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1.
Gut and Liver ; : 723-731, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890770

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study examined the long-term outcomes of undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer (UD EGC) with positive horizontal margins (HMs) after endoscopic resection (ER) and compared them between additional surgery and nonsurgical management. @*Methods@#From 2005 to 2015, a total of 1,124 patients with UD EGC underwent ER at 18 tertiary hospitals in Korea. Of them, 92 patients with positive HMs as the only noncurative factor (n=25) or with both positive HMs and tumor size >2 cm (n=67) were included. These patients underwent additional surgery (n=40), underwent additional endoscopic treatment (n=6), or were followed up without further treatment (n=46). @*Results@#No lymph node (LN) metastasis was found in patients who underwent additional surgery. During a median follow-up of 57.7 months (interquartile range, 27.6 to 68.8 months), no LN or distant metastases or gastric cancer-related deaths occurred in the overall cohort. At baseline, the residual cancer rate was 57.8% (26/45) after additional surgery or ER. The 5-year local recurrence rate was 33.6% among patients who were followed up without additional treatment. The 5-year overall survival rates were 95.0% and 87.8% after additional surgery and nonsurgical management (endoscopic treatment or close follow-up), respectively (log-rank p=0.224). In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, nonsurgical management was not associated with an increased risk of mortality. @*Conclusions@#UD EGC with positive HMs after ER may have favorable long-term outcomes and a very low risk of LN metastasis. Nonsurgical management may be suggested as an alternative, particularly for patients with old age or chronic illness.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890415

ABSTRACT

BackgroundOnly few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).MethodsFrom March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated.ResultsIn total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9±14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, −1.1%±1.2%; PPConclusionThis study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913765

ABSTRACT

Background@#Modified orbitozygomatic craniotomy is characterized by simplicity and wide exposure. The purpose of the present study was to describe a modified orbitozygomatic approach without resecting the zygomatic arch for large parasellar tumor surgeries. @*Methods@#Between April 2016 and December 2019, seven patients with parasellar tumor underwent surgiest with a modified orbitozygomatic approach. Surgical procedures, clinical outcomes, and complications were analyzed. @*Results@#This study included 3 meningiomas, 2 pituitary adenomas, 1 chondrosarcoma, and 1 schwannoma. Modified orbitozygomatic craniotomy provides a wider surgical freedom in the opticocarotid and prechiasmatic cistern than frontotemporal craniotomy without orbitotomy, Total, subtotal, and partial resections were achieved for 3, 2, and 2 patients, respectively. Reasons for partial resections were tight adhesion to the carotid artery and encasing of the carotid artery. Permanent morbidities developed in one patient with 3rd nerve palsy and one patient with hemiparesis. @*Conclusion@#Modified orbitozygomatic approach can provide the shortest access to the interpeduncular cistern with a minimum brain retraction. Surgeons who experience surgical challenge during the conventional approach for parasellar tumor resection are recommended to learn the modified orbitozygomatic approach.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913521

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#During diverting ileostomy reversal for rectal cancer patients who underwent previous sphincter-saving surgery, the extent of adhesion formation around the ileostomy site affects operative and postoperative outcomes. Anchoring sutures placed at the time of the ileostomy procedure may reduce adhesions around the ileostomy. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of anchoring sutures on the degree of adhesion formation and the postoperative course at the time of ileostomy reversal. @*Methods@#Patients who underwent sphincter-saving surgery with diverting ileostomy for rectal cancer between January 2013 and December 2017 were enrolled. Variables including the peritoneal adhesion index (PAI) score, operation time, the length of resected small bowel, operative complications, and postoperative hospital stay were collected prospectively and compared between the anchoring group (AG) and non-anchoring group (NAG). @*Results@#A total of 90 patients were included in this study, with 60 and 30 patients in the AG and NAG, respectively. The AG had shorter mean operation time (46.88 ± 16.37 minutes vs. 61.53 ± 19.36 minutes, P = 0.001) and lower mean PAI score (3.02 ± 2.53 vs. 5.80 ± 2.60, P = 0.001), compared with the NAG. There was no significant difference in the incidence of postoperative complications between the AG and NAG (5.0% vs. 13.3%, respectively; P = 0.240). @*Conclusion@#Anchoring sutures at the formation of a diverting ileostomy could decrease the adhesion score and operation time at ileostomy reversal, thus may be effective in improving perioperative outcomes.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903701

