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1.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 654-669, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901364

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the accuracy of MRI in predicting the pathological complete response (pCR) and the residual tumor size of breast cancer after neoadjucant chemotherapy (NAC), and to determine the factors affecting the accuarcy. @*Materials and Methods@#Eighty-eight breast cancer patients who underwent surgery after NAC at our center between 2010 and 2017 were included in this study. pCR was defined as the absence of invasive cancer on pathological evaluation. The maximum diameter of the residual tumor on post-NAC MRI was compared with the tumor size of the surgical specimen measured pathologically. Statistical analysis was performed to elucidate the factors affecting pCR and the residual tumor size-discrepancy between the MRI and the pathological measurements. @*Results@#The pCR rate was 10%. The diagnostic accuracy of MRI and the area under the curve for predicting pCR were 90.91% and 0.8017, respectively. The residual tumor sizes obtained using MRI and pathological measurements showed a strong correlation (r = 0.9, p < 0.001), especially in patients with a single mass lesion (p = 0.047). The size discrepancy between MRI and the pathological measurements was significantly greater in patients with the luminal type (p = 0.023) and multifocal tumorson-mass enhancement on pre-NAC MRI (p = 0.047). @*Conclusion@#MRI is an accurate tool for evaluating pCR and residual tumor size in breast cancer patients who receive NAC. Tumor subtype and initial MRI features affect the accuracy of MRI.

2.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 131-139, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897022

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) is a systematic and standardized scheme of the radiological findings of breast. However, there were different BI-RADS categories between breast cancers as the clinical characteristics in previous studies. We analyzed the association of BI-RADS categories with the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of breast cancer. @*Methods@#A total of 44,184 patients with invasive breast cancers assigned to BI-RADS category 3, 4, or 5 in preoperative mammography or ultrasonography were analyzed retrospectively using large-scale data from the Korean Breast Cancer Society registration system. The difference in the clinicopathological factors and prognoses according to the BI-RADS categories (BI-RADS 3–4 and BI-RADS 5) were compared between the mammography and ultrasonography groups. Comparisons of the clinicopathological factors in both groups were made using logistic regression analysis, while the prognoses were based on the breast cancer-specific survival using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model. @*Results@#The factors associated with BI-RADS were T stage, N stage, palpability, histology grade, and lymphovascular invasion in the mammography group; and N stage, palpability, histology grade, and lymphovascular invasion in the ultrasonography group. In the survival analysis, there were significant differences in the breast cancer-specific survival of the BI-RADS category groups in both of the mammography (hazard ratio [HR], 3.366; P < 0.001) and ultrasonography (HR, 2.877; P < 0.001) groups. @*Conclusion@#In this study, the BI-RADS categories of preoperative mammography and ultrasonography of patients with invasive breast cancer were associated with prognosis and could be an important factor in making treatment decisions.

3.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 654-669, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893660

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the accuracy of MRI in predicting the pathological complete response (pCR) and the residual tumor size of breast cancer after neoadjucant chemotherapy (NAC), and to determine the factors affecting the accuarcy. @*Materials and Methods@#Eighty-eight breast cancer patients who underwent surgery after NAC at our center between 2010 and 2017 were included in this study. pCR was defined as the absence of invasive cancer on pathological evaluation. The maximum diameter of the residual tumor on post-NAC MRI was compared with the tumor size of the surgical specimen measured pathologically. Statistical analysis was performed to elucidate the factors affecting pCR and the residual tumor size-discrepancy between the MRI and the pathological measurements. @*Results@#The pCR rate was 10%. The diagnostic accuracy of MRI and the area under the curve for predicting pCR were 90.91% and 0.8017, respectively. The residual tumor sizes obtained using MRI and pathological measurements showed a strong correlation (r = 0.9, p < 0.001), especially in patients with a single mass lesion (p = 0.047). The size discrepancy between MRI and the pathological measurements was significantly greater in patients with the luminal type (p = 0.023) and multifocal tumorson-mass enhancement on pre-NAC MRI (p = 0.047). @*Conclusion@#MRI is an accurate tool for evaluating pCR and residual tumor size in breast cancer patients who receive NAC. Tumor subtype and initial MRI features affect the accuracy of MRI.

