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1.
Allergy, Asthma & Respiratory Disease ; : 193-201, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999253

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Asthma phenotypes are often defined by relative cell counts of airway granulocytes. Induced sputum test results enable clinicians to determine the inflammatory phenotype of asthma based on the eosinophil and neutrophil counts. This study aimed to investigate clinical characteristics of patients with asthma according to the inflammatory phenotype of their condition. @*Methods@#Data from 107 patients with asthma reported at a single tertiary allergy center in Korea during October 2016 to January 2019 were obtained. Patients were categorized into 4 asthma phenotypes based on the cell counts on the induced sputum test: eosinophilic, neutrophilic, mixed, and paucigranulocytic types. Blood eosinophil count, total IgE level, eosinophil cationic protein, spirometric measurements, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, atopy based on the skin prick test, PC20 (provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second) in methacholine provocation test, type of asthma controller used, frequency of exacerbation, and use of systemic corticosteroids were examined. @*Results@#The frequency of phenotype is as follows: eosinophilic (21.4%), neutrophilic (34.8%), mixed (13.4%), and paucigranulocytic types (30.4%). During the observation period, the proportion of patients who experienced an exacerbation and received systemic glucocorticosteroids were significantly lower in patients with the paucigranulocytic type of asthma than in those with the mixed type of asthma (6.3% vs. 40.0%; P = 0.007 and 5.9% vs. 40.0%; P = 0.004, respectively). @*Conclusion@#Paucigranulocytic asthma may be associated with lower incidence rates of asthma exacerbation and systemic corticosteroid use than the other phenotypes, classified according to induced sputum test results.

2.
Allergy, Asthma & Respiratory Disease ; : 40-44, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785348

ABSTRACT

Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are severe cutaneous adverse reactions. Although viral reactivation is associated with DRESS syndrome, its role in TEN remains unclear. An 80-year-old woman visited our hospital because of fever and skin eruption. DRESS syndrome was diagnosed and was thought to caused by the use of the drug allopurinol. She was treated by discontinuation of the drug and administration of systemic steroids. She recovered from DRESS syndrome and was discharged from the hospital with tapering doses of steroids prescribed. One week after discharge, she visited our hospital again as the skin rash recurred and oral pain as well as oral and ocular mucosal lesions developed. In addition to the skin rash, blisters and Nikolsky's sign that were different from the skin lesions present in the previous DRESS syndrome were observed. Unlike those in DRESS syndrome, the viral serological test results were positive for anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM and CMV polymerase chain reaction. Therefore, it was thought that TEN was due to reactivation of CMV and she was treated this with ganciclovir and intravenous immunoglobulin. Here, we report a case of TEN caused by viral reactivation after DRESS syndrome developed after use of allopurinol which recovered after steroid treatment.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Allopurinol , Blister , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Cytomegalovirus , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome , Eosinophilia , Exanthema , Fever , Ganciclovir , Immunoglobulin M , Immunoglobulins , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serologic Tests , Skin , Steroids , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
3.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 496-506, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811063

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Anaphylaxis is an immediate allergic reaction characterized by potentially life-threatening, severe, systemic manifestations. While studies have evaluated links between serious illness and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), few have investigated PTSD after anaphylaxis in adults. We sought to investigate the psychosocial burden of recent anaphylaxis in Korean adults.METHODS: A total of 203 (mean age of 44 years, 120 females) patients with anaphylaxis were recruited from 15 university hospitals in Korea. Questionnaires, including the Impact of Event Scale-Revised-Korean version (IES-R-K), the Korean version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (K-BAI), and the Korean version of the Beck Depression Inventory (K-BDI), were administered. Demographic characteristics, causes and clinical features of anaphylaxis, and serum inflammatory markers, including tryptase, platelet-activating factor, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and C-reactive protein, were evaluated.RESULTS: PTSD (IES-R-K ≥ 25) was noted in 84 (41.4%) patients with anaphylaxis. Of them, 56.0% had severe PTSD (IES-R-K ≥ 40). Additionally, 23.2% and 28.1% of the patients had anxiety (K-BAI ≥ 22) and depression (K-BDI ≥ 17), respectively. IES-R-K was significantly correlated with both K-BAI (r = 0.609, P < 0.0001) and K-BDI (r = 0.550, P < 0.0001). Among the inflammatory mediators, tryptase levels were lower in patients exhibiting PTSD; meanwhile, platelet-activating factor levels were lower in patients exhibiting anxiety and depression while recovering from anaphylaxis. In multivariate analysis, K-BAI and K-BDI were identified as major predictive variables of PTSD in patients with anaphylaxis.CONCLUSIONS: In patients with anaphylaxis, we found a remarkably high prevalence of PTSD and associated psychological distresses, including anxiety and depression. Physicians ought to be aware of the potential for psychological distress in anaphylactic patients and to consider psychological evaluation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Anaphylaxis , Anxiety , C-Reactive Protein , Depression , Hospitals, University , Hypersensitivity , Interleukin-6 , Korea , Multivariate Analysis , Necrosis , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Tryptases
4.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1050-1057, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919146

