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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 359-365, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977439

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Data are limited on the long-term efficacy and safety of drug-coated balloon (DCB) treatment in comparison to drugeluting stent (DES) for de novo coronary lesions. We investigated the long-term clinical outcomes of DCB treatment in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for de novo coronary lesions. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 103 patients scheduled for elective PCI for de novo non-small coronary lesions (≥2.5 mm) who were successfully treated with DCB alone were retrospectively compared with 103 propensity-matched patients treated with second-generation DES from the PTRG-DES registry (n=13160). All patients were followed for 5 years. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac events [MACE; cardiac death, myocardial infarction, stroke, target lesion thrombosis, target vessel revascularization (TVR), and major bleeding] at 5 years. @*Results@#At 5-year clinical follow-up, Kaplan-Meier estimates of the rate of MACE were significantly lower in the DCB group [2.9% vs. 10.7%; hazard ratio (HR): 0.26; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.07–0.96; log-rank p=0.027]. There was a significantly lower incidence of TVR in the DCB group (1.0% vs. 7.8%; HR: 0.12; 95% CI: 0.01–0.98; long-rank p=0.015), and there was major bleeding only in the DES group (0.0% vs. 1.9%; log-rank p=0.156). @*Conclusion@#At 5-year follow-up, DCB treatment was significantly associated with reduced incidences of MACE and TVR, compared with DES implantation, for de novo coronary lesions.

2.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 372-381, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977390

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Bleeding events after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have important prognostic implications. Data on the influence of an abnormal ankle-brachial index (ABI) on both ischemic and bleeding events in patients undergoing PCI are limited. @*Methods@#We included patients who underwent PCI with available ABI data (abnormal ABI, ≤ 0.9 or > 1.4). The primary endpoint was the composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and major bleeding. @*Results@#Among 4,747 patients, an abnormal ABI was observed in 610 patients (12.9%). During follow-up (median, 31 months), the 5-year cumulative incidence of adverse clinical events was higher in the abnormal ABI group than in the normal ABI group: primary endpoint (36.0% vs. 14.5%, log-rank test, p < 0.001); all-cause death (19.4% vs. 5.1%, log-rank test, p < 0.001); MI (6.3% vs. 4.1%, log-rank test, p = 0.013); stroke (6.2% vs. 2.7%, log-rank test, p = 0.001); and major bleeding (8.9% vs. 3.7%, log-rank test, p < 0.001). An abnormal ABI was an independent risk factor for all-cause death (hazard ratio [HR], 3.05; p < 0.001), stroke (HR, 1.79; p = 0.042), and major bleeding (HR, 1.61; p = 0.034). @*Conclusions@#An abnormal ABI is a risk factor for both ischemic and bleeding events after PCI. Our study findings may be helpful in determining the optimal method for secondary prevention after PCI.

3.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 568-577, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000325

ABSTRACT

Background@#Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) has become an important tool for evaluating cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study evaluated the significance of CACS for future CVD through more than 10 years of follow-up in asymptomatic Korean populations with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) known to have a relatively low CACS burden. @*Methods@#We enrolled 981 asymptomatic T2DM patients without CVD at baseline who underwent CACS evaluation using multidetector computed tomography between January 2008 and December 2014. They were grouped into five predefined CACS categories based on Agatston scores and followed up by August 2020. The primary endpoint was incident CVD events, including coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral arterial disease. @*Results@#The relative risk of CVD was significantly higher in patients with CACS ≥10, and the significance persisted after adjustment for known confounders. A higher CACS category indicated a higher incidence of future CVD: hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) 4.09 (1.79 to 9.36), 12.00 (5.61 to 25.69), and 38.79 (16.43 to 91.59) for 10≤ CACS <100, 100≤ CACS <400, and CACS ≥400, respectively. During the 12-year follow-up period, the difference in event-free survival more than doubled as the category increased. Patients with CACS below 10 had very low CVD incidence throughout the follow-up. The receiver operating characteristic analysis showed better area under curve when the CACS cutoff was 10 than 100. @*Conclusion@#CACS can be a sensitive marker of CVD risk. Specifically, CACS above 10 is an indicator of CVD high-risk requiring more intensive medical treatment in Koreans with T2DM.