4.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 131-139, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889318

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) is a systematic and standardized scheme of the radiological findings of breast. However, there were different BI-RADS categories between breast cancers as the clinical characteristics in previous studies. We analyzed the association of BI-RADS categories with the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of breast cancer. @*Methods@#A total of 44,184 patients with invasive breast cancers assigned to BI-RADS category 3, 4, or 5 in preoperative mammography or ultrasonography were analyzed retrospectively using large-scale data from the Korean Breast Cancer Society registration system. The difference in the clinicopathological factors and prognoses according to the BI-RADS categories (BI-RADS 3–4 and BI-RADS 5) were compared between the mammography and ultrasonography groups. Comparisons of the clinicopathological factors in both groups were made using logistic regression analysis, while the prognoses were based on the breast cancer-specific survival using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model. @*Results@#The factors associated with BI-RADS were T stage, N stage, palpability, histology grade, and lymphovascular invasion in the mammography group; and N stage, palpability, histology grade, and lymphovascular invasion in the ultrasonography group. In the survival analysis, there were significant differences in the breast cancer-specific survival of the BI-RADS category groups in both of the mammography (hazard ratio [HR], 3.366; P < 0.001) and ultrasonography (HR, 2.877; P < 0.001) groups. @*Conclusion@#In this study, the BI-RADS categories of preoperative mammography and ultrasonography of patients with invasive breast cancer were associated with prognosis and could be an important factor in making treatment decisions.

5.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 59-66, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874209

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Treatment with 4 cycles of docetaxel and cyclophosphamide (TC) in the adjuvant setting is associated with better outcomes than treatment with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (AC). However, Western guidelines have indicated that TC confers a high risk (>20%) of febrile neutropenia (FN), while AC confers an intermediate risk (10%–20%) of FN. Threrefore, we evaluated the incidence of FN and the clinical utilization of pegfilgrastim prophylaxis after adjuvant TC chemotherapy. @*Methods@#We categorized 201 patients who received adjuvant TC chemotherapy into 3 groups according to the method of prophylaxis and compared neutropenic events, other adverse events, and hospital care costs in the 3 groups. @*Results@#The incidence of grade 4 neutropenia decreased from 93.0% in patients without prophylaxis to 82.4% in those who received secondary prophylaxis and 16.7% in those who received primary prophylaxis. Although the incidence of FN was not different between patients without prophylaxis and patients who received secondary prophylaxis (15.7% and 14.9%), none of the patients who received primary prophylaxis developed FN. Moreover, a decrease in neutropenic events resulted in a significant decrease in the mean duration of neutropenia (2.50 days to 0.08 days, P < 0.001), the risk of hospitalization (29.8% to 2.2%, P < 0.001), and the mean total hospital care cost for all chemotherapy cycles (790.80 to 486.00 US dollars, P < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#The use of pegfilgrastim prophylaxis during adjuvant TC chemotherapy is associated with significant decreases in the incidence of neutropenic events, hospitalization, and hospital care cost compared to those seen in patients without prophylaxis.

6.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 521-532, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898971

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The regimen including concurrent docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (TAC) has been categorized as an important risk factor for febrile neutropenia (FN).This comparative study examined the clinical impact of long-acting granulocyte colonystimulating factor (G-CSF) (pegfilgrastim) during adjuvant TAC chemotherapy in Korean patients with advanced breast cancer. @*Methods@#We analyzed data from 239 patients who received 6 cycles of adjuvant TAC chemotherapy. We categorized patients into 2 groups according to the use of primary prophylactic pegfilgrastim and compared the incidence and risk of FN, hospital care costs, and survival in the 2 groups. @*Results@#The incidence of FN decreased from 54.2% to 21.2% in all patients, after the use of pegfilgrastim. The analysis of a total of 1,432 chemotherapy cycles showed that the incidence of FN decreased from 36.1% to 9.1% after the use of pegfilgrastim. Moreover, the decrease in the incidence of FN with the use of pegfilgrastim resulted in a significant decrease in the mean duration of neutropenia (4.15 to 1.29 days), the risk of hospitalization (99.5% to 29.7%) and the mean total hospital care cost (USD 3,038 to USD 2,347). High relative dose intensity (RDI) in patients treated with pegfilgrastim than in those not treated with pegfilgrastim (99.18% vs. 93.85%) was associated with a better overall survival (p = 0.033). @*Conclusions@#The use of pegfilgrastim during adjuvant TAC chemotherapy was significantly associated with a decrease in the incidence and risk of FN, hospital care costs, and risk of death compared to the use of adjuvant TAC without primary prophylaxis.