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Meta-analyses of randomized trials reported a non-significant increase in overall mortality risk after Helicobacter pylori eradication. In this study, we investigated whether H. pylori treatment is associated with increased risk of overall mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. @*Methods@#In this retrospective population-based cohort study, we identified 66,706 patients treated for type 2 diabetes between 2002 and 2010 from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. Patients who received H. pylori treatment (Hp-treatment cohort, 1,727 patients) were matched to those who did not (non-treatment cohort, 3,454 patients) at a 1:2 ratio. The primary outcome was overall mortality. The secondary outcomes were mortalities due to cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, or cancers. To estimate hazard ratio (HR) with confidential interval (CI), we used the Cox proportional-hazard model. @*Results@#During a median follow-up of 4.7 years, the overall mortality was 5.9% (101/1,727 patients) among patients in the Hp-treatment cohort and 7.6% (364/3,454 patients) among patients in the non-treatment cohort. Adjusted HR (aHR) for overall mortality in the Hp-treatment cohort was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.59 to 0.93; p = 0.011). The mortality risks due to cardiovascular disease (aHR, 1.34; 95% CI, 0.54 to 3.30; p = 0.529), cerebrovascular disease (aHR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.37 to 2.55; p = 0.947), and cancer (aHR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.72; p = 0.742) were not significantly different between the groups. @*Conclusions@#In type 2 diabetes patients, overall mortality did not increase after H. pylori treatment.

6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902129

ABSTRACT

Background/Objectives@#To evaluate clinical significance of FDG PET-CT for detection of residual cancer cells after curative radiation therapy or chemoradiotherapy for patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of Head and NeckMaterials & Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients with SCC of Head and neck with curative radiotherapy or chemoradiotherpy between June 2011 and Jan. 2019 was performed. Sixty patients were treated with Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The Metabolic responses were evaluated on the post-treatment FDG PET-CT at 12 weeks after curative radiotherapy completion. @*Results@#Median follow up was 51.5 months (3-102). The overall survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS), local control rate (LCR), and Distant metastasis free survival (DMFS) at 5 years were 80.5%, 80.1%, 87.7% and 89.1%. Metabolic CR was found in 43 (71.7%) and partial metabolic response (PR) was noted in 17 (14.6%). Metabolic CR was significantly correlated with OS, DFS, LCR, and DMFS. On multivariate analysis, Metabolic CR remained significant for DFS and LCR. @*Conclusion@#Metabolic CR on post-radiotherapy FDG PET-CT is highly predictive of increased DFS and LCR in patients with head and neck cancer.

7.
Gut and Liver ; : 723-731, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898474

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study examined the long-term outcomes of undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer (UD EGC) with positive horizontal margins (HMs) after endoscopic resection (ER) and compared them between additional surgery and nonsurgical management. @*Methods@#From 2005 to 2015, a total of 1,124 patients with UD EGC underwent ER at 18 tertiary hospitals in Korea. Of them, 92 patients with positive HMs as the only noncurative factor (n=25) or with both positive HMs and tumor size >2 cm (n=67) were included. These patients underwent additional surgery (n=40), underwent additional endoscopic treatment (n=6), or were followed up without further treatment (n=46). @*Results@#No lymph node (LN) metastasis was found in patients who underwent additional surgery. During a median follow-up of 57.7 months (interquartile range, 27.6 to 68.8 months), no LN or distant metastases or gastric cancer-related deaths occurred in the overall cohort. At baseline, the residual cancer rate was 57.8% (26/45) after additional surgery or ER. The 5-year local recurrence rate was 33.6% among patients who were followed up without additional treatment. The 5-year overall survival rates were 95.0% and 87.8% after additional surgery and nonsurgical management (endoscopic treatment or close follow-up), respectively (log-rank p=0.224). In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, nonsurgical management was not associated with an increased risk of mortality. @*Conclusions@#UD EGC with positive HMs after ER may have favorable long-term outcomes and a very low risk of LN metastasis. Nonsurgical management may be suggested as an alternative, particularly for patients with old age or chronic illness.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898119