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Peripheral eosinophilia during tuberculosis (TB) treatment is common, but has not been fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and clinical significance of peripheral blood eosinophilia in patients undergoing anti-TB treatment.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and laboratory data of patients who received anti-TB treatment and had peripheral blood eosinophilia (> 5% of the total white blood cell count) at the Chonnam National University Hospital between January 2010 and December 2014.@*RESULTS@#Of all 2,234 patients with TB who received anti-TB treatment, 397 (17.8%) had peripheral blood eosinophilia. Of the 397 with eosinophilia, we reviewed the data of 262 (66%), and cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADRs) were observed in 161 (61.5%). Of the 161 with CADRs, itching (47.2%) and skin rash (47.8%) were common. Older age, abnormal liver function, and higher peak blood eosinophil percentage were associated with CADRs in multivariate analysis. There was a significant relationship between increased peak eosinophil counts and the degree of severity of CADRs.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Peripheral blood eosinophilia is a relatively common occurrence during anti-TB treatment. Peripheral blood eosinophil counts were higher according to the degree of severity of CADRs.

5.
Allergy, Asthma & Respiratory Disease ; : 142-149, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762191

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to analyze the frequency of eosinophilia-associated diseases and to search for possible markers that may be useful for their differential diagnosis. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 148 patients with peripheral blood eosinophil count of more than 500/µL who visited the Allergy Department of Chonnam National University Hospital for the first time from January to December 2016. Blood eosinophilia was categorized as mild (5,000/µL). RESULTS: Blood eosinophilia was mostly caused by allergic diseases (41.9%), parasitic infestation (23.6%), and drug allergy (19.6%). Eosinophil count was higher in patients with parasitic infestation (P<0.01), drug allergy (P<0.01), hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES, P<0.001), or eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA, P<0.001) than in those with allergic diseases. The eosinophilic cationic protein level was higher in patients with HES than in those with allergic diseases (P<0.05) and parasitic infestation (P<0.05). The total IgE level was lower in patients with HES than in those with parasitic infestation (P<0.05) and EGPA (P<0.05). The vitamin B12 level was higher in patients with HES than in those with parasitic infestation (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in tryptase levels between the groups. The most common cause of mild eosinophilia was allergic diseases (59.8%), followed by parasitic infestation (22.7%) and drug allergy (13.4%). The common causes of moderate eosinophilia were drug allergy (37.8%), parasitic infestation (29.7%), and allergic diseases (10.8%). The common causes of severe eosinophilia were EGPA (28.6%), HES (21.4%), parasitic infestation (14.3%), and drug allergy (14.3%). CONCLUSION: Common causes of blood eosinophilia in patients who visit the allergy department are allergic diseases, parasitic infestation, and drug allergy. Several markers, including eosinophil count, total IgE, and vitamin B12, may be useful for the differential diagnosis of eosinophilia-associated diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diagnosis, Differential , Drug Hypersensitivity , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis , Hypereosinophilic Syndrome , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin E , Medical Records , Parasitic Diseases , Retrospective Studies , Tryptases , Vitamin B 12
6.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 441-442, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739403

ABSTRACT

This erratum is being published to correct the error on page 650 of the article. The number of participating research institution should be corrected.

