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1.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 362-370, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926924

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study examined the path model predicting suicide attempts (SA) by interpersonal need for suicide desire, acquired capability for suicide, the emotion dysregulation, and depression symptoms in people admitted to hospitals for medical treatment. @*Methods@#A total of 344 participants (200 depressed patients with attempted suicide, 144 depressed patients with suicidal ideation) were enrolled for this study. Depression, anxiety, emotion regulation, interpersonal needs, and acquired capability for suicide were evaluated. A model with pathways from emotion regulation difficulties and interpersonal needs to SA was proposed. Participants were divided into two groups according to the presence of SA or suicidal ideation. @*Results@#Acquired capability for suicide mediated the path from depression to SA. In the path model, difficulties in emotion regulation and interpersonal needs predicted depression significantly. Although depression itself was not significantly related to acquired capability for suicide, depression was significantly related to acquired capability for suicide in suicide attempter group. @*Conclusion@#Interventions with two factors affecting SA will clarify the suicide risk and contribute to finding risk factors.

2.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 167-179, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924824

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Childhood trauma is the most important environmental factor for several psychiatric disorders. Depressed patients with childhood trauma appear to have severe symptoms that frequently recur. This study investigated whether depressed patients with childhood trauma showed attenuated Nogo event-related potentials (ERPs) and source activity during response-inhibition tasks. @*Methods@#Forty-four patients patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) were instructed to perform a Go/Nogo task during electroencephalography. Sensors and source activities of N2 and P3 of the Nogo ERPs were analyzed. The participants’ clinical symptoms were assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and Affective Lability Scale. The participants were divided into two groups (low and high), based on their total CTQ scores. @*Results@#MDD subjects with high CTQ scores showed significantly decreased Nogo P3 amplitudes at the frontal, frontocentral, central, and parietal electrodes than those with low CTQ scores (all p < 0.01). In Nogo P3, the source activities of the right cuneus, right posterior cingulate cortex, right precuneus, left supramarginal gyrus, and left lingual gyrus were significantly lower in the high CTQ group than in the low one (all p < 0.01). There were significant negative correlations between the total CTQ scores and the Nogo P3 amplitudes in the frontocentral (p = 0.03) and parietal regions (p = 0.02), which showed lower source activity in the Nogo P3 condition. @*Conclusion@#Depressed patients with severe childhood trauma showed different Nogo-ERP characteristics, which might reflect inhibitory failure and dysfunction in related brain regions.

3.
Mood and Emotion ; (2): 73-82, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918506

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to examine the changes in Nogo N2 and P3 amplitudes in patients with bipolar affective disorder (BD) or major depressive disorder (MDD) and in healthy controls (HCs). The association between attention and Nogo N2 and P3 changes was also investigated. @*Methods@#The study included 30 participants with BD, 30 participants with MDD, and 30 HCs aged 19-60 years. They performed a GoNogo task while their electroencephalograms were recorded. Beck Depression Inventory and StateTrait Anxiety Inventory were used for evaluation. Furthermore, behavioral measures and GoNogo N2 and P3 amplitudes were compared between the three groups. @*Results@#Patients with BD or MDD exhibited a significantly poorer performance in Nogo accuracy than the HCs. Patients with BD or MDD showed significantly lower Nogo N2 amplitudes at the frontal, fronto-central, and central electrodes than the HCs. In patients with BD or MDD, the Nogo N2 amplitudes at the frontal or fronto-central electrode were positively correlated with state of anxiety scores and inattention. @*Conclusion@#These findings suggest that decreased Nogo N2 amplitudes in the frontal or fronto-central areas could be a biological marker for inattention during depressive episodes associated with BD or MDD.

4.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 996-1005, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832599

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Attention-deficit and poor impulse control have frequently been observed in major depressive disorder (MDD) and attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Altered event-related potential (ERP) performance, such as GoNogo tasks, has been regarded as a neurocognitive process associated with attention and behavioral inhibition. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between Nogo ERP and adult ADHD in MDD. @*Methods@#A total of 64 participants with MDD (32 comorbid with ADHD) and 32 healthy controls aged 19–45 years were recruited; they performed GoNogo paradigms during electroencephalogram measurement. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) were evaluated. Clinical measures and GoNogo ERP were compared between three groups: depression with ADHD, depression without ADHD, and healthy controls. @*Results@#MDD subjects with ADHD showed significantly decreased Nogo P3 amplitude at frontal electrode, compared with those without ADHD and healthy controls. MDD subjects with ADHD showed significantly longer Nogo N2 latency at frontal and frontocentral electrodes, compared with those without ADHD and healthy controls. In MDD subjects with ADHD, the Nogo P3 amplitude at the frontal electrode was negatively correlated with the ASRS score and inattention. The Nogo N2 latency at the frontal electrode was positively correlated with false alarm rate. @*Conclusion@#The decreased Nogo P3 amplitude in the frontal area might be a potential biological marker for inattention in depressed patients with ADHD.