ABSTRACT

BackgroundOnly few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).MethodsFrom March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated.ResultsIn total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9±14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, −1.1%±1.2%; PPConclusionThis study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897407

ABSTRACT

Background@#There have been no guidelines for the management of adult patients with diffuse midline glioma (DMG), H3K27M-mutant in Korea since the 2016 revised WHO classification newly defined this disease entity. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, had begun preparing guidelines for DMG since 2019. @*Methods@#The Working Group was composed of 27 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea.References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. As ‘diffuse midline glioma’ was recently defined, and there was no international guideline, trials and guidelines of ‘diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma’ or ‘brain stem glioma’ were thoroughly reviewed first. @*Results@#The core contents are as follows. The DMG can be diagnosed when all of the following three criteria are satisfied: the presence of the H3K27M mutation, midline location, and infiltrating feature. Without identification of H3K27M mutation by diagnostic biopsy, DMG cannot be diagnosed. For the primary treatment, maximal safe resection should be considered for tumors when feasible. Radiotherapy is the primary option for tumors in case the total resection is not possible. A total dose of 54 Gy to 60 Gy with conventional fractionation prescribed at 1-2 cm plus gross tumor volume is recommended. Although no chemotherapy has proven to be effective in DMG, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (± maintenance chemotherapy) with temozolomide following WHO grade IV glioblastoma’s protocol is recommended. @*Conclusion@#The detection of H3K27M mutation is the most important diagnostic criteria for DMG. Combination of surgery (if amenable to surgery), radiotherapy, and chemotherapy based on comprehensive multidisciplinary discussion can be considered as the treatment options for DMG.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897406

ABSTRACT

Background@#To date, there has been no practical guidelines for the prescription of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in brain tumor patients in Korea. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, had begun preparing guidelines for AED usage in brain tumors since 2019. @*Methods@#The Working Group was composed of 27 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea.References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of the keywords. @*Results@#The core contents are as follows. Prophylactic AED administration is not recommended in newly diagnosed brain tumor patients without previous seizure history. When AEDs are administered during peri/postoperative period, it may be tapered off according to the following recommendations. In seizure-naïve patients with no postoperative seizure, it is recommended to stop or reduce AED 1 week after surgery. In seizure-naïve patients with one early postoperative seizure (<1 week after surgery), it is advisable to maintain AED for at least 3 months before tapering. In seizure-naïve patients with ≥2 postoperative seizures or in patients with preoperative seizure history, it is recommended to maintain AEDs for more than 1 year. The possibility of drug interactions should be considered when selecting AEDs in brain tumor patients. Driving can be allowed in brain tumor patients when proven to be seizure-free for more than 1 year. @*Conclusion@#The KSNO suggests prescribing AEDs in patients with brain tumor based on the current guideline. This guideline will contribute to spreading evidence-based prescription of AEDs in brain tumor patients in Korea.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895997

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Meta-analyses of randomized trials reported a non-significant increase in overall mortality risk after Helicobacter pylori eradication. In this study, we investigated whether H. pylori treatment is associated with increased risk of overall mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. @*Methods@#In this retrospective population-based cohort study, we identified 66,706 patients treated for type 2 diabetes between 2002 and 2010 from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. Patients who received H. pylori treatment (Hp-treatment cohort, 1,727 patients) were matched to those who did not (non-treatment cohort, 3,454 patients) at a 1:2 ratio. The primary outcome was overall mortality. The secondary outcomes were mortalities due to cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, or cancers. To estimate hazard ratio (HR) with confidential interval (CI), we used the Cox proportional-hazard model. @*Results@#During a median follow-up of 4.7 years, the overall mortality was 5.9% (101/1,727 patients) among patients in the Hp-treatment cohort and 7.6% (364/3,454 patients) among patients in the non-treatment cohort. Adjusted HR (aHR) for overall mortality in the Hp-treatment cohort was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.59 to 0.93; p = 0.011). The mortality risks due to cardiovascular disease (aHR, 1.34; 95% CI, 0.54 to 3.30; p = 0.529), cerebrovascular disease (aHR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.37 to 2.55; p = 0.947), and cancer (aHR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.72; p = 0.742) were not significantly different between the groups. @*Conclusions@#In type 2 diabetes patients, overall mortality did not increase after H. pylori treatment.