7.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 212-221, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739400

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are common cause of severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs). The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics of SCARs induced by NSAIDs in the Korean SCAR registry. METHODS: A retrospective survey of NSAID-induced SCARs recorded between 2010 and 2015 at 27 university hospitals in Korea was conducted. Clinical phenotypes of SCARs were classified into Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), SJS-TEN overlap syndrome and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). Causative NSAIDs were classified into 7 groups according to their chemical properties: acetaminophen, and propionic, acetic, salicylic, fenamic and enolic acids. RESULTS: A total of 170 SCARs, consisting of 85 SJS, 32 TEN, 17 SJS-TEN overlap syndrome and 36 DRESS reactions, were induced by NSAIDs: propionic acids (n=68), acetaminophen (n=38), acetic acids (n=23), salicylic acids (n=16), coxibs (n=8), fenamic acids (n=7), enolic acids (n=5) and unclassified (n=5). Acetic acids (22%) and coxibs (14%) accounted for higher portions of DRESS than other SCARs. The phenotypes of SCARs induced by both propionic and salicylic acids were similar (SJS, TEN and DRESS, in order). Acetaminophen was primarily associated with SJS (27%) and was less involved in TEN (10%). DRESS occurred more readily among subjects experiencing coxib-induced SCARs than other NSAID-induced SCARs (62.5% vs. 19.7%, P = 0.013). The mean time to symptom onset was longer in DRESS than in SJS or TEN (19.1 ± 4.1 vs. 6.8 ±1.5 vs. 12.1 ± 3.8 days). SCARs caused by propionic salicylic acids showed longer latency, whereas acetaminophen- and acetic acid-induced SCARs appeared within shorter intervals. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicates that the phenotypes of SCARs may differ according to the chemical classifications of NSAIDs. To establish the mechanisms and incidences of NSAID-induced SCARs, further prospective studies are needed.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen , Acetates , Acetic Acid , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Cicatrix , Classification , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors , Diethylpropion , Drug Hypersensitivity , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome , Hospitals, University , Incidence , Korea , Phenotype , Propionates , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Salicylates , Salicylic Acid , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
8.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 241-253, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739397

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCARs) are rare, they are associated with high morbidity and mortality, and thus early diagnosis and treatment are critical for improving prognoses. However, few studies have reported the characteristics of SCARs in children. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics, current management and prognosis of pediatric SCARs. METHODS: We analyzed pediatric data in the Korean SCARs registry, which was built retrospectively in 2016 with SCAR cases treated in 34 tertiary referral university hospitals during 2010–2015. Using these cases, we descriptively analyzed detailed data regarding etiology, clinical and laboratory features, treatment strategies, and prognosis. RESULTS: Forty-seven pediatric SCAR cases from 15 tertiary referral hospitals were included. The median patient age was 10 (interquartile range, 3-15.5) years and 68.1% (n = 32) were males. The culprit drug was identified in 95.7% (n = 45) of the patients; antibiotics (44.7%) and antiepileptic drugs (19.1%) were the most common and second most common culprits, respectively. Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) cases presented with the largest area of skin involvement without permanent sequelae. Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) cases involved relatively small areas of skin but serious sequelae in two children. Of 4 patients with toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), 1 died. Of all patients assessed, 36 (76.6%) received systemic steroids and 21 (44.7%) received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Thirteen (27.7%) received both systemic steroids and IVIG. Cyclosporine was administered to only 1 patient along with a systemic steroid. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with pediatric SCARs, including those with DRESS, SJS and TEN, clinical presentations were variable. Thus, there was no clear continuous disease spectrum. Although the mortality rate was low (2.1%), clinical suspicion may be the best tool for proactive SCAR management.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Male , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anticonvulsants , Cicatrix , Cyclosporine , Drug Eruptions , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Early Diagnosis , Hospitals, University , Immunoglobulins , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Korea , Mortality , Prognosis , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Skin , Steroids , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome , Tertiary Care Centers
9.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 254-266, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739396