4.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 150-163, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938689

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of ischemic heart disease is steadily growing as populations age. Antithrombotic treatment is a key therapeutic modality for the prevention of secondary cerebro-cardiovascular disease. Patients with acute coronary syndrome or who are undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention must be treated with dual antiplatelet therapy for a mandatory period. The optimal perioperative antithrombotic regimen remains debatable; antithrombotics can cause bleeding. Inadequate antithrombotic regimens are associated with perioperative ischemic events, but continuation of therapy may increase the risks of perioperative hemorrhagic complications (including mortality). Many guidelines on the perioperative management of antithrombotic agents have been established by academic societies. However, the existing guidelines do not cover all specialties, nor do they describe the thrombotic and hemorrhagic risks associated with various surgical interventions. Moreover, few practical recommendations on the modification of antithrombotic regimens in patients who require non-deferrable interventions/surgeries or procedures associated with a high risk of hemorrhage have appeared. Therefore, cardiologists, specialists performing invasive procedures, surgeons, dentists, and anesthesiologists have not come to a consensus on optimal perioperative antithrombotic regimens. The Korean Platelet-Thrombosis Research Group presented a positioning paper on perioperative antithrombotic management. We here discuss commonly encountered clinical scenarios and engage in evidence-based discussion to assist individualized, perioperative antithrombotic management in clinical practice.

5.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 204-228, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938674

ABSTRACT

Given the progressive improvements in antithrombotic strategies, management of cardiovascular disease has become sophisticated/refined. However, the optimal perioperative management of antithrombotic therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome or who are scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention remains unclear. Assessments of the thrombotic and hemorrhagic risks are essential to reduce the rates of mortality and major cardiac events. However, the existing guidelines do not mention these topics. This case-based consensus document deals with common clinical scenarios and offers evidence-based guidelines for individualized perioperative management of antithrombotic therapy in the real world.

6.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 413-421, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927172

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Platelet function test (PFT) results and genotype hold unique prognostic implications in East Asian patients. The aim of the PTRG-DES (Platelet function and genoType-Related long-term proGnosis in Drug-Eluting Stent-treated Patients with coronary artery disease) consortium is to assess the clinical impact thereof on long-term clinical outcomes in Korean patients with coronary artery disease during dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) including clopidogrel. @*Materials and Methods@#Searching publications on the PubMed, we reviewed clopidogrel treatment studies with PFT and/or genotype data for potential inclusion in this study. Lead investigators were invited to share PFT/genotype results, patient characteristics, and clinical outcomes to evaluate relationships among them. @*Results@#Nine registries from 32 academic centers participated in the PTRG-DES consortium, contributing individual patient data from 13160 patients who underwent DES implantation between July 2003 and August 2018. The PTRG-PFT cohort was composed of 11714 patients with available VerifyNow assay results. Platelet reactivity levels reached 218±79 P2Y12 reaction units (PRU), and high on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity based on a consensus-recommended cutoff (PRU >208) was observed in 55.9%. The PTRGGenotype cohort consisted of 8163 patients with candidate genotypes related with clopidogrel responsiveness. Of those with cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 genotype, frequencies of carrying one and two loss-of-function allele (s) (*2 or *3) were 47.9% (intermediate metabolizers) and 14.2% (poor metabolizers), respectively. @*Conclusion@#The PTRG-DES consortium highlights unique values for on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity and CYP2C19 phenotype that may be important to developing optimal antiplatelet regimens in East Asian patients.