12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894425

ABSTRACT

Background/Objectives@#To evaluate clinical significance of FDG PET-CT for detection of residual cancer cells after curative radiation therapy or chemoradiotherapy for patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of Head and NeckMaterials & Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients with SCC of Head and neck with curative radiotherapy or chemoradiotherpy between June 2011 and Jan. 2019 was performed. Sixty patients were treated with Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The Metabolic responses were evaluated on the post-treatment FDG PET-CT at 12 weeks after curative radiotherapy completion. @*Results@#Median follow up was 51.5 months (3-102). The overall survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS), local control rate (LCR), and Distant metastasis free survival (DMFS) at 5 years were 80.5%, 80.1%, 87.7% and 89.1%. Metabolic CR was found in 43 (71.7%) and partial metabolic response (PR) was noted in 17 (14.6%). Metabolic CR was significantly correlated with OS, DFS, LCR, and DMFS. On multivariate analysis, Metabolic CR remained significant for DFS and LCR. @*Conclusion@#Metabolic CR on post-radiotherapy FDG PET-CT is highly predictive of increased DFS and LCR in patients with head and neck cancer.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889703

ABSTRACT

Background@#There have been no guidelines for the management of adult patients with diffuse midline glioma (DMG), H3K27M-mutant in Korea since the 2016 revised WHO classification newly defined this disease entity. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, had begun preparing guidelines for DMG since 2019. @*Methods@#The Working Group was composed of 27 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea.References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. As ‘diffuse midline glioma’ was recently defined, and there was no international guideline, trials and guidelines of ‘diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma’ or ‘brain stem glioma’ were thoroughly reviewed first. @*Results@#The core contents are as follows. The DMG can be diagnosed when all of the following three criteria are satisfied: the presence of the H3K27M mutation, midline location, and infiltrating feature. Without identification of H3K27M mutation by diagnostic biopsy, DMG cannot be diagnosed. For the primary treatment, maximal safe resection should be considered for tumors when feasible. Radiotherapy is the primary option for tumors in case the total resection is not possible. A total dose of 54 Gy to 60 Gy with conventional fractionation prescribed at 1-2 cm plus gross tumor volume is recommended. Although no chemotherapy has proven to be effective in DMG, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (± maintenance chemotherapy) with temozolomide following WHO grade IV glioblastoma’s protocol is recommended. @*Conclusion@#The detection of H3K27M mutation is the most important diagnostic criteria for DMG. Combination of surgery (if amenable to surgery), radiotherapy, and chemotherapy based on comprehensive multidisciplinary discussion can be considered as the treatment options for DMG.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889702

ABSTRACT

Background@#To date, there has been no practical guidelines for the prescription of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in brain tumor patients in Korea. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, had begun preparing guidelines for AED usage in brain tumors since 2019. @*Methods@#The Working Group was composed of 27 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea.References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of the keywords. @*Results@#The core contents are as follows. Prophylactic AED administration is not recommended in newly diagnosed brain tumor patients without previous seizure history. When AEDs are administered during peri/postoperative period, it may be tapered off according to the following recommendations. In seizure-naïve patients with no postoperative seizure, it is recommended to stop or reduce AED 1 week after surgery. In seizure-naïve patients with one early postoperative seizure (<1 week after surgery), it is advisable to maintain AED for at least 3 months before tapering. In seizure-naïve patients with ≥2 postoperative seizures or in patients with preoperative seizure history, it is recommended to maintain AEDs for more than 1 year. The possibility of drug interactions should be considered when selecting AEDs in brain tumor patients. Driving can be allowed in brain tumor patients when proven to be seizure-free for more than 1 year. @*Conclusion@#The KSNO suggests prescribing AEDs in patients with brain tumor based on the current guideline. This guideline will contribute to spreading evidence-based prescription of AEDs in brain tumor patients in Korea.

