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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915724

ABSTRACT

Despite recent advances in next-generation sequencing, the underlying etiology of adult-onset leukoencephalopathy has been difficult to elucidate. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a representative hereditary adult-onset leukoencephalopathy associated with vasculopathy. Leukoencephalopathy in spastic paraplegia type 4 (SPG4) is known to be rare, but it might be underestimated because most spastic paraplegia with leukoencephalopathy is rarely considered. We report a case of co-occurring SPG4 and CADASIL. A 61-year-old male presented with sudden visual impairment after a headache. He showed a spastic gait and had a family history with similar symptoms. An SPG4 gene mutation and a pathogenic variant in the NOTCH3 gene were found. This case shows that the diverse and complex clinical manifestations of patients with extensive leukoencephalopathy are related to more than one gene mutation. We also suggest the necessity for relevant genetic tests in the diagnosis of adult-onset leukoencephalopathy.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926444

ABSTRACT

Rosai–Dorfman Disease (RDD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disease, and the occurrence of isolated intracranial RDD is extremely rare. Most cases of intracranial RDDs present as dural masses showing homogenous enhancement on MRI, which makes it difficult to differentiate these masses from meningiomas before surgery unless massive cervical lymphadenopathy is observed. We herein report a rare case of isolated intracranial RDD in a 65-year-old male. Brain MRI revealed a well-defined enhancing mass-like lesion involving the right frontal convexity and subtle diffusion restriction. However, only a subtle blush was observed on the preoperative cerebral angiogram. Although instances of isolated intracranial RDD are rare, it should be considered as a potential differential diagnosis when a dural mass with hypovascularity is visualized on the cerebral angiogram.

3.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1341-1351, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902414

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To compare the quality of various polychromatic and monochromatic images with or without using an iterative metal artifact reduction algorithm (iMAR) obtained from a dual-energy computed tomography (CT) to evaluate total knee arthroplasty. @*Materials and Methods@#We included 58 patients (28 male and 30 female; mean age [range], 71.4 [61–83] years) who underwent 74 knee examinations after total knee arthroplasty using dual-energy CT. CT image sets consisted of polychromatic image sets that linearly blended 80 kVp and tin-filtered 140 kVp using weighting factors of 0.4, 0, and -0.3, and monochromatic images at 130, 150, 170, and 190 keV. These image sets were obtained with and without applying iMAR, creating a total of 14 image sets. Two readers qualitatively ranked the image quality (1 [lowest quality] through 14 [highest quality]). Volumes of high- and low-density artifacts and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) between the bone and fat tissue were quantitatively measured in a subset of 25 knees unaffected by metal artifacts. @*Results@#iMAR-applied, polychromatic images using weighting factors of -0.3 and 0.0 (P-0.3i and P0.0i, respectively) showed the highest image-quality rank scores (median of 14 for both by one reader and 13 and 14, respectively, by the other reader;p < 0.001). All iMAR-applied image series showed higher rank scores than the iMAR-unapplied ones. The smallest volumes of low-density artifacts were found in P-0.3i, P0.0i, and iMAR-applied monochromatic images at 130 keV. The smallest volumes of high-density artifacts were noted in P-0.3i. The CNRs were best in polychromatic images using a weighting factor of 0.4 with or without iMAR application, followed by polychromatic images using a weighting factor of 0.0 with or without iMAR application. @*Conclusion@#Polychromatic images combined with iMAR application, P-0.3i and P0.0i, provided better image qualities and substantial metal artifact reduction compared with other image sets.

4.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1341-1351, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894710

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To compare the quality of various polychromatic and monochromatic images with or without using an iterative metal artifact reduction algorithm (iMAR) obtained from a dual-energy computed tomography (CT) to evaluate total knee arthroplasty. @*Materials and Methods@#We included 58 patients (28 male and 30 female; mean age [range], 71.4 [61–83] years) who underwent 74 knee examinations after total knee arthroplasty using dual-energy CT. CT image sets consisted of polychromatic image sets that linearly blended 80 kVp and tin-filtered 140 kVp using weighting factors of 0.4, 0, and -0.3, and monochromatic images at 130, 150, 170, and 190 keV. These image sets were obtained with and without applying iMAR, creating a total of 14 image sets. Two readers qualitatively ranked the image quality (1 [lowest quality] through 14 [highest quality]). Volumes of high- and low-density artifacts and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) between the bone and fat tissue were quantitatively measured in a subset of 25 knees unaffected by metal artifacts. @*Results@#iMAR-applied, polychromatic images using weighting factors of -0.3 and 0.0 (P-0.3i and P0.0i, respectively) showed the highest image-quality rank scores (median of 14 for both by one reader and 13 and 14, respectively, by the other reader;p < 0.001). All iMAR-applied image series showed higher rank scores than the iMAR-unapplied ones. The smallest volumes of low-density artifacts were found in P-0.3i, P0.0i, and iMAR-applied monochromatic images at 130 keV. The smallest volumes of high-density artifacts were noted in P-0.3i. The CNRs were best in polychromatic images using a weighting factor of 0.4 with or without iMAR application, followed by polychromatic images using a weighting factor of 0.0 with or without iMAR application. @*Conclusion@#Polychromatic images combined with iMAR application, P-0.3i and P0.0i, provided better image qualities and substantial metal artifact reduction compared with other image sets.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875132