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The house dust mite (HDM) is one of the most important sources of indoor allergens and a significant cause of allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Our previous studies demonstrated that Vibrio vulnificus flagellin B (FlaB) plus allergen as a co-treatment mixture improved lung function and inhibited eosinophilic airway inflammation through the Toll-like receptor 5 signaling pathway in an ovalbumin (OVA)- or HDM-induced mouse asthma model. In the present study, we fused the major mite allergen Derp2 to FlaB and compared the therapeutic effects of the Derp2-FlaB fusion protein with those of a mixture of Derp2 and FlaB in a Derp2-induced mouse asthma model. METHODS: BALB/c mice sensitized with Derp2 + HDM were treated with Derp2, a Derp2 plus FlaB (Derp2 + FlaB) mixture, or the Derp2-FlaB fusion protein 3 times at 1-week intervals. Seven days after the final treatment, the mice were challenged intranasally with Derp2, and airway responses and Derp2-specific immune responses were evaluated. RESULTS: The Derp2-FlaB fusion protein was significantly more efficacious in reducing airway hyperresponsiveness, lung eosinophil infiltration, and Derp2-specific IgE than the Derp2 + FlaB mixture. CONCLUSIONS: The Derp2-FlaB fusion protein showed a strong anti-asthma immunomodulatory capacity, leading to the prevention of airway inflammatory responses in a murine disease model through the inhibition of Th2 responses. These findings suggest that the Derp2-FlaB fusion protein would be a promising vaccine candidate for HDM-mediated allergic asthma therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Allergens , Asthma , Eosinophils , Flagellin , Immunoglobulin E , Inflammation , Lung , Mites , Ovalbumin , Pyroglyphidae , Rhinitis, Allergic , Therapeutic Uses , Toll-Like Receptor 5 , Vibrio vulnificus
10.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 709-722, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762152

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), including Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) to antiepileptic drug (AED), are rare, but result in significant morbidity and mortality. We investigated the major culprit drugs, clinical characteristics, and clinical course and outcomes of AED-induced SCARs using a nationwide registry in Korea. METHODS: A total of 161 patients with AED-induced SCARs from 28 referral hospitals were analyzed. The causative AEDs, clinical characteristics, organ involvements, details of treatment, and outcomes were evaluated. We compared the clinical and laboratory parameters between SJS/TEN and DRESS according to the leading causative drugs. We further determined risk factors for prolonged hospitalization in AED-induced SCARs. RESULTS: Carbamazepine and lamotrigine were the most common culprit drugs causing SCARs. Valproic acid and levetiracetam also emerged as the major causative agents. The disease duration and hospital stay in carbamazepine-induced SJS/TEN were shorter than those in other AEDs (P< 0.05, respectively). In younger patients, lamotrigine caused higher incidences of DRESS than other drugs (P= 0.045). Carbamazepine, the most common culprit drug for SCARs, was associated with a favorable outcome related with prolonged hospitalization in SJS (odds ratio, 0.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.63, P= 0.12), and thrombocytopenia was found to be a risk factor for prolonged hospitalization in DRESS. CONCLUSION: This was the first large-scale epidemiological study of AED-induced SCARs in Korea. Valproic acid and levetiracetam were the significant emerging AEDs causing SCARs in addition to the well-known offending AEDs such as carbamazepine and lamotrigine. Carbamazepine was associated with reduced hospitalization, but thrombocytopenia was a risk factor for prolonged hospitalization. Our results suggest that the clinical characteristics and clinical courses of AED-induced SCARs might vary according to the individual AEDs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anticonvulsants , Carbamazepine , Cicatrix , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome , Epidemiologic Studies , Hospitalization , Incidence , Korea , Length of Stay , Mortality , Referral and Consultation , Risk Factors , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome , Thrombocytopenia , Valproic Acid
11.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 960-968, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762036