7.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 444-454, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926522

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#The aim of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of treatment with drug-coated balloon (DCB) in a large real-world population. @*Methods@#Patients treated with DCBs were included in a multicenter observational registry that enrolled patients from 18 hospitals in Korea between January 2009 and December 2017. The primary outcome was target lesion failure (TLF) defined as a composite of cardiovascular death, target vessel myocardial infarction, and clinically indicated target lesion revascularization at 12 months. @*Results@#The study included 2,509 patients with 2,666 DCB-treated coronary artery lesions (1,688 [63.3%] with in-stent restenosis [ISR] lesions vs. 978 [36.7%] with de novo lesions).The mean age with standard deviation was 65.7±11.3 years; 65.7% of the patients were men.At 12 months, the primary outcome, TLF, occurred in 179 (6.7%), 151 (8.9%), 28 (2.9%) patients among the total, ISR, and de novo lesion populations, respectively. A history of hypertension, diabetes, acute coronary syndrome, previous coronary artery bypass graft, reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, B2C lesion and ISR lesion were independent predictors of 12 months TLF in the overall study population. @*Conclusions@#This large multicenter DCB registry study revealed the favorable clinical outcome of DCB treatment in real-world practice in patient with ISR lesion as well as small de novo coronary lesion.

8.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 320-323, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926508

ABSTRACT

no abstract available.

9.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 202-221, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893937

ABSTRACT

Arterial and venous atherothrombotic events are finely regulated processes involving a complex interplay between vulnerable blood, vulnerable vessel, and blood stasis. Vulnerable blood (‘thrombogenicity’) comprises complex interactions between cellular components and plasma factors (inflammatory, procoagulant, anticoagulant, and fibrinolytic factors).The extent of thrombogenicity may determine the progression of atheroma and the clinical manifestation of atherothrombotic events, with the highest thrombogenicity in African Americans and lowest in East Asians. Inherent thrombogenicity may influence clinical efficacy and safety of specific antithrombotic treatments in high-risk patients, which may in part explain the observation that East Asian patients have reduced anti-ischemic benefits and elevated bleeding risk with antithrombotic therapy compared to Caucasian patients. In this review, we discuss available evidence regarding the racial differences inthrombogenicity and its impact on clinical outcomes among patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

10.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 202-221, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901641

ABSTRACT

Arterial and venous atherothrombotic events are finely regulated processes involving a complex interplay between vulnerable blood, vulnerable vessel, and blood stasis. Vulnerable blood (‘thrombogenicity’) comprises complex interactions between cellular components and plasma factors (inflammatory, procoagulant, anticoagulant, and fibrinolytic factors).The extent of thrombogenicity may determine the progression of atheroma and the clinical manifestation of atherothrombotic events, with the highest thrombogenicity in African Americans and lowest in East Asians. Inherent thrombogenicity may influence clinical efficacy and safety of specific antithrombotic treatments in high-risk patients, which may in part explain the observation that East Asian patients have reduced anti-ischemic benefits and elevated bleeding risk with antithrombotic therapy compared to Caucasian patients. In this review, we discuss available evidence regarding the racial differences inthrombogenicity and its impact on clinical outcomes among patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

11.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 845-866, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833070

ABSTRACT

Clinical practice guidelines published by the European Society of Cardiology and the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association summarize the available evidence and provide recommendations for health professionals to enable appropriate clinical decisions and improve clinical outcomes for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, most current guidelines are based on studies in non-Asian populations in the pre-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) era. The Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry is the first nationwide registry to document many aspects of AMI from baseline characteristics to treatment strategies. There are well-organized ongoing and published randomized control trials especially for antiplatelet therapy among Korean patients with AMI. Here, members of the Task Force of the Korean Society of Myocardial Infarction review recent published studies during the current PCI era, and have summarized the expert consensus for the pharmacotherapy of AMI.