7.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 498-508, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898965

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The prognostic implications of serum vitamin D status after a 5-year adjuvant endocrine therapy on the risk of late recurrence among hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer patients remain unclear. Hence, we investigated this among Korean HRpositive breast cancer patients. @*Methods@#A total of 455 patients with HR-positive stage I–III invasive breast cancer who underwent curative surgery at St. Vincent's Hospital between February 2004 and April 2012 were included in this retrospective study. Patients were categorized based on their serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels after the 5-year adjuvant endocrine therapy. Initial recurrence sites were categorized. The primary clinical outcome was late recurrence-free survival (LRFS). @*Results@#Among the 455 patients, 242 and 213 were included in the 25(OH)D-deficient group and 25(OH)D-sufficient group, respectively. Forty-eight patients experienced late recurrence.Across all recurrence sites, the 25(OH)D-deficient group showed significantly worse LRFS rates than the 25(OH)D-sufficient group (hazard ratio [HR], 2.284; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.155–4.515; p = 0.018). After patient subgrouping based on recurrence site, the 25(OH)D-deficient group also showed significantly worse LRFS rates in terms of regional lymph node (LN) (HR, 17.453; 95% CI, 2.46–128.83; p = 0.005), bone (HR, 2.394; 95% CI, 1.024–5.599; p = 0.044), and visceral (HR, 2.735; 95% CI, 1.182–6.328; p = 0.019) recurrence.However, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of local recurrence (p = 0.611). @*Conclusions@#We found that 25(OH)D deficiency after the 5-year adjuvant endocrine therapy was associated with worse LRFS among HR-positive breast cancer patients, particularly with respect to regional LN, bone, and visceral recurrence.

8.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 521-532, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891267

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The regimen including concurrent docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (TAC) has been categorized as an important risk factor for febrile neutropenia (FN).This comparative study examined the clinical impact of long-acting granulocyte colonystimulating factor (G-CSF) (pegfilgrastim) during adjuvant TAC chemotherapy in Korean patients with advanced breast cancer. @*Methods@#We analyzed data from 239 patients who received 6 cycles of adjuvant TAC chemotherapy. We categorized patients into 2 groups according to the use of primary prophylactic pegfilgrastim and compared the incidence and risk of FN, hospital care costs, and survival in the 2 groups. @*Results@#The incidence of FN decreased from 54.2% to 21.2% in all patients, after the use of pegfilgrastim. The analysis of a total of 1,432 chemotherapy cycles showed that the incidence of FN decreased from 36.1% to 9.1% after the use of pegfilgrastim. Moreover, the decrease in the incidence of FN with the use of pegfilgrastim resulted in a significant decrease in the mean duration of neutropenia (4.15 to 1.29 days), the risk of hospitalization (99.5% to 29.7%) and the mean total hospital care cost (USD 3,038 to USD 2,347). High relative dose intensity (RDI) in patients treated with pegfilgrastim than in those not treated with pegfilgrastim (99.18% vs. 93.85%) was associated with a better overall survival (p = 0.033). @*Conclusions@#The use of pegfilgrastim during adjuvant TAC chemotherapy was significantly associated with a decrease in the incidence and risk of FN, hospital care costs, and risk of death compared to the use of adjuvant TAC without primary prophylaxis.

9.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 498-508, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891261

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The prognostic implications of serum vitamin D status after a 5-year adjuvant endocrine therapy on the risk of late recurrence among hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer patients remain unclear. Hence, we investigated this among Korean HRpositive breast cancer patients. @*Methods@#A total of 455 patients with HR-positive stage I–III invasive breast cancer who underwent curative surgery at St. Vincent's Hospital between February 2004 and April 2012 were included in this retrospective study. Patients were categorized based on their serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels after the 5-year adjuvant endocrine therapy. Initial recurrence sites were categorized. The primary clinical outcome was late recurrence-free survival (LRFS). @*Results@#Among the 455 patients, 242 and 213 were included in the 25(OH)D-deficient group and 25(OH)D-sufficient group, respectively. Forty-eight patients experienced late recurrence.Across all recurrence sites, the 25(OH)D-deficient group showed significantly worse LRFS rates than the 25(OH)D-sufficient group (hazard ratio [HR], 2.284; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.155–4.515; p = 0.018). After patient subgrouping based on recurrence site, the 25(OH)D-deficient group also showed significantly worse LRFS rates in terms of regional lymph node (LN) (HR, 17.453; 95% CI, 2.46–128.83; p = 0.005), bone (HR, 2.394; 95% CI, 1.024–5.599; p = 0.044), and visceral (HR, 2.735; 95% CI, 1.182–6.328; p = 0.019) recurrence.However, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of local recurrence (p = 0.611). @*Conclusions@#We found that 25(OH)D deficiency after the 5-year adjuvant endocrine therapy was associated with worse LRFS among HR-positive breast cancer patients, particularly with respect to regional LN, bone, and visceral recurrence.

