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1.
Ultrasonography ; : 275-285, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969228

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study evaluated thyroid cancer risk in a lung cancer screening population according to the presence of an incidental thyroid nodule (ITN) detected on low-dose chest computed tomography (LDCT). @*Methods@#Of 47,837 subjects who underwent LDCT, a lung cancer screening population according to the National Lung Screening Trial results was retrospectively enrolled. The prevalence of ITN on LDCT was calculated, and the ultrasonography (US)/fine-needle aspiration (FNA)–based risk of thyroid cancer according to the presence of ITN on LDCT was compared using the Fisher exact or Student t-test as appropriate. @*Results@#Of the 2,329 subjects (female:male=44:2,285; mean age, 60.9±4.9 years), the prevalence of ITN on LDCT was 4.8% (111/2,329). The incidence of thyroid cancer was 0.8% (18/2,329, papillary thyroid microcarcinomas [PTMCs]) and was higher in the ITN-positive group than in the ITN-negative group (3.6% [4/111] vs. 0.6% [14/2,218], P=0.009). Among the 2,011 subjects who underwent both LDCT and thyroid US, all risks were higher (P<0.001) in the ITNpositive group than in the ITN-negative group: presence of thyroid nodule on US, 94.1% (95/101) vs. 48.6% (928/1,910); recommendation of FNA according to the American Thyroid Association guideline and Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System guideline, 41.2% (42/101) vs. 2.4% (46/1,910) and 39.6% (40/101) vs. 1.9% (37/1,910), respectively. @*Conclusion@#Despite a higher risk of thyroid cancer in the LDCT ITN-positive group than in the ITN-negative group in a lung cancer screening population, all cancers were PTMCs. A heavy smoking history may not necessitate thorough screening US for thyroid incidentalomas.

2.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 436-444, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000309

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to investigate the changes of incidence and treatment of choice for hyperthyroidism from 2003 to 2018 and explore the treatment-related complications and concomitant comorbidities in South Korea using data from the National Health Insurance Service. @*Methods@#This is a retrospective observational study. Hyperthyroidism was defined as a case having two or more diagnostic codes of thyrotoxicosis, with antithyroid drug intake for more than 6 months. @*Results@#The average age-standardized incidence of hyperthyroidism from 2003 to 2018 was 42.23 and 105.13 per 100,000 men and women, respectively. In 2003 to 2004, hyperthyroidism was most often diagnosed in patients in their 50s, but in 2017 to 2018, people were most often diagnosed in their 60s. During the entire period, about 93.7% of hyperthyroidism patients were prescribed with antithyroid drugs, and meanwhile, the annual rates of ablation therapy decrease from 7.68% in 2008 to 4.56% in 2018. Antithyroid drug-related adverse events, mainly agranulocytosis and acute hepatitis, as well as complications of hyperthyroidism such as atrial fibrillation or flutter, osteoporosis, and fractures, occurred more often in younger patients. @*Conclusion@#In Korea, hyperthyroidism occurred about 2.5 times more in women than in men, and antithyroid drugs were most preferred as the first-line treatment. Compared to the general population, hyperthyroid patients may have a higher risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter, osteoporosis, and fractures at a younger age.

3.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e270-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001082

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to investigate the prevalence rate of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and identify the demographic, and sociological characteristics and changes in awareness of HCV infection by participating the study for North Korean defectors residing in South Korea. @*Methods@#This study prospectively enrolled participants. Demographic, sociological and clinical data, and questionnaire surveys focused on awareness of HCV infection were collected. @*Results@#In total, 211 North Korean defectors participated in this study from September 2020 until June 2021. There were 174 women (82.5%), and the overall mean age was 48.9 years (range, 20 to 80 years). Of these participants, 112 (53.1%) had immigrated to South Korea since 2011. The overall prevalence of anti-HCV antibody among North Korean defectors was 1.9%. Thirty participants (14.2%) had hepatitis B surface antigens. A huge lack of awareness regarding HCV infection has been observed among North Korean defectors. @*Conclusion@#This is the first prospective study to investigate the prevalence rate of HCV infection among North Korean defectors residing in South Korea. As North Korean defectors are a vulnerable group concerning HCV infection, they may benefit from HCV screening policies and educational interventions for HCV infection.