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Many studies have reported that pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS) can cause anaphylaxis. No comprehensive investigations into anaphylaxis in PFAS have been conducted, however. In this study, we investigated the clinical manifestations and risk factors for anaphylaxis in PFAS in Korean patients with pollinosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from a nationwide cross-sectional study that previously reported on PFAS in Korean patients with pollinosis. Data from 273 patients with PFAS were collected, including demographics, list of culprit fruits and vegetables, and clinical manifestations of food allergy. We analyzed 27 anaphylaxis patients and compared them with patients with PFAS with oropharyngeal symptoms only (n=130). RESULTS: The most common cause of anaphylaxis in PFAS was peanut (33.3%), apple (22.2%), walnut (22.2%), pine nut (18.5%), peach (14.8%), and ginseng (14.8%). Anaphylaxis was significantly associated with the strength of sensitization to alder, hazel, willow, poplar, timothy, and ragweed (p<0.05, respectively). Multivariable analysis revealed that the presence of atopic dermatitis [odds ratio (OR), 3.58; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25–10.23; p=0.017]; sensitization to hazel (OR, 5.27; 95% CI, 1.79–15.53; p=0.003), timothy (OR, 11.8; 95% CI, 2.70–51.64; p=0.001), or ragweed (OR, 3.18; 95% CI, 1.03–9.87; p=0.045); and the number of culprit foods (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.15–1.37; p<0.001) were related to the development of anaphylaxis in PFAS. CONCLUSION: The most common culprit foods causing anaphylaxis in PFAS were peanut and apple. The presence of atopic dermatitis; sensitization to hazel, timothy, or ragweed; and a greater number of culprit foods were risk factors for anaphylaxis in PFAS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alnus , Ambrosia , Anaphylaxis , Arachis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Demography , Dermatitis, Atopic , Food Hypersensitivity , Fruit , Hypersensitivity , Juglans , Nuts , Panax , Pollen , Prunus persica , Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal , Risk Factors , Salix , Vegetables
12.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 43-54, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719513

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although mild to moderate asthma is much more common, the morbidity and mortality of severe asthma are much higher. This study was performed to identify and analyze the clinical characteristics of severe asthma in Korea. METHODS: We registered patients with severe refractory asthma into the Severe Asthma Registry supported by the Severe Asthma Work Group of the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Patients were enrolled since 2010 from the 15 university hospitals nationwide in Korea. Severe asthma was defined according to modified European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society criteria. Information on demographics, medical history, pulmonary function tests and skin prick tests was collected; the clinical characteristics of severe asthmatics were analyzed from the collected data. RESULTS: A total of 489 patients were enrolled with a mean age of 62.3; 45% are male. Sixty percent of patients received Global Initiative for Asthma step 4 treatment, and 30% received step 5 treatment. The most common comorbidities were allergic rhinitis (58.7%). Aspirin hypersensitivity was observed in 14.0%. Approximately half (53.9%) are non-smokers. Atopy was proven in 38.5% of the patients. Regarding asthma medications, inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β-agonist combination inhalers were most commonly prescribed (96.5%), followed by leukotriene antagonists (71.0%). A recombinant anti-immunoglobulin E monoclonal antibody (omalizumab) has been used in 1.8% of the patients. The mean forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/FVC were 78.7%, 67.5% and 67.9% of predicted values, respectively. The mean Asthma Control Test and quality of life questionnaire scores were 16.5 out of 25 and 59.5 out of 85, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The baseline characteristics of severe asthma patients in the Korea Severe Asthma Registry were analyzed and reported for the first time. With this cohort, further prospective studies should be performed to search for ways to improve management of severe refractory asthma.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Allergy and Immunology , Aspirin , Asthma , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Demography , Forced Expiratory Volume , Hospitals, University , Hypersensitivity , Korea , Leukotriene Antagonists , Mortality , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Respiratory Function Tests , Rhinitis, Allergic , Skin , Vital Capacity
13.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 154-157, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742490