10.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 97-104, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937766

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#The concurrent regimen of docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (TAC) has been categorized as a high-risk factor for febrile neutropenia (FN). The incidence of FN was reported to be as high as 17%–26% in studies conducted in Western countries. However, these rates may vary among different ethnic groups. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of FN and its effect on prognosis following adjuvant TAC chemotherapy in Korean patients with advanced breast cancer.@*METHODS@#We analyzed data from 187 patients who received 6 cycles of adjuvant TAC chemotherapy between July 2005 and December 2014. No patients received long-acting granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) as primary prophylaxis for FN due to guidelines for cost reimbursement in Korea. The incidence rates of FN, dose reduction of TAC, relative dose intensity (RDI), relapse-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) were investigated.@*RESULTS@#A total of 102 (54.5%) patients experienced FN, especially older patients (51 years vs. 49 years, p=0.045). RDI was lower in patients with FN than in those without (96.4% vs. 99.5%, p=0.001, respectively). Death was reported in 2 patients (2.35%) without FN and in 10 patients (9.80%) with FN (hazard ratio [HR]: 6.64; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28 to 34.36; p=0.024). No significant differences in RFS (p=0.235) were found using Kaplan-Meier analysis.@*CONCLUSION@#The incidence of FN was significantly higher in Korea than in Western countries, and FN had a negative impact on the patients' prognosis. Primary prophylactic G-CSF should be prioritized in Korean patients with advanced breast cancer who receive adjuvant TAC chemotherapy.

11.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 75-85, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766015

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I) molecules play important roles in regulating immune responses. Loss or reduction of HLA-I expression has been shown to be associated with prognosis in several cancers. Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) also play critical functions in immune response regulation. Evaluation of HLA-I expression status by the EMR8-5 antibody and its clinical impact in breast cancer have not been well studied, and its relationship with Tregs remains unclear. METHODS: We evaluated HLA-I expression and Treg infiltration by immunohistochemistry in 465 surgically resected breast cancer samples. We examined the correlation between HLA-I expression and Treg infiltration and clinicopathologic characteristics and survival analyses were performed. RESULTS: Total loss of HLA-I expression was found in 84 breast cancer samples (18.1%). Univariate survival analysis revealed that loss of HLA-I expression was significantly associated with worse disease-specific survival (DSS) (p = .029). HLA-I was not an independent prognostic factor in the entire patient group, but it was an adverse independent prognostic factor for DSS in patients with advanced disease (stage II–IV) (p = .031). Treg numbers were significantly higher in the intratumoral stroma of HLA-I–positive tumors than in HLA-I–negative tumors (median 6.3 cells/high power field vs 2.1 cells/high power field, p < .001). However, Tregs were not an independent prognostic factor in our cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the loss of HLA-I expression is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients, highlighting the role of HLA-I alterations in immune evasion mechanisms of breast cancer. HLA-I could be a promising marker that enables the application of more effective and precise immunotherapies for patients with advanced breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cohort Studies , HLA Antigens , Immune Evasion , Immunohistochemistry , Immunotherapy , Leukocytes , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating , Major Histocompatibility Complex , Prognosis , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
12.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 94-98, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714972