15.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 245-255, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835770

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Recently, non-exposure simple suturing endoscopic full-thickness resection (NESSEFTR) was developed to prevent tumor exposure to the peritoneal cavity. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of NESS-EFTR with sentinel basin dissection for early gastric cancer (EGC). @*Materials and Methods@#This was the prospective SENORITA 3 pilot. From July 2017 to January 2018, 20 patients with EGC smaller than 3 cm without an absolute indication for endoscopic submucosal dissection were enrolled. The sentinel basin was detected using Tc 99m -phytate and indocyanine green, and the NESS-EFTR procedure was performed when all sentinel basin nodes were tumor-free on frozen pathologic examination. We evaluated the complete resection and intraoperative perforation rates as well as the incidence of postoperative complications. @*Results@#Among the 20 enrolled patients, one dropped out due to large tumor size, while another underwent conventional laparoscopic gastrectomy due to metastatic sentinel lymph nodes. All NESS-EFTR procedures were performed in 17 of the 18 other patients (94.4%) without conversion, and the complete resection rate was 83.3% (15/18). The intraoperative perforation rate was 27.8% (5/18), and endoscopic clipping or laparoscopic suturing or stapling was performed at the perforation site. There was one case of postoperative complications treated with endoscopic clipping; the others were discharged without any event. @*Conclusions@#NESS-EFTR with sentinel basin dissection is a technically challenging procedure that obtains safe margins, prevents intraoperative perforation, and may be a treatment option for EGC after additional experience.

16.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 165-175, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835757

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The guidelines for pathological evaluation of early gastric cancer (EGC) recommend wider section intervals for surgical specimens (5–7 mm) than those for endoscopically resected specimens (2–3 mm). Studies in surgically resected EGC specimens showed not negligible lymph node metastasis risks in EGCs meeting the expanded criteria for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). @*Materials and Methods@#This retrospective study included 401 EGC lesions with an endoscopic size of ≤ 30 mm detected in 386 patients. Pathological specimens obtained by ESD or surgery were cut into 2-mm section intervals for reference. Submucosal or lymphovascular invasion (LVI) was evaluated arbitrarily in 4- or 6-mm section intervals. McNemar's tests compared the differences between submucosal and LVI. @*Results@#Submucosal invasion was detected in 29.2% (117/401) and LVI in 9.5% (38/401) at 2-mm interval. The submucosal invasion detection rates in 4-mm intervals decreased to 88.0% or 90.6% (both P<0.001), while the LVI detection rates decreased to 86.8% or 57.9% (P=0.025 and P<0.001, respectively). In 6-mm intervals, the submucosal and LVI detection rates decreased further to 72.7–80.3% (P<0.001 for all three sets) and 55.3–63.2% (P<0.001 for all three sets), respectively. Among 150 out-of-indication cases at 2-mm interval, 4–10 (2.7%–6.7%) at 4-mm intervals, and 10–17 (6.7%–11.3%) at 6-mm intervals were misclassified as lesions meeting the curative resection criteria due to the underestimation of submucosal or LVI. @*Conclusions@#After ESD, the 2-mm wide section interval was suitable for the pathological evaluation of focal submucosal or LVI. Thus, if an EGC lesion meets the expanded criteria for the ESD specimen pathological evaluation, it could be safely followed up.

17.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835573

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Autophagy is known to be associated with pathogen infection. However, the expression of autophagy-related proteins has not been studied in chronic otitis media without cholesteatoma (COM) or with cholesteatoma (CholeOM). This study aimed to determine whether there is a difference between COM and CholeOM in autophagy-related gene mRNA expression. @*Subjects and Methods@#For 47 patients with chronic otitis media, the inflammatory tissues were classified into granulation tissue (COM) or cholesteatoma (CholeOM) according to biopsy results. @*Results@#PI3K mRNA expression (COM vs. CholeOM, mean±SD, 0.009±0.010 vs. 0.003±0.004; p=0.004) was lower, whereas Beclin-1 mRNA expression (0.089±0.107 vs. 0.176±0.163; p=0.034) was higher in the CholeOM group. Expression of PI3K mRNA in the CholeOM group was lower than that in the COM subgroups with presence of bacteria (0.022±0.019 vs. 0.001±0.001; p=0.001), otorrhea (0.049±0.068 vs. 0.003±0.004; p=0.004), and hearing loss over 40 dB (0.083±0.130 vs. 0.003±0.004; p=0.005). @*Conclusions@#The data suggested that different autophagy proteins play important roles in chronic otitis media according to the presence or absence of cholesteatoma.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891538

