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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834018

ABSTRACT

Protective ventilation is a prevailing ventilatory strategy these days and is comprised of small tidal volume, limited inspiratory pressure, and application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). However, several retrospective studies recently suggested that tidal volume, inspiratory pressure, and PEEP are not related to patient outcomes, or only related when they influence the driving pressure. Therefore, this review introduces the concept of driving pressure and looks into the possibility of driving pressure-guided ventilation as a new ventilatory strategy, especially in thoracic surgery where postoperative pulmonary complications are common, and thus, lung protection is of utmost importance.

2.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 447-450, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763783

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Neurobiology
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739420

ABSTRACT

Figure 1 was printed with incorrect text. In the Figure, “Radial artery” should be corrected to “Axillary artery.”

4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-159877

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Hemangioma , Vulva
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The authors sought to determine whether a shallow needle approach to the axillary artery would improve complete sensory blocks of median, radial, and ulnar nerves as compared with a perpendicular approach when transarterial axillary block is performed using a scalp vein needle (23G, 3/4'). METHODS: Fifty-four patients were allocated equally to a perpendicular group (the PA group) or a shallow approach group (SA group). Sensory and motor scores were evaluated and compared in the two groups at 5-minute intervals for 20 minutes after block. The main outcome variables were rates of blockage of median, radial, and ulnar nerves. RESULTS: Excellent block rates (defined as completion of surgery using brachial plexus block alone) were obtained in both groups (SA group 77.8% vs. PA group 70.3%, P = 0.755). However, the rate of blockage of all three nerves was significantly higher in the SA group (74% vs. 40.7%, P = 0.013). Furthermore, the rate of complete sensory block of the radial nerve at 20 minutes was significantly greater in the SA group (85.2% vs. 59.3%, P = 0.033). CONCLUSIONS: A shallow needle approach to the axillary artery resulted in a significantly higher median, radial, and ulnar nerve block rate at 20 minutes after LA injection than a perpendicular approach.


Subject(s)
Axillary Artery , Brachial Plexus Block , Brachial Plexus , Humans , Needles , Radial Nerve , Scalp , Ulnar Nerve , Veins
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136430

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The authors sought to determine whether a shallow needle approach to the axillary artery would improve complete sensory blocks of median, radial, and ulnar nerves as compared with a perpendicular approach when transarterial axillary block is performed using a scalp vein needle (23G, 3/4'). METHODS: Fifty-four patients were allocated equally to a perpendicular group (the PA group) or a shallow approach group (SA group). Sensory and motor scores were evaluated and compared in the two groups at 5-minute intervals for 20 minutes after block. The main outcome variables were rates of blockage of median, radial, and ulnar nerves. RESULTS: Excellent block rates (defined as completion of surgery using brachial plexus block alone) were obtained in both groups (SA group 77.8% vs. PA group 70.3%, P = 0.755). However, the rate of blockage of all three nerves was significantly higher in the SA group (74% vs. 40.7%, P = 0.013). Furthermore, the rate of complete sensory block of the radial nerve at 20 minutes was significantly greater in the SA group (85.2% vs. 59.3%, P = 0.033). CONCLUSIONS: A shallow needle approach to the axillary artery resulted in a significantly higher median, radial, and ulnar nerve block rate at 20 minutes after LA injection than a perpendicular approach.


Subject(s)
Axillary Artery , Brachial Plexus Block , Brachial Plexus , Humans , Needles , Radial Nerve , Scalp , Ulnar Nerve , Veins
7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 238-246, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220776