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and clinical findings of benign thyroid nodules and cancer in Korean pediatric patients with thyroid nodules. METHODS: We investigated the medical records of 134 patients aged younger than 18 years who had a goiter, thyroid nodule, thyroid mass, or thyroid cancer who underwent fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). RESULTS: The study population included 113 females (84.3%) and 21 males (13.7%); the mean patient age was 16.1±2.3 years (range, 8–18 years). Of the 134 patients, 24 (18.0%) were finally diagnosed with thyroid cancer, of which 20 (83.3%) were papillary cancer and 4 (16.7%) were follicular cancer. No patient was exposed to radiation. FNAB revealed malignant cancer in 21 of the patients; 3 were initially reported as having benign tumors by FNAB, but were later diagnosed with follicular cancer. An additional 13 patients were suspected to have malignant tumors by FNAB, with a final diagnosis of nodular hyperplasia. Cystic nodules were more common in the benign group. The percentages of cervical lymphadenopathy and irregular nodular margins were higher in the malignant group compared to the benign group. Cervical lymphadenopathy and FNAB malignant findings were highly suggestive of malignant nodules. CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid cancer prevalence in a Korean pediatric population is comparable to reported estimates of worldwide thyroid cancer prevalence. In this population, cancer predominates on the right thyroid lobe. Papillary thyroid cancers are dominant in the Korean pediatric population but are less prevalent than in Korean adults. As expected, FNAB was highly accurate in predicting malignant nodules.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Biopsy , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Diagnosis , Goiter , Hyperplasia , Lymphatic Diseases , Medical Records , Prevalence , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Nodule
13.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 340-346, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194960

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The current multicenter phase II study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the combination of docetaxel and gemcitabine as neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for locally advanced breast cancer. METHODS: A total of 98 patients with stage II–III breast cancer were enrolled. The primary endpoint was pathological complete response (pCR) rate of invasive cancer after the completion of the fourth cycle of NAC. The secondary endpoints included response rate (RR), rate of breast-conserving surgery, toxicity, and disease-free survival (DFS). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01352494). RESULTS: pCR in the breast and the axillary lymph node was observed in seven of the 98 enrolled patients (7.1%). The overall clinical RR, including partial responses, was 65.3%. Breast-conserving surgery was performed in 75 of the 98 assessable patients (76.5%). Neutropenia was frequent and was observed in 92 of the 98 patients (93.9%), including grade 3 and 4 in 24 patients (24.5%) and 63 patients (64.3%), respectively. Dose reductions were required for 30 of the 92 patients (32.6%). After a median follow-up of 24 months, the overall DFS of the group was 86.7%. CONCLUSION: The combination of docetaxel and gemcitabine did not improve pCR. However, this regimen has shown potential as a NAC by producing a reasonable rate of breast-conserving surgery and favorable responses in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. The therapeutic efficacy of this regimen will be determined in additional trials to overcome the limitations of the current study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Lymph Nodes , Mastectomy, Segmental , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neutropenia , Polymerase Chain Reaction
14.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 890-897, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160283

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The current TNM staging system for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), which is based on tumor diameter, may not precisely reflect the true tumor burden. Therefore, we investigated whether preoperative tumor volume might more accurately reflect tumor burden and predict prognosis in patients with T1N0 PTC than preoperative tumor diameter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data from 1,659 patients with T1N0 PTC, and after exclusion, a total of 1,081 patients were ultimately included. Tumor volume (V) was calculated for all patients using preoperative ultrasonography, and patients were grouped according to tumor diameter (T1a vs. T1b) and tumor volume (V1a vs. V1b). The recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were then compared for these groups. RESULTS: The mean follow-up time was 66.12±28.75 months, and 97.2% of the cohort experienced RFS. The optimal volume cut-off was defined as 0.545 cm³. There were no differences in RFS rates between T1a/T1b groups (all ages) and V1a/V1b groups (< 45 years of age). However, ≥ 45-year-old patients in the V1b group had a significantly poorer RFS rate than those in the V1a group. These results were confirmed by multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that preoperative tumor volume may be more useful for predicting prognosis than tumor diameter in ≥ 45-year-old patients with T1N0 PTC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Staging , Prognosis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Tumor Burden , Ultrasonography
15.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1389-1398, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-205897