5.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1064-1072, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832588

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The objective of the present study was to explore causal pathways to understand how second traumatic experiences could affect the development of emotional exhaustion and psychiatric problems. @*Methods@#A total of 582 workers who had jobs vulnerable to secondary traumatic experiences were enrolled for this study. Emotional exhaustion, secondary trauma, resilience, perceived stress, depression, anxiety, and sleep problems were evaluated. A model with pathways from secondary traumatic experience score to depression and anxiety was proposed. The participants were divided into three groups according to the resilience: the low, middle and high resilience group. @*Results@#Resilience was a meaningful moderator between secondary traumatic experiences and psychiatric problems. In the path model, the secondary trauma and perceived stress directly and indirectly predicted perceived stress, emotional exhaustion, depression, anxiety, and sleep problems in all three groups. Direct effects of perceived stress on depression and anxiety were the largest in the low resilience group. However, direct effects of secondary trauma on perceived stress and emotional exhaustion were the largest in the high resilience group. @*Conclusion@#Understanding the needs of focusing for distinct psychological factors offers a valuable direction for the development of intervention programs to prevent emotional exhaustion among workers with secondary traumatic experiences.

6.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 127-135, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832041

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Mismatch negativity (MMN) is known to be associated with neuro-cognition and functional outcomes. Remission and recovery rates are related to the neuro-cognition of patients with schizophrenia. The present study explored the relationship of MMN with remission in patients with schizophrenia. @*Methods@#Forty patients with schizophrenia were recruited and divided into two groups, with or without remission, according to the Remission in Schizophrenia Working Group criteria (RSWGcr). Symptom severity (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, PANSS), cognitive function, functional outcome, and MMN of the patients were evaluated. A regression analysis was used to identify the factors that significantly predicted symptom improvement and remission including MMN at frontal site assessed at baseline, and anticipated clinical variables as predictive factors. @*Results@#MMN amplitudes in frontal sites were further decreased in the groups without remission compared to the groups with remission. MMN amplitude was significantly correlated with measures of symptom change and functional outcome measurements in patients with schizophrenia. Regression analysis revealed that symptom severity and MMN significantly predicted remission in patients with schizophrenia. Symptom improvement significantly predicted PANSS at baseline, illness duration, and antipsychotic dose, as did MMN amplitude at frontal site. @*Conclusion@#Our results suggest that MMN reflected symptom improvement and remission in patients with schizophrenia. MMN indices appear to be promising candidates as predictive factors for schizophrenia remission.

7.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 369-376, 2019.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763556

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The Depression in Old Age Scale (DIA-S) is a new screening tool for assessing depression in the elderly. The primary aims of this study were to describe the validation of the Korean version of the DIA-S (K-DIA-S) and to compare its validity with that of other depression screening questionnaires used in elderly outpatients in medical settings. METHODS: A total of 385 elderly outpatients completed the K-DIA-S and underwent the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview to diagnose depressive disorders. Other measures included the 15-item short form of the Geriatric Depression Scale (SGDS), the 9-item depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Reliability and validity tests, an optimal cutoff point estimate, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were performed to investigate the diagnostic validity of the K-DIA-S. Areas under the curves (AUCs) for the K-DIA-S, SGDS, and PHQ-9 were compared statistically. RESULTS: The K-DIA-S showed good internal consistency and strong correlations with the SGDS (r = 0.853), PHQ-9 (r = 0.739), and MADRS (r = 0.772). The cut-off point of the K-DIA-S that can be recommended for screening depressive symptoms was a score of 4. For “any depressive disorder”, the AUC (standard error) for the K-DIA-S was 0.896 (0.015), which was significantly larger than that for the PHQ-9 (p = 0.033). CONCLUSION: The present findings suggest that the K-DIA-S has good psychometric properties and is a valid and reliable tool for assessing depressive symptoms in elderly populations and medically ill patients.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Area Under Curve , Depression , Depressive Disorder , Mass Screening , Outpatients , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , ROC Curve
8.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 95-102, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739456