4.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 81-92, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966822

ABSTRACT

Background@#The true benefit of thyroid cancer screening is incompletely understood. This study investigated the impact of ultrasound screening on thyroid cancer outcomes through a comparison with symptomatic thyroid cancer using data from a nationwide cohort study in Korea. @*Methods@#Cox regression analysis was performed to assess the hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and thyroid cancer-specific mortality. Considering the possible bias arising from age, sex, year of thyroid cancer registration, and confounding factors for mortality (including smoking/drinking status, diabetes, and hypertension), all analyses were conducted with stabilized inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) according to the route of detection. @*Results@#Of 5,796 patients with thyroid cancer, 4,145 were included and 1,651 were excluded due to insufficient data. In comparison with the screening group, the clinical suspicion group was associated with large tumors (17.2±14.6 mm vs. 10.4±7.9 mm), advanced T stage (3–4) (odds ratio [OR], 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 1.41), extrathyroidal extension (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.32), and advanced stage (III–IV) (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.35). In IPTW-adjusted Cox regression analysis, the clinical suspicion group had significantly higher risks of all-cause mortality (HR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.80) and thyroid cancer-specific mortality (HR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.77 to 5.29). Mediation analysis showed that the presence of thyroid-specific symptoms was directly associated with a higher risk of cancer-specific mortality. Thyroid-specific symptoms also indirectly affected thyroid cancer-specific mortality, mediated by tumor size and advanced clinicopathologic status. @*Conclusion@#Our findings provide important evidence for the survival benefit of early detection of thyroid cancer compared to symptomatic thyroid cancer.

5.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 93-103, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966821

ABSTRACT

Background@#Thyroid cancer screening has contributed to the skyrocketing prevalence of thyroid cancer. However, the true benefit of thyroid cancer screening is not fully understood. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of screening on the clinical outcomes of thyroid cancer by comparing incidental thyroid cancer (ITC) with non-incidental thyroid cancer (NITC) through a meta-analysis. @*Methods@#PubMed and Embase were searched from inception to September 2022. We estimated and compared the prevalence of high-risk features (aggressive histology of thyroid cancer, extrathyroidal extension, metastasis to regional lymph nodes or distant organs, and advanced tumor-node-metastasis [TNM] stage), thyroid cancer-specific death, and recurrence in the ITC and NITC groups. We also calculated pooled risks and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the outcomes derived from these two groups. @*Results@#From 1,078 studies screened, 14 were included. In comparison to NITC, the ITC group had a lower incidence of aggressive histology (odds ratio [OR], 0.46; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.7), smaller tumors (mean difference, −7.9 mm; 95% CI, −10.2 to −5.6), lymph node metastasis (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.48 to 0.86), and distant metastasis (OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.23 to 0.77). The risks of recurrence and thyroid cancer-specific mortality were also lower in the ITC group (OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.71 and OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.74) than in the NITC group. @*Conclusion@#Our findings provide important evidence of a survival benefit from the early detection of thyroid cancer compared to symptomatic thyroid cancer.

6.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 524-532, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937432

ABSTRACT

Background@#Radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy is a successful therapeutic modality for Graves’ disease. However, RAI therapy can fail, and RAI therapy after antithyroid drugs (ATDs) has a lower remission rate. Therefore, many patients require repeated RAI therapy. This study investigated the clinical outcomes of repeated RAI therapy for Graves’ disease. @*Methods@#Patients who underwent RAI therapy as second-line therapy after failure of ATD treatment between 2001 and 2015 were reviewed. Remission was defined as hypothyroid or euthyroid status without ATD, and with or without levothyroxine at 12 months after RAI therapy. @*Results@#The 1-year remission rate after 2nd RAI therapy (66%, 152/230) is significantly higher than that after 1st RAI therapy (48%, 393/815) or long-term ATD treatment after 1st RAI therapy failure (42%). The clinical response to 2nd RAI therapy was more rapid. The median time intervals from the 2nd RAI therapy to ATD discontinuation (1.3 months) and to the start of levothyroxine replacement (2.5 months) were significantly shorter than those for the 1st RAI therapy. A smaller goiter size, a longer time interval between the 1st and 2nd RAI therapies, and a longer ATD discontinuation period predicted remission after the 2nd RAI therapy. Finally, in 78 patients who failed the 2nd RAI therapy, the mean ATD dosage significantly reduced 5.1 mg over 12 months. @*Conclusion@#Repeated RAI therapy can be a good therapeutic option, especially in patients with smaller goiters and those who are more responsive to the 1st RAI therapy.