ABSTRACT

Chronic urticaria may often be associated with interleukin (IL)-1-mediated autoinflammatory disease, which should be suspected if systemic inflammation signs are present. Here, we report a case of Schnitzler's syndrome without monoclonal gammopathy treated successfully with the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra. A 69-year-old man suffered from a pruritic urticarial rash for 12 years. It became aggravated episodically and was accompanied by high fever, arthralgia, leukocytosis, and an elevated C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The episodes each lasted for over one week. Neutrophilic and eosinophilic inflammation was found on skin biopsy. However, serum and urine electrophoresis showed no evidence of monoclonal gammopathy. The cutaneous lesions were unresponsive to various kinds of anti-histamines, systemic glucocorticoids, colchicine, cyclosporine, dapsone, and methotrexate, which were administered over a span of 3 years immediately preceding successful treatment. A dramatic response, however, was observed after a daily administration of anakinra. This observation suggests that the correct diagnosis of this case is Schnitzler's syndrome without monoclonal gammopathy. For an adult patient with refractory chronic urticaria and systemic inflammation, Schnitzler's syndrome could be considered as a possible differential diagnosis. Although the typical form of Schnitzler's syndrome exhibits the presence of monoclonal gammopathy as a diagnostic criterion, monoclonal gammopathy may be absent in an atypical form. In such a situation, an IL-1 antagonist should be effective for the management of chronic urticaria.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Chronic Disease , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Leukocytes/metabolism , Paraproteinemias/complications , Schnitzler Syndrome/blood , Schnitzler Syndrome/drug therapy , Urticaria/complications
14.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 648-661, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718132

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS) is an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergy in pollinosis patients caused by raw fruits and vegetables and is the most common food allergy in adults. However, there has been no nationwide study on PFAS in Korea. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and clinical characteristics of PFAS in Korea. METHODS: Twenty-two investigators participated in this study, in which patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and/or bronchial asthma with pollen allergy were enrolled. The questionnaires included demographic characteristics, a list of fruits and vegetables, and clinical manifestations of food allergy. Pollen allergy was diagnosed by skin prick test and/or measurement of the serum level of specific IgE. RESULTS: A total of 648 pollinosis patients were enrolled. The prevalence of PFAS was 41.7% (n = 270). PFAS patients exhibited cutaneous (43.0%), respiratory (20.0%), cardiovascular (3.7%) or neurologic symptoms (4.8%) in addition to oropharyngeal symptoms. Anaphylaxis was noted in 8.9% of the PFAS patients. Seventy types of foods were linked to PFAS; e.g., peach (48.5%), apple (46.7%), kiwi (30.4%), peanut (17.4%), plum (16.3%), chestnut (14.8%), pineapple (13.7%), walnut (14.1%), Korean melon (12.6%), tomato (11.9%), melon (11.5%) and apricot (10.7%). Korean foods such as taro/taro stem (8.9%), ginseong (8.2%), perilla leaf (4.4%), bellflower root (4.4%), crown daisy (3.0%), deodeok (3.3%), kudzu root (3.0%) and lotus root (2.6%) were also linked to PFAS. CONCLUSIONS: This was the first nationwide study of PFAS in Korea. The prevalence of PFAS was 41.7%, and 8.9% of the PFAS patients had anaphylaxis. These results will provide clinically useful information to physicians.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Ananas , Anaphylaxis , Arachis , Asthma , Codonopsis , Crowns , Cucurbitaceae , Food Hypersensitivity , Fruit , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Juglans , Korea , Lotus , Solanum lycopersicum , Neurologic Manifestations , Perilla , Pollen , Prevalence , Prunus armeniaca , Prunus domestica , Prunus persica , Pueraria , Research Personnel , Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal , Skin , Vegetables
15.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 429-436, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-163468

ABSTRACT

Recently, the rhinitis work group of the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology developed a practice guideline on allergic rhinitis. The group consisted of physicians, pediatricians, and otolaryngologists. Here, the guideline is adapted for clarity and for ease of use by physicians. To manage allergic rhinitis well, accurate diagnosis is most important. In patients with rhinitis symptoms, the first step is to perform a skin prick test to inhalant allergens, and/or to measure allergen-specific immunoglobulin E in serum. Next, allergic rhinitis should be diagnosed upon documenting the association between positive allergens and rhinitis symptoms, via patient history or allergen nasal provocation test. Allergic rhinitis should be differentiated from non-allergic rhinitis, because treatment modalities differ between the two. Allergic rhinitis should be effectively managed with allergen avoidance, pharmacotherapy, allergen immunotherapy, surgical treatment, and/or saline irrigation. Second-generation antihistamines or leukotriene modifiers may be used for mild-to-moderate forms, and intranasal steroids may be effective for moderate-to-severe forms. Allergic rhinitis is closely associated with asthma. Spirometry should be performed initially for asthma diagnosis, if asthma-like symptoms are present.