ABSTRACT

Metformin is a widely used first-line anti-diabetic drug worldwide. Epidemiologic studies using the large population-based cohort database have shown the association between metformin uses and reduced risk of various type cancers including gastric cancer. In the gastric cancer prevention, metformin use was associated with the significant reduction of gastric cancer risk, especially for long-term metformin users. However, there is no well-designed randomized controlled clinical trial investigating the effect of metformin as a chemopreventive drug for gastric cancer. Therefore, further well-designed clinical trials will be needed to implement metformin for chemoprevention of gastric cancer.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811108

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The rare incidence of isolated para-aortic lymph node (PALN) recurrence of colorectal cancer has precluded the formulation of treatment guidelines. This study evaluated and compared the effects of different treatment modalities on survival outcomes in patients with PALN recurrence.METHODS: Patients diagnosed with isolated PALN recurrence after curative resection for primary colorectal cancer from January 2004 to December 2014 were evaluated retrospectively. Patients with isolated recurrence were selected using imaging modalities. Overall survival (OS) and survival after recurrence (SAR) were analyzed and compared between different treatments using the Kaplan-Meier method.RESULTS: The median OS was 64 months with a median follow-up time of 50 months. Of the 46 patients with PALN recurrence, 35 (76.1%) had isolated recurrences. Of these 35 patients, 16 underwent PALN resection and 19 received chemotherapy. Median SAR was significantly longer in patients who did than did not undergo resection (71 months vs. 39 months, P = 0.017). Median OS tended to be longer in patients who did than did not undergo resection (77 months vs. 62 months, P = 0.055). SAR was similar in patients who received radiotherapy and those who underwent resection (34 months vs. 46 months, P = 0.146). Three of 16 patients (18.8%) who underwent resection were found to be recurrence-free.CONCLUSION: Surgical resection of isolated PALN recurrence may benefit patients, with favorable survival outcomes and by providing definitive diagnosis for proper treatment planning.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Methods , Mortality , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
20.
Gut and Liver ; : 47-56, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833105

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#A meta-analysis of randomized trials performed in healthy asymptomatic individuals suggested that overall mortality may increase after Helicobacter pylori eradication despite a significant decrease in the gastric cancer incidence and mortality rates. This retrospective population-based cohort study investigated if H. pylori treatment is associated with an increase in overall mortality in patients with hypertension. @*Methods@#From the database of the Korean National Health Insurance Sample Cohort, we selected 198,487 patients treated for hypertension between 2002 and 2010. Those who received H. pylori treatment (H. pylori treatment cohort, 5,541 patients) were matched to those who did not (nontreatment cohort, 11,082 patients) at the ratio of 1 to 2. The primary outcome was the risk of overall mortality. The secondary outcomes were the risks of mortality due to cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, and cancer. The outcomes were evaluated from 6 months after H. pylori treatment to December 2013. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs). @*Results@#During a median follow-up period of 4.8 years, death from any cause was reported in 4.1% of the patients in the H. pylori treatment cohort and 5.5% of the patients in the nontreatment cohort. The adjusted HR (aHR) for overall mortality in the H. pylori treatment cohort was 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60 to 0.82; p<0.001). With regard to cause-specific mortality, compared with the nontreatment cohort, the H. pylori treatment cohort had a lower risk of mortality due to cerebrovascular disease (aHR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.81; p=0.007). The risks of mortality due to cancer and cardiovascular disease were not different between the cohorts. @*Conclusions@#H. pylori treatment is not associated with an increase in overall mortality in patients treated for hypertension.

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