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Breast cancer treatment has progressed significantly over the past 20 years. However, knowledge regarding male breast cancer (MBC) is sparse because of its rarity. This study is an investigation of the clinicopathologic features, treatments, and clinical outcomes of MBC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical records of 59 MBC patients diagnosed during 1995-2014 from seven institutions in Korea were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: Over a 20-year period, MBC patients accounted for 0.98% among total breast cancer patients, and increased every 5 years. The median age of MBC patientswas 66 years (range, 24 to 87 years). Forty-three patients (73%) complained of a palpable breast mass initially. The median symptom duration was 5 months (range, 1 to 36 months). Mastectomy was performed in 96% of the patients. The most frequent histology was infiltrating ductal carcinoma (75%). Ninety-one percent of tumors (38/43) were estrogen receptor–positive, and 28% (11/40) showed epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) overexpression. After curative surgery, 42% of patients (19/45) received adjuvant chemotherapy; 77% (27/35) received hormone therapy. Five out of ten patients with HER-2 overexpressing tumors did not receive adjuvant anti–HER-2 therapy, while two out of four patients with HER-2 overexpressing tumors received palliative trastuzumab for recurrent and metastatic disease. Letrozole was used for one patient in the palliative setting. The median overall survival durations were 7.2 years (range, 0.6 to 17.0 years) in patients with localized disease and 2.9 years (range, 0.6 to 4.3 years) in those with recurrent or metastatic disease. CONCLUSION: Anti–HER-2 and hormonal therapy, except tamoxifen, have been underutilized in Korean MBC patients compared to female breast cancer patients. With the development of precision medicine, active treatment with targeted agents should be applied. Further investigation of the unique pathobiology of MBC is clinically warranted.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Male , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Breast Neoplasms, Male , Carcinoma, Ductal , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Estrogens , Korea , Mastectomy , Precision Medicine , Prognosis , ErbB Receptors , Retrospective Studies , Tamoxifen , Trastuzumab
16.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 417-422, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28537

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Surgical clips are used as a target for postoperative breast radiotherapy, and displacement of surgical clips would result in inaccurate delivery of radiation. We investigated the displacement range of surgical clips in the breast during postoperative radiotherapy following breast-conserving surgery. METHODS: A total of 178 patients who received breast-conserving surgery and postoperative radiation of 59.4 Gy in 33 fractions to the involved breast for 6.5 weeks were included. Surgical clips were used to mark the lumpectomy cavity during breast-conserving surgery. Patients undertook planning computed tomography (CT) scan for whole breast irradiation. Five weeks after beginning radiation, when the irradiation dose was 45 Gy, planning CT scan was performed again for a boost radiotherapy plan in all patients. The surgical clips were defined in both CT images and compared in lateromedial (X), anteroposterior (Y), superoinferior (Z), and three-dimensional directions. RESULTS: The 90th percentile of displacement of surgical clips was 5.31 mm (range, 0.0–22.2 mm) in the lateromedial direction, 7.1 mm (range, 0.0–14.2 mm) in the anteroposterior direction, and 6.0 mm (range, 0.0–10.0 mm) in the superoinferior direction. The 90th percentile of three-dimensional displacement distance was 9.8 mm (range, 0.0–28.2 mm). On the multivariate analysis, seroma ≥15 mL was the only independent factor associated with the displacement of surgical clips. In patients with seroma ≥15 mL, the 90th percentile of displacement of surgical clips was 15.1 mm in the lateromedial direction, 12.7 mm in the anteroposterior direction, 10.0 mm in the superoinferior direction, and 21.8 mm in the three-dimensional distance. CONCLUSION: A target volume expansion of 10 mm from surgical clips may be sufficient to compensate for the displacement of clips during postoperative radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery. For patients who had a seroma, a replanning CT scan for a boost radiation should be considered to ensure exact postoperative radiotherapy in breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Mastectomy, Segmental , Multivariate Analysis , Radiotherapy , Seroma , Surgical Instruments , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 57-62, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173792

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to compare dosimetric parameters of intensity-modulated mode of TomoDirect and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in patients with early breast cancer. METHODS: TomoDirect and 3D-CRT planning were carried out for 26 patients with early breast cancer who had received breast-conserving surgery. A total of 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions were prescribed to the planning target volume. The organs at risk (OAR) such as lung and heart were contoured. Planning target volume (PTV) dose coverage, radiation conformity index (RCI), radical dose homogeneity index (rDHI), and irradiation dose of organs at risk were compared between TomoDirect and 3D-CRT planning. RESULTS: The mean PTV dose (51.65+/-0.37 Gy) and V47.8 (100%) in TomoDirect were significantly higher than the mean PTV dose (50.88+/-0.65 Gy) and V47.8 (89.23%+/-0.06%) in 3D-CRT (all, p<0.001). The RCI value in TomoDirect was significantly better than that in 3D-CRT (1.00 vs. 1.13, p<0.001). However, the rDHI value in TomoDirect was not significantly better than that in 3D-CRT (0.72 vs. 0.67, p=0.056). The mean lung dose and V10, V20, V30, and V40 values of ipsilateral lung in TomoDirect were significantly lower than those in 3D-CRT (all, p<0.05). There is no significant difference in the V10, V20, V30, and V40 values of heart between TomoDirect and 3D-CRT. And the mean dose for heart in TomoDirect was marginally lower than that in 3D-CRT (1.05 Gy vs. 1.62 Gy, p=0.085). The mean dose for left anterior descending coronary artery in left breast cancer was significantly lower in TomoDirect than in 3D-CRT (7.2 Gy vs. 12.1 Gy, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Compared to 3D-CRT, TomoDirect could result in favorable target coverage while reducing the irradiation dose of the ipsilateral lung for patients with early breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Coronary Vessels , Heart , Lung , Mastectomy, Segmental , Organs at Risk , Radiometry , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Conformal
18.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 97-100, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173787