7.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 879-890, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966802

ABSTRACT

Background@#Cross-talk between mitogen-activated protein kinase and estrogen has been reported; however, the role of BRAFV600E in the estrogen responsiveness of thyroid cancer is unknown. We elucidated the effect of BRAFV600E on the estrogen-induced increase in metastatic potential in thyroid cancer. @*Methods@#Using a pair of cell lines, human thyroid cell lines which harbor wild type BRAF gene (Nthy/WT) and Nthy/BRAFV600E (Nthy/V600E), the expression of estrogen receptors (ERs) and estrogen-induced metastatic phenotypes were evaluated. Susceptibility to ERα- and ERβ-selective agents was evaluated to confirm differential ER expression. ESR expression was analyzed according to BRAFV600E status and age (≤50 years vs. >50 years) using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data. @*Results@#Estradiol increased the ERα/ERβ expression ratio in Nthy/V600E, whereas the decreased ERα/ERβ expression ratio was found in Nthy/WT. BRAFV600E-mutated cell lines showed a higher E2-induced increase in metastatic potential, including migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth compared with Nthy/WT. An ERα antagonist significantly inhibited migration in Nthy/V600E cells, whereas an ERβ agonist was more effective in Nthy/WT. In the BRAFV600E group, ESR1/ESR2 ratio was significantly higher in younger age group (≤50 years) compared with older age group (>50 years) by TCGA data analysis. @*Conclusion@#Our data show that BRAFV600E mutation plays a crucial role in the estrogen responsiveness of thyroid cancer by regulating ER expression. Therefore, BRAFV600E might be used as a biomarker when deciding future hormone therapies based on estrogen signaling in thyroid cancer patients.

8.
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology ; : 183-193, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925726

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine tumor, with rapidly increasing incidence worldwide. However, its transcriptomic characteristics associated with immunological signatures, driver fusions, and recurrence markers remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the transcriptomic characteristics of advanced papillary thyroid cancer. @*Methods@#. This study included 282 papillary thyroid cancer tumor samples and 155 normal samples from Chungnam National University Hospital and Seoul National University Hospital. Transcriptomic quantification was determined by high-throughput RNA sequencing. We investigated the associations of clinical parameters and molecular signatures using RNA sequencing. We validated predictive biomarkers using the Cancer Genome Atlas database. @*Results@#. Through a comparison of differentially expressed genes, gene sets, and pathways in papillary thyroid cancer compared to normal tumor-adjacent tissue, we found increased immune signaling associated with cytokines or T cells and decreased thyroid hormone synthetic pathways. In addition, patients with recurrence presented increased CD8+ T-cell and Th1-cell signatures. Interestingly, we found differentially overexpressed genes related to immune-escape signaling such as CTLA4, IDO1, LAG3, and PDCD1 in advanced papillary thyroid cancer with a low thyroid differentiation score. Fusion analysis showed that the PI3K and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways were regulated differently according to the RET fusion partner genes (CCDC6 or NCOA4). Finally, we identified HOXD9 as a novel molecular biomarker that predicts the recurrence of thyroid cancer in addition to known risk factors (tumor size, lymph node metastasis, and extrathyroidal extension). @*Conclusion@#. We identified a high association with immune-escape signaling in the immune-hot group with aggressive clinical characteristics among Korean thyroid cancer patients. Moreover, RET fusion differentially regulated PI3K and MAPK signaling depending on the partner gene of RET, and HOXD9 was found to be a recurrence marker for advanced papillary thyroid cancer.