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Oxidative stress during CO2 pneumoperitoneum is reported to be associated with decreased bioactivity of nitric oxide (NO). However, the changes in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and arginase during CO2 pneumoperitoneum have not been elucidated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three groups. After anesthesia induction, the abdominal cavities of the rats of groups intra-abdominal pressure (IAP)-10 and IAP-20 were insufflated with CO2 at pressures of 10 mm Hg and 20 mm Hg, respectively, for 2 hours. The rats of group IAP-0 were not insufflated. After deflation, plasma NO was measured, while protein expression levels and activity of eNOS, iNOS, arginase (Arg) I, and Arg II were analyzed with aorta and lung tissue samples. RESULTS: Plasma nitrite concentration and eNOS expression were significantly suppressed in groups IAP-10 and IAP-20 compared to IAP-0. While expression of iNOS and Arg I were comparable between the three groups, Arg II expression was significantly greater in group IAP-20 than in group IAP-0. Activity of eNOS was significantly lower in groups IAP-10 and IAP-20 than in group IAP-0, while iNOS activity was significantly greater in group IAP-20 than in groups IAP-0 and IAP-10. Arginase activity was significantly greater in group IAP-20 than in groups IAP-0 and IAP-10. CONCLUSION: The activity of eNOS decreases during CO2 pneumoperitoneum, while iNOS activity is significantly increased, a change that contributes to increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Moreover, arginase expression and activity is increased during CO2 pneumoperitoneum, which seems to act inversely to the NO system.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aorta/physiology , Arginase/antagonists & inhibitors , Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Inflammation/etiology , Injections, Subcutaneous , Lung Injury/etiology , Male , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Pneumoperitoneum/complications , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-24861

ABSTRACT

Sweet syndrome is an acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis predominantly characterized by fever, an elevated neutrophil count, and erythematous skin lesions comprising plaques and nodules that mainly appear on the upper extremities, face, and neck. The incidence of Sweet syndrome in the general population is unknown because of limited reports on this condition. Bortezomib, an antineoplastic agent that is the standard of care for multiple myeloma, has been reported to be associated with Sweet syndrome. We describe the case of a 66-year-old man who developed bortezomib-induced histiocytoid Sweet syndrome during treatment for multiple myeloma.


Subject(s)
Aged , Bortezomib , Fever , Humans , Incidence , Multiple Myeloma , Neck , Neutrophils , Skin , Standard of Care , Sweet Syndrome , Upper Extremity
9.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1421-1427, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-39973

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Hypoxemia during one-lung ventilation (OLV) remains a serious problem, particularly in the supine position. We investigated the effects of alveolar recruitment (AR) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on oxygenation during OLV in the supine position. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-nine patients were randomly allocated to one of the following three groups: a control group (ventilation with a tidal volume of 8 mL/kg), a PEEP group (the same ventilatory pattern with a PEEP of 8 cm H2O), or an AR group (an AR maneuver immediately before OLV followed by a PEEP of 8 cm H2O). The tidal volume was reduced to 6 mL/kg during OLV in all groups. Blood gas analyses, respiratory variables, and hemodynamic variables were recorded 15 min into TLV (TLVbaseline), 15 and 30 min after OLV (OLV15 and OLV30), and 10 min after re-establishing TLV (TLVend). RESULTS: Ultimately, 92 patients were analyzed. In the AR group, the arterial oxygen tension was higher at TLVend, and the physiologic dead space was lower at OLV15 and TLVend than in the control group. The mean airway pressure and dynamic lung compliance were higher in the PEEP and AR groups than in the control group at OLV15, OLV30, and TLVend. No significant differences in hemodynamic variables were found among the three groups throughout the study period. CONCLUSION: Recruitment of both lungs with subsequent PEEP before OLV improved arterial oxygenation and ventilatory efficiency during video-assisted thoracic surgery requiring OLV in the supine position.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Hypoxia , Female , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Lung Compliance/physiology , Male , Middle Aged , One-Lung Ventilation/methods , Oxygen/blood , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , Pulmonary Alveoli/physiology , Pulmonary Gas Exchange , Respiratory Mechanics/physiology , Supine Position , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted , Tidal Volume
10.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 721-726, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-164333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cases of dermatitis induced by the injection of certain drugs have been reported. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the cause and clinicopathologic findings of injection-induced dermatitis, and to reveal whether the reaction has any relation to the patient's age, injection site, drug concentration, and time interval from the injection to the occurrence of the skin lesion. METHODS: In this study, we enrolled 10 patients who developed erythematous skin lesions after the injection of causative drugs. The lesions were compared to each other according to the injection site, time interval from the injection to the occurrence of the skin lesion, and clinical characteristics. We performed intradermal and patch tests in each patient with different concentrations of causative drugs. RESULTS: The most common causative drugs were diclofenac and vitamin K1. The eczematous type was the most frequent clinical type. The intradermal test showed more positive results than the patch test. The patch tests with diclofenac (as is, 2.5%, 5%, and 10%) and vitamin K1 (10%) were all negative in 10 patients. Furthermore, intradermal tests with diclofenac (as is) and vitamin K1 (0.1%, 1%, and 10%) were performed in 8 patients. Six patients had a positive reaction, consisting of erythema, induration, and vesiculation, after 1 and 2 days. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that the most common causative agents were diclofenac and vitamin K1. Moreover, it seems that that intradermal test is more useful than the patch test in the diagnosis of injection-induced dermatitis.