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Chronic ‘latent’ infection by Toxoplasma gondii is common and most of the hosts have minimal symptoms or they are even asymptomatic. However, there are possible mechanisms by which T. gondii may affect human behavior and it may also cause humans to attempt suicide. This article aimed to investigate the potential pathophysiological relationship between suicide attempts and T. gondii infection in Korea. METHODS: One hundred fifty-five psychiatric patients with a history of suicide attempt and 135 healthy control individuals were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays and fluorescent antibody technique for T. gondii seropositivity and antibody titers. The group of suicide attempters was interviewed regarding the history of suicide attempt during lifetime and evaluated using 17-item Korean version of Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Korean-Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). RESULTS: Immunoglobulin G antibodies were found in 21 of the 155 suicide attempters and in 8 of the 135 controls (p=0.011). The Toxoplasma-seropositive suicide attempters had a higher HAMD score on the depressed mood and feeling of guilt subscales and a higher total score than the seronegative suicide attempters. T. gondii seropositive status was associated with higher C-SSRS in the severity and lethality subscales. T. gondii IgG seropositivity was significantly associated with higher STAI-X1 scores in the suicide attempters group. CONCLUSION: Suicide attempters showed higher seroprevalence of T. gondii than healthy controls. Among the suicide attempters, the T. gondii seropositive and seronegative groups showed several differences in the aspects of suicide. These results suggested a significant association between T. gondii infection and psychiatric problems in suicidality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies , Anxiety , Depression , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Guilt , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin G , Korea , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Suicide , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis
9.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1135-1143, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719192

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in psychopathology between offspring of parents with bipolar I disorder (BP-I) and those with bipolar II disorder (BP-II). METHODS: The sample included 201 offspring between 6 and 17 years of age who had at least one parent with BP-I or BP-II. The offspring were diagnostically evaluated using the Korean Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version. Psychopathology and Clinical characteristics were evaluated, including lifetime DSM-5 diagnoses, depression, and childhood trauma. Lifetime DSM-5 diagnoses were also compared between schoolchildren aged 6 to 11 years and adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. RESULTS: In lifetime DSM-5 diagnoses, offspring of parents with BP-I had significantly increased risk of developing MDD and BP-I than those with BP-II. Regarding clinical characteristics, ADHD rating scale and childhood trauma scale were significantly higher in offspring of parents with BP-I than that in those with BP-II. CONCLUSION: The present study supports that BP-I may be etiologically distinct from BP-II by a possible genetic liability. Our findings indicate that additional research related to bipolar offspring is needed to enhance understanding of differences between BP-I and BP-II.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Diagnosis , Mood Disorders , Parents , Psychopathology
10.
Korean Journal of Spine ; : 71-76, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-187213

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: There are many technical modifications of decompressive lumbar laminectomy. The purpose of this study was to report long-term clinical and radiological outcomes of central decompressive laminoplasty (CDL), the corresponding author’s own modification of lumbar laminectomy for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). METHODS: Among 100 patients who underwent CDL by a single surgeon between December 2010 and March 2014, 68 patients were included in this study. Mean follow-up time was 37.7 months. Clinical and radiological data were gathered prospectively and reviewed retrospectively. Clinical outcome was measured by using visual analog scale (VAS) for back/buttock and leg, and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Radiological outcome was measured by neutral slippage percentage, dynamic slippage percentage, and dynamic intervertebral angel on sagittal X-ray. Outcomes after CDL were assessed by changes of clinical and radiological parameters from the baseline. Mixed effect model with random patients’ effect as used to test for differences in the repeated measured clinical and radiological data. RESULTS: The patients had no serious complications with an uneventful recovery during the early postoperative period. In the early postoperative period, VAS scores for back/buttock and leg improved significantly and were kept with time (p < 0.001). ODI also improved significantly during the postoperative follow-up period (p < 0.001). The radiologic parameters were well maintained and showed no progression of instability. During the follow-up, a case of herniated disc at same level recurrence was noted after lifting trauma, and 2 adjacent foraminal stenosis needed additional surgery. CONCLUSION: CDL provides long-term pain relief and functional restoration without progression of radiological instability.