12.
Intestinal Research ; : 127-134, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740023

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is an advanced technique that can be used to treat precancerous and early colorectal neoplasms by facilitating en bloc resection regardless of tumor size. In our study, we investigated the clinicopathological feature and the treatment outcome of patients with colorectal laterally spreading tumors (LSTs) that were treated by ESD. METHODS: The study enrolled all of 210 patients with colorectal LSTs who underwent ESD. Clinical outcomes were analyzed by retrospectively reviewing medical records. RESULTS: A cancerous pit pattern (Vi/Vn) was more common in pseudo-depressed (PD) subtype than in flat elevated (FE) subtype. The incidence of adenocarcinoma in the PD subtype and nodular mixed (NM) subtypes was significantly higher than in the homogenous (HG) subtype and FE subtype. The en bloc and R0 resection rates were 89.0% and 85.7%, respectively. The bleeding and perforation rates were 5.2% and 1.9%, respectively. The mean procedure time was much longer in the PD subtype than in the FE subtype. The en bloc resection rate was significantly higher in the NM subtype than in the HG subtype. However, there were no statistically significant differences in mean procedure time, en bloc resection rate, R0 resection rate, bleeding rate, or perforation rate between LST-granular and LST-nongranular types. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that ESD is acceptable for treating colorectal LSTs concerning en bloc resection, curative resection, and risk of complications. Careful consideration is required for complete resection of the PD subtype and NM subtype because of their higher malignant potential.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Hemorrhage , Incidence , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
13.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 586-599, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759451

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Impaired recovery from left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is a major prognostic factor after myocardial infarction (MI). Because P2Y12 receptor blockade inhibits myocardial injury, ticagrelor with off-target properties may have myocardial protection over clopidogrel. In animal models, ticagrelor vs. clopidogrel protects myocardium against reperfusion injury and improves remodeling after MI. We aimed to investigate the effect of ticagrelor on sequential myocardial remodeling process after MI. METHODS: High platelet inhibition with ticagrelor to improve LV remodeling in patients with ST-segment elevation MI (HEALING-AMI) is an investigator-initiated, randomized, open-label, assessor-blinded, multi-center trial done at 10 sites in Korea. Patients will be enrolled if they have ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention and a planned duration of dual antiplatelet treatment of at least 6 months. Screened patients will be randomly assigned (1:1) using an internet-based randomization with a computer-generated blocking with stratification across study sites to either ticagrelor or clopidogrel treatment. The co-primary primary endpoints are LV remodeling index with three-dimensional echocardiography and the level of N-terminal prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) at 6 months representing post-MI remodeling processes. Changes of LV end-systolic/diastolic volume indices and LV ejection fraction between baseline and 6-month follow-up will be also evaluated. Analysis is per protocol. CONCLUSIONS: HEALING-AMI is testing the effect of ticagrelor in reducing adverse LV remodeling following STEMI. Our trial would show the benefit of ticagrelor vs. clopidogrel related to the recovery of post-MI LV dysfunction beyond potent platelet inhibition. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02224534


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Platelets , Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional , Follow-Up Studies , Korea , Models, Animal , Myocardial Infarction , Myocardium , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Random Allocation , Reperfusion Injury , Ventricular Remodeling
15.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 586-599, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#Impaired recovery from left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is a major prognostic factor after myocardial infarction (MI). Because P2Y12 receptor blockade inhibits myocardial injury, ticagrelor with off-target properties may have myocardial protection over clopidogrel. In animal models, ticagrelor vs. clopidogrel protects myocardium against reperfusion injury and improves remodeling after MI. We aimed to investigate the effect of ticagrelor on sequential myocardial remodeling process after MI.@*METHODS@#High platelet inhibition with ticagrelor to improve LV remodeling in patients with ST-segment elevation MI (HEALING-AMI) is an investigator-initiated, randomized, open-label, assessor-blinded, multi-center trial done at 10 sites in Korea. Patients will be enrolled if they have ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention and a planned duration of dual antiplatelet treatment of at least 6 months. Screened patients will be randomly assigned (1:1) using an internet-based randomization with a computer-generated blocking with stratification across study sites to either ticagrelor or clopidogrel treatment. The co-primary primary endpoints are LV remodeling index with three-dimensional echocardiography and the level of N-terminal prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) at 6 months representing post-MI remodeling processes. Changes of LV end-systolic/diastolic volume indices and LV ejection fraction between baseline and 6-month follow-up will be also evaluated. Analysis is per protocol.@*CONCLUSIONS@#HEALING-AMI is testing the effect of ticagrelor in reducing adverse LV remodeling following STEMI. Our trial would show the benefit of ticagrelor vs. clopidogrel related to the recovery of post-MI LV dysfunction beyond potent platelet inhibition.TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02224534