9.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 544-556, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896011

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Real-world, clinical practice data are lacking about sofosbuvir/ ribavirin (SOF/RBV) treatment of Korean patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 2 (HCV GT2) infection. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of SOF/RBV in Korean patients with HCV GT2 infection and clinical factors predicting sustained virological response 12 weeks (SVR12) after the end of SOF/RBV treatment. @*Methods@#A total of 181 patients with HCV GT2 with/without cirrhosis were treated with SOF/RBV for 16/12 weeks. Rapid virological response (RVR) was defined as non-detectable HCV RNA at 4 weeks. @*Results@#The RVR rate was 80.7% (146/181), the end of treatment response rate was 97.8% (177/181) and the SVR12 rate was 92.8% (168/181). Of eight patients with relapse, four did not achieve RVR. Three patients had a history of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Multivariable analysis showed that RVR (p = 0.015) and no previous history of HCC (p = 0.007) were associated with SVR12. Factors significantly contributing to RVR included cirrhosis, creatinine concentration, and pre-treatment HCV RNA level. SVR12 rate was significantly higher in RVR (+) than RVR (–) patients (95.2% vs. 82.9%, p = 0.011) and also significantly higher in patients without than with a history of HCC (94.1% vs. 72.7%, p = 0.008). During treatment, 80/181 patients (44.2%) experienced mild to moderate adverse events, with 32 (17.7%) requiring RBV dose reductions due to anemia. @*Conclusions@#SOF/RBV treatment was effective and tolerable in HCV GT2 patients. RVR and no previous history of HCC were positive predictors of SVR12.

10.
Gut and Liver ; : 440-450, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890753

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (G/P) is a combination of direct-acting antiviral agents that is an approved treatment for chronic infections by all six hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes. However, there are limited data on the effect of G/P in Korean patients in actual real-world settings. We evaluated the real-life effectiveness and safety of G/P at a single institution in Korea. @*Methods@#This retrospective, observational, cohort study used sustained virologic response at 12 weeks after treatment completion (SVR12) as the primary effectiveness endpoint. Safety and tolerability were also determined. @*Results@#We examined 267 individuals who received G/P for chronic HCV infections. There were 148 females (55.4%), and the overall median age was 63.0 years (range, 25 to 87 years). Eightythree patients (31.1%) had HCV genotype-1 and 182 (68.2%) had HCV-2. A total of 212 patients (79.4%) were HCV treatment-naïve, 200 (74.9%) received the 8-week treatment, 13 (4.9%) had received prior treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma, 37 (13.7%) had chronic kidney disease stage 3 or higher, and 10 (3.7%) were receiving dialysis. Intention to treat (ITT) analysis indicated that 256 (95.9%) achieved SVR12. A modified ITT analysis indicated that SVR12 was 97.7% (256/262). Six patients failed therapy because of posttreatment relapse. SVR12 was significantly lower in those who received prior sofosbuvir treatment (p=0.002) and those with detectable HCV RNA at week 4 (p=0.027). Seventy patients (26.2%) experienced one or more adverse events, and most of them were mild. @*Conclusions@#These real-life data indicated that G/P treatment was highly effective and well tolerated, regardless of viral genotype or patient comorbidities.

11.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 574-581, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890529

ABSTRACT

Background@#Postoperative thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression therapy is recommended for patients with intermediate- and high-risk differentiated thyroid cancer to prevent the recurrence of thyroid cancer. With the recent increase in small thyroid cancer cases, the extent of resection during surgery has generally decreased. Therefore, questions have been raised about the efficacy and long-term side effects of TSH suppression therapy in patients who have undergone a lobectomy. @*Methods@#This is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial in which 2,986 patients with papillary thyroid cancer are randomized into a high-TSH group (intervention) and a low-TSH group (control) after having undergone a lobectomy. The principle of treatment includes a TSH-lowering regimen aimed at TSH levels between 0.3 and 1.99 μIU/mL in the low-TSH group. The high-TSH group targets TSH levels between 2.0 and 7.99 μIU/mL. The dose of levothyroxine will be adjusted at each visit to maintain the target TSH level. The primary outcome is recurrence-free survival, as assessed by neck ultrasound every 6 to 12 months. Secondary endpoints include disease-free survival, overall survival, success rate in reaching the TSH target range, the proportion of patients with major cardiovascular diseases or bone metabolic disease, the quality of life, and medical costs. The follow-up period is 5 years. @*Conclusion@#The results of this trial will contribute to establishing the optimal indication for TSH suppression therapy in low-risk papillary thyroid cancer patients by evaluating the benefit and harm of lowering TSH levels in terms of recurrence, metabolic complications, costs, and quality of life.