Subject(s)
Humans , Constriction, Pathologic , Follow-Up Studies , Intervertebral Disc Displacement , Laminectomy , Laminoplasty , Leg , Lifting , Patient Outcome Assessment , Postoperative Period , Prospective Studies , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Stenosis , Visual Analog Scale
11.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 306-313, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-164261

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify depressive symptom profiles that indicated the presence of depressive disorder and present optimal cut-off sub-scores for depressive symptom profiles for detecting depressive disorder in elderly subjects with chronic physical diseases including diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/asthma, and coronary artery disease, using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-one elderly patients with chronic physical diseases were recruited consecutively from a university-affiliated general hospital in South Korea. RESULTS: Greater severities of all 9 depressive symptoms in the PHQ-9 were presented in those with depressive disorder rather than those without depressive disorder. A binary logistic regression modeling presented that little interest [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=4.648, p<0.001], reduced/increased sleep (aOR=3.269, p<0.001), psychomotor retardation/agitation (aOR=2.243, p=0.004), and concentration problem (aOR=16.116, p<0.001) were independently associated with increased likelihood of having depressive disorder. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis presented that the optimal cut-off value of score on the items for little interest, reduced/increased sleep, psychomotor retardation/agitation and concentration problem (PHQ-9) for detecting depressive disorder was 4 with 61.9% of sensitivity and 91.5% of specificity [area under curve (AUC)=0.937, p<0.001]. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggested that the diagnostic weighting of little interest, reduced/increased sleep, psychomotor retardation/agitation, and concentration problem is needed to detect depressive disorder among the elderly patients with chronic physical diseases.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Coronary Artery Disease , Depression , Depressive Disorder , Hospitals, General , Korea , Logistic Models , Mass Screening , Odds Ratio , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 82-86, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222872

ABSTRACT

Major depressive disorder, especially in later life, has heterogeneous clinical characteristics and treatment responses. Symptomatically, psychomotor retardation, lack of energy, and apathy tends to be more common in people with late-onset depression (LOD). Despite recent advances in psychopharmacologic treatments, 20% to 30% of patients with mood disorders experience inadequate responses to medication, often resulting in a trial of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). However, the therapeutic mechanism of ECT is still unclear. By using ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT), we can obtain the status of brain metabolism in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders and changes during psychiatric treatment course. The object of this case report is evaluating the effect of ECT on brain metabolism in treatment-refractory LOD by PET/CT and understanding the mode of action of ECT. In this case report, we presented a 55-year-old female patient who suffered psychotic depression that was resistant to pharmacological treatment. Several antidepressants and atypical anti-psychotics were applied but there was no improvement in her symptoms. The patient presented not only depressed mood and behaviors but also deficit in cognitive functions. We found decreased diffuse cerebral metabolism in her brain ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT image. ECT resulted in amelioration of the patients' symptoms and another brain PET imaging 7 weeks after the last ECT course showed that her brain metabolism was normalized.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Antidepressive Agents , Apathy , Brain , Cognition , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major , Electroconvulsive Therapy , Electrons , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Metabolism , Mood Disorders , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Positron-Emission Tomography
13.
Journal of the Korean Society of Biological Psychiatry ; : 12-17, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725345

ABSTRACT

Neuroinflammation is one of important allostatic loads contributory to the various psychiatric illness. It is mediated mainly by glial cells, which produce both proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines, and the balance of them determines the inflammatory process in the central nervous system. S100 calcium-binding protein B, which is used as an inflammatory marker is also released by glial cells. In the molecular level, oxidative stress contributes to the neuroinflammation. Their disturbances have been revealed in the psychiatric illness and related with the dysregulation of the glutamatergic and monoaminergic systems. There is a possibility to use them as disease markers. The approach for inflammation using antiinflammatory drugs and antioxidants could be connected to the development of disease-modifying treatments. Also, a searching examination about specific subtypes who are vulnerable to inflammation in the patients is required to confirm their efficacy clearly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Allostasis , Antioxidants , Central Nervous System , Cytokines , Inflammation , Neuroglia , Oxidative Stress
14.
Korean Journal of Neurotrauma ; : 123-127, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-122143

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Bisphosphonate, a typical bone resorption inhibitor, is an important first-line drug for treating osteoporosis. Recent studies show a novel paradigm in stimulating bone formation. Teriparatide, which is composed of recombinant human parathyroid hormone, stimulates osteoblasts and induces bone regeneration. Bone mineral density (BMD) that was used before and after the treatment with anti-osteoporosis drug was compared for the effectiveness in therapy between a combination of teriparatide and selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), and bisphosphonate. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes of 85 postmenopausal women who were concurrently diagnosed with osteoporosis and spinal compression fracture between November 2008 and January 2015. The targeted group were treated with teriparatide and SERM (TS group, n=26) and bisphosphonate (B group, n=59). RESULTS: In both groups, BMD of femur neck was not improved after the medication. In the TS group, on the other hand the BMD and T-score of lumbar spine has significantly improved. BMD ratio of lumbar spine was prominently higher than those of TS group. CONCLUSION: The combination therapy of teriparatide and SERM was very effective in treating the lumbar spine, compared to that of bisphosphonate. Although the period of teriparatide treatment has been relatively short, the preventive effects of compression fracture were considerable. Thus, combination therapy of teriparatide and SERM is highly recommended for patients who are concerned with spinal compression fracture from osteoporosis.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Bone Density , Bone Regeneration , Bone Resorption , Femur Neck , Fractures, Compression , Hand , Osteoblasts , Osteogenesis , Osteoporosis , Parathyroid Hormone , Postmenopause , Raloxifene Hydrochloride , Retrospective Studies , Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators , Spine , Teriparatide
15.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 953-959, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70187