Subject(s)
Dermatitis , Diagnosis , Diclofenac , Erythema , Humans , Intradermal Tests , Patch Tests , Skin , Vitamin K , Vitamin K 1
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192876

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Lip , Neurofibroma
12.
13.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 225-230, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-17425

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We hypothesized that regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) could replace jugular bulb oxygen saturation (SjvO2) in the steep Trendelenburg position under pneumoperitoneum. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between SjvO2 and rSO2 during laparoscopic surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After induction of anesthesia, mechanical ventilation was controlled to increase PaCO2 from 35 to 45 mm Hg in the supine position, and the changes in SjvO2 and rSO2 were measured. Then, after establishment of pneumoperitoneum and Trendelenburg position, ventilation was controlled to maintain a PaCO2 at 35 mm Hg and the CO2 step and measurements were repeated. The changes in SjvO2 (rSO2) -CO2 reactivity were compared in the supine position and Trendelenburg-pneumoperitoneum condition, respectively. RESULTS: There was little correlation between SjvO2 and rSO2 in the supine position (concordance correlation coefficient=0.2819). Bland-Altman plots showed a mean bias of 8.4% with a limit of agreement of 21.6% and -4.7%. SjvO2 and rSO2 were not correlated during Trendelenburg-pneumoperitoneum condition (concordance correlation coefficient=0.3657). Bland-Altman plots showed a mean bias of 10.6% with a limit of agreement of 23.6% and -2.4%. The SjvO2-CO2 reactivity was higher than rSO2-CO2 reactivity in the supine position and Trendelenburg-pneumoperitoneum condition, respectively (0.9+/-1.1 vs. 0.4+/-1.2% mm Hg-1, p=0.04; 1.7+/-1.3 vs. 0.5+/-1.1% mm Hg-1, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: There is little correlation between SjvO2 and rSO2 in the supine position and Trendelenburg-pneumoperitoneum condition during laparoscopic surgery.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Anesthesia, General , Brain/metabolism , Carbon Dioxide/chemistry , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Head-Down Tilt , Humans , Jugular Veins/metabolism , Laparoscopy/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/metabolism , Pneumoperitoneum, Artificial , Pressure , Respiration
15.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1273-1281, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-74272

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Opioid-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) is popular method of postoperative pain control, but many patients suffer from IV PCA-related postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). In this retrospective observational study, we have determined independent predictors of IV PCA-related PONV and predictive values of the Apfel's simplified risk score in pursuance of identifying high-risk patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 7000 patients who received IV PCA with background infusion after elective surgery. Patients who maintained IV PCA for a postoperative period of 48 hr (completion group, n=6128) were compared with those who have discontinued IV PCA within 48 hr of surgery due to intractable PONV (cessation group, n=872). Patients, anesthetics, and surgical factors known for predicting PONV were evaluated by logistic regression analysis to identify independent predictors of IV PCA related intractable PONV. RESULTS: In a stepwise multivariate analysis, weight, background infusion dose of fentanyl, addition of ketolorac to PCA, duration of anesthesia, general anesthesia, head and neck surgery, and Apfel's simplified risk score were revealed as independent risk factors for intractable PONV followed by the cessation of IV PCA. In addition, Apfel's simplified risk score, which demonstrated the highest odds ratio among the predictors, was strongly correlated with the cessation rate of IV PCA. CONCLUSION: Multimodal prophylactic antiemetic strategies and dose reduction of opioids may be considered as strategies for the prevention of PONV with the use of IV PCA, especially in patients with high Apfel's simplified risk scores.