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We evaluated the risk factors for progression to chronic complicated bronchopleural fistula (BPF) after pulmonary resection using follow-up CT. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed 45 cases with BPF that had undergone pulmonary resection during 2010-2018. We compared the clinical and radiological characteristics of those with complicated BPF (n = 24) and those without complicated (sterilized) BPF (n = 21). The clinical and radiological risk factors for progression to chronic complicated BPF were examined by logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#The thickness of the pleural cavity wall (p = 0.022), the size of the pleural cavity (p = 0.029), and the size increase of BPF on follow-up (p = 0.012) were significantly different between the two groups. The risk factors for progression to chronic complicated BPF were age > 70 years (odds ratio, 6.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.2–33.7), the thickness of the cavity wall > 5 mm (odds ratio, 52.5; 95% confidence interval, 5.1–545.4), and an increase in the size of the pleural cavity on follow-up CT (odds ratio, 12.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.1–73.5), only in the univariate analysis. @*Conclusion@#The risk factors for progression to chronic complicated BPF can be evaluated using follow-up CT.

6.
Article in 0 | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901268

ABSTRACT

Herein, we report a case of synchronous bilateral triple negative invasive ductal breast carcinoma in a patient with discrepant pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Right and left breast cancer stages at the initial diagnosis were T1cN0M0 and T4dN3aM0, respectively. The patient was identified as a BRCA1 mutation carrier and treated with four cycles of adriamycin and cyclophosphamide, followed by four cycles of docetaxel. Bilateral breast cancer stages decreased with the first regimen. However, the bilateral breast cancers showed discrepant responses to chemotherapy with docetaxel. The right breast cancer showed a continuous tumor volume reduction while the left breast cancer showed marked progression. Finally, the tumor size was 0.3 cm and 12 cm in the right and left mastectomy specimens, respectively. As bilateral breast cancers of the same subtype may show discrepant responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, close monitoring and follow-up imaging are required to avoid delayed surgery.

7.
Article in 0 | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893564

ABSTRACT

Herein, we report a case of synchronous bilateral triple negative invasive ductal breast carcinoma in a patient with discrepant pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Right and left breast cancer stages at the initial diagnosis were T1cN0M0 and T4dN3aM0, respectively. The patient was identified as a BRCA1 mutation carrier and treated with four cycles of adriamycin and cyclophosphamide, followed by four cycles of docetaxel. Bilateral breast cancer stages decreased with the first regimen. However, the bilateral breast cancers showed discrepant responses to chemotherapy with docetaxel. The right breast cancer showed a continuous tumor volume reduction while the left breast cancer showed marked progression. Finally, the tumor size was 0.3 cm and 12 cm in the right and left mastectomy specimens, respectively. As bilateral breast cancers of the same subtype may show discrepant responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, close monitoring and follow-up imaging are required to avoid delayed surgery.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835655

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Microsurgical treatment could be a good alternative for the treatment of recurrent cerebral aneurysm after coil embolization. The purpose of this study was to present our experience of microsurgical treatment for recurrent cerebral aneurysm previously treated using coil embolization. @*Methods@#From June 2012 to May 2019, 34 patients consecutively received microsurgical treatment for a recurrent cerebral aneurysm previously treated using coil embolization after it ruptured. @*Results@#Of the 34 patients with aneurysm, 33 had the aneurysm located in the anterior circulation. The most common location was the anterior communicating artery (13 cases). Immediate radiologic outcome at coil embolization was completed (n=6), residual neck (n=26), and residual sac (n=2). The reason for microsurgical treatment included rebleeding (n=12), persistent residual sac (n=1), and recurrence on follow-up study (n=21). Rebleeding occurred within 10 days after coil embolization in 10 cases, and the other 2 were due to regrowth. In the 20 recurred and saccular aneurysms, coil compaction was present in 11 aneurysms and regrowth in 9 aneurysms. Simple neck clipping (n=29) and clipping with coil mass extraction (n=3) was possible in the saccular aneurysms. The blood blister like aneurysm (n=2) were treated using bypass and endovascular internal carotid artery trapping. In the follow-up study group after microsurgical treatment there were no severe complications due to the treatment. Age, cause of retreatment, and modified Rankin Scale before microsurgery were associated with good outcome (p<0.001). @*Conclusions@#Microsurgical treatment may be a viable and effective option for treating recurrent aneurysms previously treated by endovascular techniques.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835533