12.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 619-627, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890518

ABSTRACT

Background@#We aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological features and biological behaviors of Korean thyroid cancer patients with rare variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) to address the ambiguity regarding the prognostic consequences of these variants. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 5,496 patients who underwent thyroid surgery for PTC, between January and December 2012, in nine tertiary hospitals. Rare PTC variants included tall cell (TCV), columnar cell (CCV), diffuse sclerosing (DSV), cribriform-morular (CMV), solid (SV), hobnail, and Warthin-like variants. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) was defined as the time from the date of thyroidectomy until recurrence. @*Results@#Rare variants accounted for 1.1% (n=63) of the PTC patients; with 0.9% TCV, 0.02% CCV, 0.1% DSV, 0.1% CMV, and 0.1% SV. The mean age of patients and primary tumor size were 42.1±13.1 years and 1.3±0.9 cm, respectively. Extrathyroidal extension and cervical lymph node metastasis were observed in 38 (60.3%) and 37 (58.7%) patients, respectively. Ultrasonographic findings revealed typical malignant features in most cases. During a median follow-up of 7 years, 6.3% of patients experienced a locoregional recurrence. The 5-year RFS rates were 71.4% in patients with DSV or SV, 95.9% for TCV, or CCV, and 100% for other variants. DSV emerged an independent risk factor associated with shorter RFS. @*Conclusion@#In this multicenter Korean cohort, rare variants accounted for 1.1% of all PTC cases, with TCV being the most frequent subtype. DSV emerged as a significant prognostic factor for RFS.

13.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 790-799, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890496

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to assess the effects of iodine intake, thyroid function, and their combined effect on the risk of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). @*Methods@#A case-control study was conducted including 500 community-based controls who had undergone a health check-up, and 446 overall PTC cases (209 PTC and 237 PTMC) from the Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC), was used as an indicator of iodine intake, and serum for thyroid function. The risk of PTC and PTMC was estimated using unconditional logistic regression. @*Results@#Excessive iodine intake (UIC ≥220 μg/gCr) was associated with both PTC (odds ratio [OR], 18.13 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.87 to 37.04) and PTMC (OR, 8.02; 95% CI, 4.64 to 13.87), compared to adequate iodine intake (UIC, 85 to 219 μg/gCr). Free thyroxine (T4) levels ≥1.25 ng/dL were associated with PTC (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.36 to 2.87) and PTMC (OR, 2.98; 95% CI, 2.01 to 4.41), compared to free T4 levels of 0.7 to 1.24 ng/dL. Individuals with excessive iodine intake and high free T4 levels had a greatly increased OR of PTC (OR, 43.48; 95% CI, 12.63 to 149.62), and PTMC (OR, 26.96; 95% CI, 10.26 to 70.89), compared to individuals with adequate iodine intake and low free T4 levels. @*Conclusion@#Excessive iodine intake using creatinine-adjusted UIC and high free T4 levels may have a synergistic effect on PTC and PTMC. Considering both iodine intake and thyroid function is important to assess PTC and PTMC risk.