ABSTRACT

Our study aimed to examine the knowledge and attitude of nursing personnel toward depression in general hospitals of Korea. A total of 851 nursing personnel enrolled at four university-affiliated general hospitals completed self-report questionnaires. Chi-square tests were used to compare the knowledge and attitude of registered or assistant nurses toward depression. In addition, binary logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for the following confounders: age-group and workplace. Registered and assistant nurses differed in their knowledge and attitude toward depression. The proportion of rational and/or correct responses were higher in registered nurses than assistant nurses for the following: constellation of depressive symptoms defined by DSM-IV (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.876; P<0.001); suicide risk in depression recovery (aOR, 3.223; P=0.001) and psychological stress as a cause of depression (aOR, 4.370; P<0.001); the relationship between chronic physical disease and depression (aOR, 8.984; P<0.001); and other items. Our results suggest that in terms of the biological model of depression, the understanding of registered nurses is greater than that of assistant nurses. Moreover, specific psychiatric education programs for nursing personnel need to be developed in Korea. Our findings can contribute to the development of a general hospital-based model for early detection of depression in patients with chronic medical diseases.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , Depression/diagnosis , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Hospitals, General , Nurses/psychology , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Republic of Korea , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 144-149, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-162189

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Mirtax is a generic mirtazapine widely used since 2003. We conducted an open-label, uncontrolled 6-week study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Mirtax for major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Ninety three MDD patients with the diagnosis of MDD and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) score > or =14 were recruited. The HDRS, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity Scale (CGI-S) were administered at baseline, 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Response (> or =50% decrease in the HDRS or MADRS score), remission (absolute HDRS score < or =7 or MADRS score < or =10) and CGI-I score < or =2 were also calculated. Adverse event (AE) frequency and severity, weight, blood pressure, and pulse rate were checked to assess safety. RESULTS: The starting dosage was 11.5+/-6.4 mg/day, and the maintenance dosage was 23.1+/-9.4 mg/day. During 6 weeks, HDRS, MADRS and CGI-S scores decreased from 25.1+/-5.6 to 11.9+/-8.6 (mean change -13.1+/-8.3, p<0.001), from 30.2+/-6.3 to 13.73+/-10.40 (mean change -16.5+/-9.8, p<0.001), and from 5.0+/-0.8 to 2.5+/-1.3 (mean change -2.5+/-1.3, p<0.001), respectively. The percentages of responders, remitters by HDRS and patients with a CGI-I score < or =2 were 64.6%, 35.4% and 52.7%, respectively. Significant decreases in HDRS, MADRS and CGI-S scores were confirmed at week 1. The total rate of AEs was 32.3%; the most frequently reported AEs were sedation (4.3%) and constipation (4.3%). Weight was increased from 58.8+/-10.6 to 60.3+/-9.3 kg (mean change 0.7+/-1.7 kg, p=0.004). CONCLUSION: This study, as the first clinical trial of generic mirtazapine, demonstrated the efficacy and tolerability of Mirtax for MDD using a single treatment design.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Pressure , Constipation , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major , Diagnosis , Drugs, Generic , Heart Rate , Prospective Studies
17.
Korean Journal of Psychopharmacology ; : 17-21, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-11601

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subjective anxiety symptoms and cognitive function in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. METHODS: A total 48 patients were recruited in this study. All participants were divided into two groups by anxiety symptoms in Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale. Intelligence Scale and memory test were analyzed. RESULTS: A high risk group showed lower scores in all of verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) and total IQ in Intelligence Scale and memory quotient in memory test. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that anxiety symptoms make worse in cognitive function in patients with mild traumatic brain injury.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anxiety , Brain Injuries , Depression , Intelligence , Memory
18.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 206-210, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76400