16.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 134-147, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738680

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: After the first acute myocardial infarction (AMI), a considerable proportion of patients are newly diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM). However, in AMI, controversy remains regarding the disparity in prognosis between previously diagnosed DM (known-DM) and newly diagnosed DM (new-DM). METHODS: The study included 10,455 patients with AMI (non-DM, 6,236; new-DM, 659; known-DM, 3,560) admitted to one of 15 participating centers in Korea between November 2011 and January 2016 (average follow-up, 523 days). We compared the characteristics and clinical course of patients with known-DM and those with new- or non-DM. RESULTS: Compared to patients with known-DM, those with new-DM or non-DM were younger, more likely to be male, and less likely to have hypertension, dyslipidemia, prior stroke, angina, or myocardial infarction. Compared to patients with new-DM or non-DM (reference), those with known-DM had higher risks of major adverse cardiac events (hazard ratio [HR], 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06–1.35; p=0.004), cardiac death (HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.01–1.57; p=0.042), and congestive heart failure (HR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.20–2.08). Unlike known-DM, new-DM did not increase the risk of cardiac events (including death). CONCLUSIONS: Known-DM was associated with a significantly higher risk of cardiovascular events after AMI, while new-DM had a similar risk of cardiac events as that noted for non-DM. There were different cardiovascular outcomes according to diabetes status in patients with AMI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Death , Diabetes Mellitus , Dyslipidemias , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Failure , Hypertension , Korea , Myocardial Infarction , Prognosis , Stroke
17.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 512-521, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714641

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although a low triiodothyronine (T3) state is closely associated with heart failure (HF), it is uncertain whether total T3 levels on admission is correlated with the clinical outcomes of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic value of total T3 levels for major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) in patients with AMI undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: A total of 765 PCI-treated AMI patients (65.4 ± 12.6 years old, 215 women) between January 2012 and July 2014 were included and 1-year MACCEs were analyzed. We assessed the correlation of total T3 and free thyroxine (fT4) with prevalence of 1-year MACCEs and the predictive values of total T3, fT4, and the ratio of total T3 to fT4 (T3/fT4), especially for HF requiring re-hospitalization. RESULTS: Thirty patients (3.9%) were re-hospitalized within 12 months to control HF symptoms. Total T3 levels were lower in the HF group than in the non-HF group (84.32 ± 21.04 ng/dL vs. 101.20 ± 20.30 ng/dL, p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed the cut-offs of total T3 levels (≤ 85 ng/dL) and T3/fT4 (≤ 60) for HF (area under curve [AUC] = 0.734, p < 0.001; AUC = 0.774, p < 0.001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, lower T3/fT4 was an independent predictor for 1-year HF in PCI-treated AMI patients (odds ratio, 1.035; 95% confidential interval, 1.007 to 1.064; p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Lower levels of total T3 were well correlated with 1-year HF in PCI-treated AMI patients. The T3/fT4 levels can be an additional marker to predict HF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Area Under Curve , Heart Failure , Heart , Multivariate Analysis , Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Prevalence , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Thyroxine , Triiodothyronine
18.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 134-147, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917126

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#After the first acute myocardial infarction (AMI), a considerable proportion of patients are newly diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM). However, in AMI, controversy remains regarding the disparity in prognosis between previously diagnosed DM (known-DM) and newly diagnosed DM (new-DM).@*METHODS@#The study included 10,455 patients with AMI (non-DM, 6,236; new-DM, 659; known-DM, 3,560) admitted to one of 15 participating centers in Korea between November 2011 and January 2016 (average follow-up, 523 days). We compared the characteristics and clinical course of patients with known-DM and those with new- or non-DM.@*RESULTS@#Compared to patients with known-DM, those with new-DM or non-DM were younger, more likely to be male, and less likely to have hypertension, dyslipidemia, prior stroke, angina, or myocardial infarction. Compared to patients with new-DM or non-DM (reference), those with known-DM had higher risks of major adverse cardiac events (hazard ratio [HR], 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06–1.35; p=0.004), cardiac death (HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.01–1.57; p=0.042), and congestive heart failure (HR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.20–2.08). Unlike known-DM, new-DM did not increase the risk of cardiac events (including death).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Known-DM was associated with a significantly higher risk of cardiovascular events after AMI, while new-DM had a similar risk of cardiac events as that noted for non-DM. There were different cardiovascular outcomes according to diabetes status in patients with AMI.