14.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 447-454, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890472

ABSTRACT

Background@#Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is known to disrupt thyroid hormonal status. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of this disruption is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the direct effects of DEHP on the thyroid gland. @*Methods@#DEHP (vehicle, 50 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg) was administered to Sprague-Dawley rats for 2 weeks. The expression of the thyroid hormone synthesis pathway in rat thyroid tissues was analyzed through RNA sequencing analysis, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. DEHP was treated to FRTL-5 rat thyroid cells, and an RT-PCR analysis was performed. A reporter gene assay containing the promoter of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) in Nthy-ori 3-1 human thyroid cells was constructed, and luciferase activity was determined. @*Results@#After DEHP treatment, the free thyroxine (T4) and total T4 levels in rats significantly decreased. RNA sequencing analysis of rat thyroid tissues showed little difference between vehicle and DEHP groups. In the RT-PCR analysis, Tshr expression was significantly lower in both DEHP groups (50 and 500 mg/kg) compared to that in the vehicle group, and IHC staining showed that TSHR expression in the 50 mg/kg DEHP group significantly decreased. DEHP treatment to FRTL-5 cells significantly down-regulated Tshr expression. DEHP treatment also reduced luciferase activity in a reporter gene assay for TSHR. @*Conclusion@#Although overall genetic changes in the thyroid hormone synthesis pathway are not clear, DEHP exposure could significantly down-regulate Tshr expression in thyroid glands. Down-regulation of Tshr gene appears to be one of potential mechanisms of thyroid disruption by DEHP exposure.

15.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 30-35, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874552

ABSTRACT

This review highlights the most interesting research in thyroidology conducted in 2020. The publications of interest discussed below dealt with the following topics: thyroid dysfunction, risk of thyroid cancer, molecular diagnostics and new therapeutics for thyroid cancer, and thyroid disease in the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic era.

16.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 36-40, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874551

ABSTRACT

This review discusses articles published in 2020 that presented noteworthy achievements in translational and basic thyroidology. Previously unresolved questions about thyroid hormone receptor actions and signaling mechanisms were answered using various novel in vitro and in vivo models. Using high resolution cryo-electron microscopy, the fine functional structure of thyroglobulin was demonstrated, and new insights into the pathogenesis of thyroid disease were achieved, with a focus on research into thyroid-disrupting chemicals and the gut microbiome. Novel therapeutic approaches were tried in the field of advanced thyroid cancer treatments.

17.
Gut and Liver ; : 440-450, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898457

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (G/P) is a combination of direct-acting antiviral agents that is an approved treatment for chronic infections by all six hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes. However, there are limited data on the effect of G/P in Korean patients in actual real-world settings. We evaluated the real-life effectiveness and safety of G/P at a single institution in Korea. @*Methods@#This retrospective, observational, cohort study used sustained virologic response at 12 weeks after treatment completion (SVR12) as the primary effectiveness endpoint. Safety and tolerability were also determined. @*Results@#We examined 267 individuals who received G/P for chronic HCV infections. There were 148 females (55.4%), and the overall median age was 63.0 years (range, 25 to 87 years). Eightythree patients (31.1%) had HCV genotype-1 and 182 (68.2%) had HCV-2. A total of 212 patients (79.4%) were HCV treatment-naïve, 200 (74.9%) received the 8-week treatment, 13 (4.9%) had received prior treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma, 37 (13.7%) had chronic kidney disease stage 3 or higher, and 10 (3.7%) were receiving dialysis. Intention to treat (ITT) analysis indicated that 256 (95.9%) achieved SVR12. A modified ITT analysis indicated that SVR12 was 97.7% (256/262). Six patients failed therapy because of posttreatment relapse. SVR12 was significantly lower in those who received prior sofosbuvir treatment (p=0.002) and those with detectable HCV RNA at week 4 (p=0.027). Seventy patients (26.2%) experienced one or more adverse events, and most of them were mild. @*Conclusions@#These real-life data indicated that G/P treatment was highly effective and well tolerated, regardless of viral genotype or patient comorbidities.