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate normal location of the peroneus longus tendon (PL) in the cuboid groove by evaluating it between ankles with no significant abnormality (asymptomatic group) and those with retromalleolar PL dislocation (dislocation group) using three-dimensional isotropic fast spin-echo (3D-FSE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the ankle. @*Materials and Methods@#Thirty-six and 32 3D-FSE ankle MRI were assigned to the asymptomatic group and the dislocation group, respectively. Using multiplanar reformatted 3D-FSE, qualitative PL location (i.e., outside, overlying, and inside in relation to the cuboid groove), quantitative PL location (i.e., distance between the proximal margins of PL and cuboid groove), and cuboid groove size were measured in lateral, middle, and medial levels of the cuboid groove. @*Results@#In the asymptomatic group, 64%, 42%, and 11%, respectively, had the outside or overlying-located PL in lateral, middle, and medial levels of the cuboid groove and the quantitative location gradually decreased from lateral to medial level.Qualitative and quantitative PL locations were not significantly different between the asymptomatic group and dislocation group. Cuboid groove size showed significant negative correlation with quantitative PL location in both groups. @*Conclusion@#Outside- or overlying-located PL in lateral and middle levels of the cuboid groove would be a normal finding, regardless of PL status at the retromalleolar level.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832823

ABSTRACT

True pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysms are relatively rare, approximately 50% of which are associated with stenosis or occlusion of the celiac axis. It is imperative to treat the condition immediately after diagnosis, considering that its rupture has a mortality rate of approximately 50%. The current most commonly used method to treat pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysms is transcatheter arterial embolization. Here, we report three cases of embolization of inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm with celiac stenosis or occlusion along with a literature review.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916717

ABSTRACT

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated vasculopathy comprises several forms of arteriopathy without evidence of a secondary cause. HIV-associated cerebral aneurysmal vasculopathy is a rare condition, but is being increasingly recognized. Herein, we report a case of HIV-associated multiple cerebral aneurysmal vasculopathy with cerebral infarction in a young adult.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741417

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the image quality, radiation dose, and intermodality agreement of cervical spine CT using spectral shaping at 140 kVp by a tin filter (Sn140-kVp) in comparison with those of conventional CT at 120 kVp. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who had undergone cervical spine CT with Sn140-kVp (n = 58) and conventional 120 kVp (n = 49) were included. Qualitative image quality was analyzed using a 5-point Likert scale. Quantitative image quality was assessed by measuring the noise and attenuation within the central spinal canals at C3/4, C6/7, and C7/T1 levels. Radiation doses received by patients were estimated. The intermodality agreement for disc morphology between CT and MRI was assessed at C3/4, C5/6, C6/7, and C7/T1 levels in 75 patients who had undergone cervical spine MRI as well as CT. RESULTS: Qualitative image quality was significantly superior in Sn140-kVp scans than in the conventional scans (p < 0.001). At C7/T1 level, the noise was significantly lower and the decrease in attenuation was significantly less in Sn140-kVp scans, than in the conventional scans (p < 0.001). Radiation doses were significantly reduced in Sn140-kVp scans by 50% (effective dose: 1.0 ± 0.1 mSv vs. 2.0 ± 0.4 mSv; p < 0.001). Intermodality agreement in the lower cervical spine region tended to be better in Sn140-kVp acquisitions than in the conventional acquisitions. CONCLUSION: Cervical spine CT using Sn140-kVp improves image quality of the lower cervical region without increasing the radiation dose. Thus, this protocol can be helpful to overcome the artifacts in the lower cervical spine CT images.


Subject(s)
Artifacts , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multidetector Computed Tomography , Noise , Spinal Canal , Spine , Tin
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785923

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Selecting an appropriate guiding catheter to provide both sufficient supportability for working devices and sufficient distal navigability is essential for ensuring the success of a procedure. This study aimed to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using the ENVOY 6F distal access (DA) guiding catheter in coil embolization of anterior circulation cerebral aneurysms.METHODS: We included 98 patients (72 [73.5%] women, median age: 63 [range: 25–84] years) who underwent endovascular coiling with the ENVOY 6F DA guiding catheter from May to November 2016. We analyzed data on patient demographics and the number of co-axial techniques to position the guiding catheter, initial and final location of the catheter, and complications related to the catheter.RESULTS: The co-axial technique was used to position the ENVOY 6F DA guiding catheter in the internal carotid artery (ICA) in 20 cases (20.41%). The initial position of the ENVOY 6F DA guiding catheter involved the cervical ICA (79.6%), horizontal petrous ICA (17.3%), and vertical petrous ICA (3.1%). Final control angiograms after endovascular coiling showed proximal change in the final, compared to the initial, position of the ENVOY 6F DA guiding catheter in 25 cases (25.51%). Procedure-related complications were observed in nine patients (9.18%), involving vasospasm in all cases; however, there was no symptomatic case.CONCLUSION: The ENVOY 6F DA guiding catheter had relatively sufficient distal navigability without symptomatic procedural complications. However, the change in the catheter position after endovascular coiling denoted insufficient supportability.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Carotid Arteries , Carotid Artery, Internal , Catheterization , Catheters , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Demography , Embolization, Therapeutic , Female , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99439