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Lumbar spinal stenosis is a common degenerative spine disease that requires surgical intervention. Currently, there is interest in minimally invasive surgery and various technical modifications of decompressive lumbar laminectomy without fusion. The purpose of this study was to present the author's surgical technique and results for decompression of spinal stenosis. METHODS: The author performed surgery in 57 patients with lumbar spinal stenosis between 2006 and 2010. Data were gathered retrospectively via outpatient interviews and telephone questionnaires. The operation used in this study was named central decompressive laminoplasty (CDL), which allows thorough decompression of the lumbar spinal canal and proximal two foraminal nerve roots by undercutting the lamina and facet joint. Kyphotic prone positioning on elevated curvature of the frame or occasional use of an interlaminar spreader enables sufficient interlaminar working space. Pain was measured with a visual analogue scale (VAS). Surgical outcome was analyzed with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Data were analyzed preoperatively and six months postoperatively. RESULTS: The interlaminar window provided by this technique allowed for unhindered access to the central canal, lateral recess, and upper/lower foraminal zone, with near-total sparing of the facet joint. The VAS scores and ODI were significantly improved at six-month follow-up compared to preoperative levels (p75% of initial VAS score) of back/buttock and leg was observed in 75.0% and 76.2% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: CDL is easily applied, allows good field visualization and decompression, maintains stability by sparing ligament and bony structures, and shows excellent early surgical results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Decompression , Follow-Up Studies , Laminectomy , Leg , Ligaments , Outpatients , Surveys and Questionnaires , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Canal , Spinal Stenosis , Spine , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Telephone , Zygapophyseal Joint
19.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 224-229, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76397

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To report long-term clinical and radiological outcomes of minimally invasive posterior cervical foraminotomy (MI-PCF) performed in patients with unilateral single-level cervical radiculopathy. METHODS: Of forty-six patients who underwent MI-PCF for unilateral single-level radiculopathy between 2005 and 2013, 33 patients were included in the study, with a mean follow-up of 32.7 months. Patients were regularly followed for clinical and radiological assessment. Clinical outcome was measured by visual analogue scale (VAS) for the neck/shoulder and arm, and the neck disability index (NDI). Radiological outcome was measured by focal/global angulation and disc height index (DHI). Outcomes after MI-PCF were evaluated as changes of clinical and radiological parameters from the baseline. Mixed effect model with random patients' effect was used to test for differences in the clinical and radiological parameters repeat measures. RESULTS: There were no complications and all patients had an uneventful recovery during the early postoperative period. VAS scores for neck/shoulder and arm improved significantly in the early postoperative period (3 months) and were maintained with time (p<0.001). NDI improved significantly post-operatively and tended to decrease gradually during the follow-up period (p<0.001). There were no statistically significant changes in focal and global angulation at follow-up. Percent DHIs of the upper adjacent or operated disc were maintained without significant changes with time. During the follow-up, same site recurrence was not noted and adjacent segment disease requiring additional surgery occurred in two patients (6%) on the contra-lateral side. CONCLUSION: MI-PCF provides long-term pain relief and functional restoration, accompanied by good long-term radiological outcome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arm , Follow-Up Studies , Foraminotomy , Neck , Patient Outcome Assessment , Postoperative Period , Radiculopathy , Recurrence
20.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 310-319, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-140371

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Information on the specificity of associations between parents with bipolar disorder (BPD) and risk of psychopathology in their offspring is limited. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of mental disorders in the offspring of individuals with BPD in South Korea. METHODS: The sample consisted of 100 child and adolescent offspring (aged 6.0-18.9 years) from 65 nuclear families having at least one parent with BPD. Probands, offspring, and biological co-parents were interviewed using a semi-structured diagnostic interview and the offspring were evaluated using the Korean version of the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). RESULTS: Sixty one of the 100 participants met the criteria for at least one mental disorder. Of these, 35 participants had a mood disorder, 35 had an anxiety disorder, and 29 had attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Thirty nine of the offspring had no psychiatric diagnosis. Of the 35 with a mood disorder, 16 (45.7%) had comorbid ADHD and 18 (51.4%) had comorbid anxiety disorders. CONCLUSION: Offspring of parents with BPD are at high risk for mental disorders. These findings further support the heredity of BPD and indicate the need for early identification and treatment.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Humans , Anxiety Disorders , Bipolar Disorder , Heredity , Korea , Mental Disorders , Mood Disorders , Nuclear Family , Parents , Prevalence , Psychopathology , Sensitivity and Specificity
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