18.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 574-581, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898233

ABSTRACT

Background@#Postoperative thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression therapy is recommended for patients with intermediate- and high-risk differentiated thyroid cancer to prevent the recurrence of thyroid cancer. With the recent increase in small thyroid cancer cases, the extent of resection during surgery has generally decreased. Therefore, questions have been raised about the efficacy and long-term side effects of TSH suppression therapy in patients who have undergone a lobectomy. @*Methods@#This is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial in which 2,986 patients with papillary thyroid cancer are randomized into a high-TSH group (intervention) and a low-TSH group (control) after having undergone a lobectomy. The principle of treatment includes a TSH-lowering regimen aimed at TSH levels between 0.3 and 1.99 μIU/mL in the low-TSH group. The high-TSH group targets TSH levels between 2.0 and 7.99 μIU/mL. The dose of levothyroxine will be adjusted at each visit to maintain the target TSH level. The primary outcome is recurrence-free survival, as assessed by neck ultrasound every 6 to 12 months. Secondary endpoints include disease-free survival, overall survival, success rate in reaching the TSH target range, the proportion of patients with major cardiovascular diseases or bone metabolic disease, the quality of life, and medical costs. The follow-up period is 5 years. @*Conclusion@#The results of this trial will contribute to establishing the optimal indication for TSH suppression therapy in low-risk papillary thyroid cancer patients by evaluating the benefit and harm of lowering TSH levels in terms of recurrence, metabolic complications, costs, and quality of life.

19.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 619-627, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898222

ABSTRACT

Background@#We aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological features and biological behaviors of Korean thyroid cancer patients with rare variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) to address the ambiguity regarding the prognostic consequences of these variants. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 5,496 patients who underwent thyroid surgery for PTC, between January and December 2012, in nine tertiary hospitals. Rare PTC variants included tall cell (TCV), columnar cell (CCV), diffuse sclerosing (DSV), cribriform-morular (CMV), solid (SV), hobnail, and Warthin-like variants. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) was defined as the time from the date of thyroidectomy until recurrence. @*Results@#Rare variants accounted for 1.1% (n=63) of the PTC patients; with 0.9% TCV, 0.02% CCV, 0.1% DSV, 0.1% CMV, and 0.1% SV. The mean age of patients and primary tumor size were 42.1±13.1 years and 1.3±0.9 cm, respectively. Extrathyroidal extension and cervical lymph node metastasis were observed in 38 (60.3%) and 37 (58.7%) patients, respectively. Ultrasonographic findings revealed typical malignant features in most cases. During a median follow-up of 7 years, 6.3% of patients experienced a locoregional recurrence. The 5-year RFS rates were 71.4% in patients with DSV or SV, 95.9% for TCV, or CCV, and 100% for other variants. DSV emerged an independent risk factor associated with shorter RFS. @*Conclusion@#In this multicenter Korean cohort, rare variants accounted for 1.1% of all PTC cases, with TCV being the most frequent subtype. DSV emerged as a significant prognostic factor for RFS.

20.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 790-799, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898200

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to assess the effects of iodine intake, thyroid function, and their combined effect on the risk of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). @*Methods@#A case-control study was conducted including 500 community-based controls who had undergone a health check-up, and 446 overall PTC cases (209 PTC and 237 PTMC) from the Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC), was used as an indicator of iodine intake, and serum for thyroid function. The risk of PTC and PTMC was estimated using unconditional logistic regression. @*Results@#Excessive iodine intake (UIC ≥220 μg/gCr) was associated with both PTC (odds ratio [OR], 18.13 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.87 to 37.04) and PTMC (OR, 8.02; 95% CI, 4.64 to 13.87), compared to adequate iodine intake (UIC, 85 to 219 μg/gCr). Free thyroxine (T4) levels ≥1.25 ng/dL were associated with PTC (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.36 to 2.87) and PTMC (OR, 2.98; 95% CI, 2.01 to 4.41), compared to free T4 levels of 0.7 to 1.24 ng/dL. Individuals with excessive iodine intake and high free T4 levels had a greatly increased OR of PTC (OR, 43.48; 95% CI, 12.63 to 149.62), and PTMC (OR, 26.96; 95% CI, 10.26 to 70.89), compared to individuals with adequate iodine intake and low free T4 levels. @*Conclusion@#Excessive iodine intake using creatinine-adjusted UIC and high free T4 levels may have a synergistic effect on PTC and PTMC. Considering both iodine intake and thyroid function is important to assess PTC and PTMC risk.

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