19.
International Journal of Stem Cells ; : 1-11, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-29546

ABSTRACT

Human cardiomyocytes (CMs) cease to proliferate and remain terminally differentiated thereafter, when humans reach the mid-20s. Thus, any damages sustained by myocardium tissue are irreversible, and they require medical interventions to regain functionality. To date, new surgical procedures and drugs have been developed, albeit with limited success, to treat various heart diseases including myocardial infarction. Hence, there is a pressing need to develop more effective treatment methods to address the increasing mortality rate of the heart diseases. Functional CMs are not only an important in vitro cellular tool to model various types of heart diseases for drug development, but they are also a promising therapeutic agent for cell therapy. However, the limited proliferative capacity entails difficulties in acquiring functional CMs in the scale that is required for pathological studies and cell therapy development. Stem cells, human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in particular, have been considered as an unlimited cellular source for providing functional CMs for various applications. Notable progress has already been made: the first clinical trials of hPSCs derived CMs (hPSC-CMs) for treating myocardial infarction was approved in 2015, and their potential use in disease modeling and drug discovery is being fully explored. This concise review gives an account of current development of differentiation, purification and maturation techniques for hPSC-CMs, and their application in cell therapy development and pharmaceutical industries will be discussed with the latest experimental evidence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Drug Discovery , Drug Industry , Heart Diseases , In Vitro Techniques , Mortality , Myocardial Infarction , Myocardium , Myocytes, Cardiac , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Stem Cells
20.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 366-376, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76470

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Combination antiplatelet therapy reduces the risk of ischemic stroke compared with aspirin monotherapy in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients. The underlying mechanism, however, remains unclear. In addition, the association between platelet inhibition and thrombogenicity in NVAF has not been evaluated. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We randomized 60 patients with NVAF that were taking 100 mg of aspirin daily (>1 month) to adding 75 mg of clopidogrel daily (CLPD group), 100 mg of cilostazol twice daily (CILO group), or 1000 mg of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid twice daily (PUFA group). Biomarkers (von Willebrand factor antigen [vWF:Ag], fibrinogen, D-dimer, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]) and platelet reactivity (PR), which were the levels stimulated by adenosine diphosphate (ADP), thrombin-receptor agonist peptide, collagen, and arachidonic acid, were measured at baseline and 30-day follow-up. RESULTS: Combination antiplatelet therapy significantly reduced vWF:Ag and fibrinogen levels (7.7 IU/dL, p=0.015 and 15.7 mg/dL, p=0.005, respectively), but no changes were found in D-dimer and hs-CRP levels. The CLPD and CILO groups showed fibrinogen and vWF:Ag level reductions (24.9 mg/dL, p=0.015 and 9.3 IU/dL, p=0.044, respectively), whereas the PUFA group did not show any differences in biomarkers. Irrespective of regimen, the changes in fibrinogen and vWF:Ag levels were mainly associated with the change in ADP-mediated PR (r=0.339, p=0.008 and r=0.322, p=0.012, respectively). CONCLUSION: In patients with NVAF, combination antiplatelet therapy showed reductions for vWF:Ag and fibrinogen levels, which may be associated with the inhibitory levels of ADP-mediated PR. The clinical implications of these findings need to be evaluated in future trials.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenosine Diphosphate , Arachidonic Acid , Aspirin , Atrial Fibrillation , Biomarkers , Blood Platelets , C-Reactive Protein , Collagen , Fibrinogen , Follow-Up Studies , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Stroke
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