Subject(s)
Humans , Allergens , Allergy and Immunology , Asthma , Desensitization, Immunologic , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Histamine Antagonists , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Nasal Provocation Tests , Rhinitis , Rhinitis, Allergic , Skin , Spirometry , Steroids
16.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 257-269, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-206637

ABSTRACT

In order to prevent sensitization to a new allergen and the development of asthma, practitioners may consider allergen-specific immunotherapy in patients with allergic rhinitis. Additionally, in patients with severe allergic rhinitis refractory to medication, practitioners can also consider surgical management for improving the patients' nasal symptoms. However, there are still no practical guidelines regarding the indications for immunotherapy, the appropriate selection of the allergen, and the optimal duration of therapy. Moreover, no clear indications exist for surgical treatment. Pregnant or lactating women frequently complain of symptoms of rhinitis. However, due to the fear of potential complications to their babies, they avoid medical treatment despite significant discomfort. Therefore, we present 14 answers to core questions about immunotherapy, surgical treatment, and considerations for special circumstances, such as pregnancy and lactation.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Asthma , Immunotherapy , Lactation , Rhinitis , Rhinitis, Allergic
17.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 183-193, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-35067

ABSTRACT

The social and economic burden of allergic rhinitis (AR) is increasing, with significant effects on the quality of life of patients suffering from AR. Therefore, physicians require evidence-based guidelines regarding the diagnosis, differential diagnosis and proper management management of patients with AR. The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology developed new clinical guidelines for the appropriate management of AR, especially in Korean patients. For the core questions (i.e. questions that most practitioners were curious about), several experts in the field of allergology, pediatrics, and otorhinolaryngology developed a set of practical guidelines based on a systematic review of the literature. Furthermore, we determined the level of evidence associated with the recommendations for each answer. In this article, we suggest 15 answers for core questions about the medical treatment of AR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Allergy and Immunology , Asthma , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Hypersensitivity , Otolaryngology , Pediatrics , Quality of Life , Rhinitis, Allergic
18.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 265-271, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174158

ABSTRACT

Allergic rhinitis (AR) is one of the most common chronic allergic respiratory diseases worldwide. Various practical guidelines for AR have been developed and updated to improve the care of AR patients; however, up to 40% patients remain symptomatic. The unmet need for AR care is one of the greatest public health problems in the world. The gaps between guideline and real-world practice, and differences according to the region, culture, and medical environments may be the causes of unmet needs for AR care. Because there is no evidence-based AR practical guideline reflecting the Korean particularity, various needs are increasing. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether existing guidelines are sufficient for AR patient management in real practice and whether development of regional guidelines to reflect regional differences is needed in Korea. A total of 99 primary physicians comprising internists, pediatricians, and otolaryngologists (n=33 for each) were surveyed by a questionnaire relating to unmet needs for AR care between June 2 and June 16 of 2014. Among 39 question items, participants strongly agreed on 15 items that existing guidelines were highly insufficient and needed new guidelines. However, there was some disagreement according to specialties for another 24 items. In conclusion, the survey results demonstrated that many physicians did not agree with the current AR guideline, and a new guideline reflecting Korean particularity was needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Korea , Needs Assessment , Public Health , Rhinitis, Allergic
19.
Allergy, Asthma & Respiratory Disease ; : 175-176, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-145715

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Rhinitis
20.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 81-88, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129452

ABSTRACT

As the prevalence and socioeconomic burden of allergic rhinitis is steadily increasing every year, it is essential that clinical practitioners diagnose and manage allergic rhinitis in an evidence-based manner. Therefore, the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology developed new clinical guidelines for Korean patients and practitioners. We first performed a questionnaire survey to address the core questions, about which clinical practitioners are the most curious. A large group of physicians (allergists), pediatricians, and otorhinolaryngologists developed answers for those questions by performing a systematic literature review and determining the appropriate levels of recommendation. In this article, we propose 11 answers for core questions regarding the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of allergic rhinitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Allergy and Immunology , Asthma , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Hypersensitivity , Prevalence , Rhinitis, Allergic
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