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between perfusion- and diffusion-related parameters from intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and those from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging in tumors and normal muscles of the head and neck. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 20 consecutive patients with head and neck tumors with MR imaging performed using a 3T MR scanner. Tissue diffusivity (D), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), and perfusion fraction (f) were derived from bi-exponential fitting of IVIM data obtained with 14 different b-values in three orthogonal directions. We investigated the correlation between D, f, and D* and model-free parameters from the DCE-MRI (wash-in, Tmax, Emax, initial AUC60, whole AUC) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value in the tumor and normal masseter muscle using a whole volume-of-interest approach. Pearson's correlation test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: No correlation was found between f or D* and any of the parameters from the DCE-MRI in all patients or in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (p > 0.05). The ADC was significantly correlated with D values in the tumors (p 0.05, respectively). CONCLUSION: Intravoxel incoherent motion shows no significant correlation with model-free perfusion parameters derived from the DCE-MRI but is feasible for the analysis of diffusivity in both tumors and normal muscles of the head and neck.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Diffusion , Head , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Masseter Muscle , Muscles , Neck , Perfusion , Retrospective Studies
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99437

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify superior cervical sympathetic ganglion (SCSG) and describe their characteristic MR appearance using 3T-MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, we recruited 53 consecutive patients without history of head and neck irradiation. Using anatomic location based on literature review, both sides of the neck were evaluated to identify SCSGs in consensus. SCSGs were divided into definite (medial to internal carotid artery [ICA] and lateral to longus capitis muscle [LCM]) and probable SCSGs based on relative location to ICA and LCM. Two readers evaluated signal characteristics including intraganglionic hypointensity of all SCSGs and relative location of probable SCSGs. Interrater and intrarater agreements were quantified using unweighted kappa. RESULTS: Ninety-one neck sites in 53 patients were evaluated after exclusion of 15 neck sites with pathology. Definite SCSGs were identified at 66 (73%) sites, and probable SCSGs were found in 25 (27%). Probable SCSGs were located anterior to LCM in 16 (18%), lateral to ICA in 6 (7%), and posterior to ICA in 3 (3%). Intraganglionic hypointensity was identified in 82 (90%) on contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images. There was no statistical difference in the relative location between definite and probable SCSGs of the right and left sides with intragnalionic hypointensity on difference pulse sequences. Interrater and intrarater agreements on the location and intraganglionic hypointensity were excellent (κ-value, 0.749-1.000). CONCLUSION: 3T-MRI identified definite SCSGs at 73% of neck sites and varied location of the remaining SCSGs. Intraganglionic hypointensity was a characteristic feature of SCSGs.


Subject(s)
Carotid Artery, Internal , Consensus , Ganglia , Ganglia, Sympathetic , Head , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neck , Pathology , Prospective Studies
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199443

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Self-expanding stents are increasingly used for the treatment of complex intracranial aneurysms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness and safety of a self-expanding nitinol stent (Enterprise) in the treatment of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 39 patients with 40 wide-necked intracranial aneurysms who were enrolled in a single-center registry of patients treated with the Enterprise between June 2009 and December 2011. Thirty patients were asymptomatic, four had cerebrovascular accident sequelae, and five had suffered subarachnoid hemorrhage. One aneurysm had reopened after prior coil embolization, while 39 had not been treated. Clinical charts, procedural data, and angiographic results, including both immediate post-procedural angiograms and follow-up imaging, were reviewed. RESULTS: The mean neck size of the aneurysms was 5.58 mm (range 3-15.1 mm). Embolization was successful in all patients. There were five procedure-related events. There were no fatalities, but one procedure-related morbidity was noted. The immediate angiographic results included eight complete occlusions (20%), six remnant necks (15%), and 26 remnant sacs (65%). At angiographic follow-up (mean: 11.3 months), out of 18 of the aneurysms treated with stent-assisted coiling, there were 13 (72.2%) complete occlusions, four (22.2%) remnant necks, and one recanalization (5.6%). CONCLUSION: Stent-assisted coiling using the Enterprise is effective for the treatment of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms. Further angiographic and clinical follow-up investigation will be needed for evaluation of the long-term outcomes.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Embolization, Therapeutic , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm , Neck , Retrospective Studies , Stents , Stroke , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
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