ABSTRACT

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), which may occur as an autosom-al dominant disorder, is caused by the absence of neurofibromin protein due to somatic mutations in the NF1 gene, and it has been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Herein we describe a family with two women affected by both NF1 and early-onset breast cancer. We evaluated whether the concomitance of NF1 and early-onset breast cancer could be due to disease-causing mutations in both NF1 and BRCA1 gene in a Korean family with clinical features of both NF1 and hereditary breast cancer. Mutation analyses identified nonsense mutations in NF1 and BRCA1 genes. Our findings indicate that an awareness of the possible concomitance of NF1 and BRCA1 gene mutations is important for identifying the genetic origin of early-onset breast cancer in patients with NF1 to achieve early detection of cancers and decrease breast cancer-associated morbidity and mortality in these patients.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Codon, Nonsense , Genes, BRCA1 , Genes, Neurofibromatosis 1 , Germ-Line Mutation , Mortality , Neurofibromatosis 1 , Neurofibromin 1
19.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 774-780, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-74286

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study investigated setup error and effectiveness of weekly image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of TomoDirect for early breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and fifty-one breasts of 147 consecutive patients who underwent breast conserving surgery followed by whole breast irradiation using TomoDirect in 2012 and 2013 were evaluated. All patients received weekly IGRT. The weekly setup errors from simulation to each treatment in reference to chest wall and surgical clips were measured. Random, systemic, and 3-dimensional setup errors were assessed. Extensive setup error was defined as 5 mm above the margin in any directions. RESULTS: All mean errors were within 3 mm of all directions. The mean angle of gantry shifts was 0.6degrees. The mean value of absolute 3-dimensional setup error was 4.67 mm. In multivariate analysis, breast size (odds ratio, 2.82; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 7.90) was a significant factor for extensive error. The largest significant deviation of setup error was observed in the first week of radiotherapy (p < 0.001) and the deviations gradually decreased with time. The deviation of setup error was 5.68 mm in the first week and within 5 mm after the second week. CONCLUSION: In this study, there was a significant association between breast size and significant setup error in breast cancer patients who received TomoDirect. The largest deviation occurred in the first week of treatment. Therefore, patients with large breasts should be closely observed on every fraction and fastidious attention is required in the first fraction of IGRT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Mastectomy, Segmental , Multivariate Analysis , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy Setup Errors , Radiotherapy, Image-Guided , Surgical Instruments , Thoracic Wall
20.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 228-233, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115563

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in breast tumor bed volume during whole breast irradiation (WBI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From September 2011 to November 2012, thirty patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery (BCS) followed by WBI using computed tomography (CT) simulation were enrolled. Simulation CT scans were performed before WBI (CT1) and five weeks after the breast irradiation (CT2). The tumor bed was contoured based on surgical clips, seroma, and postoperative change. We retrospectively analyzed the factors associated with tumor bed volumetric change. RESULTS: The median tumor bed volume on CT1 and CT2 was 29.72 and 28.6 mL, respectively. The tumor bed volume increased in 9 of 30 patients (30%) and decreased in 21 of 30 patients (70%). The median percent change in tumor bed volume between initial and boost CT was -5%. Seroma status (p = 0.010) was a significant factor in tumor bed volume reduction of 5% or greater. However, patient age, body mass index, palpability, T stage, axillary lymph node dissection, and tumor location were not significant factors for tumor bed volumetric change. CONCLUSION: In this study, volumetric change of tumor bed cavity was frequent. Patients with seroma after BCS had a significant volume reduction of 5% or greater in tumor bed during breast irradiation. Thus, resimulation using CT is indicated for exquisite boost treatment in breast cancer patients with seroma after surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Body Mass Index , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Lymph Node Excision , Mastectomy, Segmental , Retrospective Studies , Seroma , Surgical Instruments , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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