the myocardial protective effects of MgSO4.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arterial Pressure , Cardiac Output , Cardiopulmonary Bypass , Catheters , Coronary Artery Bypass , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Vessels , Ethics Committees, Clinical , Heart Rate , Hemodynamics , Metabolism , Nicardipine , Oxygen , Reperfusion Injury , Stroke , Thermodilution , Vascular Resistance
4.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 463-469, 2000.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-42434

ABSTRACT

The authors reported a case of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis that combined with serious complications in a 37-years-old male patient with chronic schizophrenia. Clozapine-induced agranulocytosis developed on Day 51 of clozapine treatment. The patient was transferred to hematologic department and then treated by massive antibiotics in aseptic room. After the injection of G-CSF, WBC count increased to the normal range. But the day after the normalization of WBC count, patient's general condition was worsened with fever and mild rigidity, and also CK, LDH, BUN/Cr, and LFT was increased. The patient's elevated laboratory findings with those of physical signs and symptoms suggested the neuroleptic malignant syndrome and acute renal failure. Eventually steroid was administered to the patient, and then patient's general condition and laboratory findings were normalized. We suggest that the identification of risk factors and careful regular blood monitoring is the best method for the prevention of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis. After the onset of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis, clozapine should be discontinued immediately and proper antibiotic therapy with administration of G-CSF should be done, as soon as possible. And we emphasize the importance of the education and the establishment of therapeutic relationship with patients and their family also.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Acute Kidney Injury , Agranulocytosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Clozapine , Education , Fever , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome , Reference Values , Risk Factors , Schizophrenia
5.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 234-239, 2000.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104086

ABSTRACT

It has been known that clozapine treatment combining with cytotoxic antitumor therapy for schizophrenia is not recommended because both durgs have agranulocytosis as their side effect. Since the introduction of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor(G-CSF), it has been used to treat agranulocytosis or granulocytopenia associated with antitumor chemotherapy or clozapine. We report a case with schizophrenia on clozapine treatment who developed agranulocytosis following combined cytotoxic chemotherapy for a sex-cord stromal tumor which was successfully treated with G-CSF. The hematological status before combining with antitumor chemotherapy had been within normal range, and agranulocytosis following the antitumor chemotherapy returned to normal after treatment with G-CSF. This suggests that clozapine could be administered in combination with cytotoxic antitumor agents if the following indications are met : normal hematological status before starting antitumor chemotherapy, carefully monitoring hematological status by oncologist and psychiatrist, and prepared G-CSF administration when agranulocytosis is anticipated.


Subject(s)
Agranulocytosis , Antineoplastic Agents , Clozapine , Drug Therapy , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , Granulocytes , Psychiatry , Reference Values , Schizophrenia
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