Subject(s)
Adult , Analgesia, Patient-Controlled/adverse effects , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Antiemetics/administration & dosage , Female , Fentanyl/administration & dosage , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Factors
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100660

ABSTRACT

Catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy associated with pheochromocytoma is a relatively well-recognized but rare entity. We report a case of 15-year old man with a pheochromocytoma and severe heart failure caused by a catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy. He had symptoms such as fatigue, cold sweating, and dyspnea for 7 months. The chest x-ray showed an enlarged cardiac shadow and pulmonary edema. Echocardiography showed severe decreased left ventricular contractility with multiple thrombi and right ventricular hypokinesia with mild pulmonary hypertension. This report describes our experience of the anesthetic management for the removal of pheochromocytoma with catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy, which barely responded to high vasopressin and epinephrine.


Subject(s)
Cardiomyopathies , Cold Temperature , Dyspnea , Echocardiography , Epinephrine , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) , Fatigue , Heart Failure , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Hypokinesia , Pheochromocytoma , Pulmonary Edema , Sweat , Sweating , Thorax , Vasopressins
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69857

ABSTRACT

Although numerous studies have validated the efficacy of intracoronary shunt on reducing left ventricular dysfunction during off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB), there is lack of evidence supporting its role on right ventricular (RV) function during right coronary artery (RCA) revascularization. Therefore, we studied the effect of intracoronary shunt during grafting of dominant RCA without visible collateral supply on global RV function using thermodilution method. Forty patients scheduled for multivessel OPCAB with right dominant coronary circulation without collateral supply confirmed by angiography were randomized to RCA revascularization either with a shunt (n=20) or soft snare occlusion (n=20). RV ejection fraction (RVEF) was recorded at baseline, during RCA grafting, and 15 min after reperfusion. Corresponding RV stroke work index (RVSWI) was calculated. RVEF and RVSWI decreased significantly during RCA grafting and returned to baseline values after reperfusion in both groups without any significant differences between the groups. Intracoronary shunt did not exert any beneficial effect on global RV function during RCA grafting, even in the absence of visible collateral supply. Regarding the possibility of graft failure by intracoronary shunt-induced endothelial damage, routine use of intracoronary shunt during RCA grafting is not recommended in patients with preserved biventricular function.


Subject(s)
Aged , Blood Pressure , Collateral Circulation , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/methods , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Circulation , Female , Heart Rate , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Norepinephrine/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Stroke Volume , Sympathomimetics/administration & dosage , Thermodilution , Ventricular Function, Right
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-223096

ABSTRACT

Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) during cardiac surgery is an invaluable procedure, which aids hemodynamic management as well as surgical directions. TEE adds valuable information to the assessment of cardiac structures and in contrast to transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), due to its proximity to left atrium (LA), it is especially useful in detection of mass lesions in the LA. The following case describes a patient undergoing aortic valve replacement under cardiopulmonary bypass with low risk of thrombi formation and undetected thrombi in the LA appendage by preoperative TTE. These thrombi could be detected by intraoperative TEE and removed at the same operation, thus avoiding thromboembolic complication and second operation.


Subject(s)
Aortic Valve , Cardiopulmonary Bypass , Echocardiography , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Heart Atria , Hemodynamics , Humans , Thoracic Surgery , Thrombosis , Weaning
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-169940

ABSTRACT

We report a 66-yr-old male patient who developed tricuspid regurgitation secondary to internal cardiac massage. After uneventful off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery, the subject experienced cardiac arrest in the intensive care unit. External cardiac massage was initiated and internal cardiac massage was performed eventually. A transesophageal echocardiography revealed avulsion of the anterior papillary muscle and chordae to the anterior leaflet after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Emergency repair of the papillary muscle was performed under cardiopulmonary bypass.


Subject(s)
Aged , Heart Massage/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/diagnosis
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-189308

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Autonomic neuropathy is frequently developed in patients with diabetets mellitus (DM) and is associated with increased perioperative hemodynamic instability. This study investigated the effect of DM on vasoconstrictor requirement and hemodynamic parameters in patients undergoing off pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery (OPCAB). METHODS: Seventy four patients undergoing OPCAB were divided into two groups; patients without DM (control, n = 51) and patients with DM (n = 23). Hemodynamic parameters were recorded at 10 min after induction of anesthesia (T1), at 10 min after stabilizer application for anastomosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery (T2), the obtuse marginalis branch (T3) and the right coronary artery (T4) and at 10 min after sternum closure (T5). The amount of norepinephrine requirement during the period of induction of anesthesia and grafting was also recorded. RESULTS: Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) and mean pulmonary arterial pressure at T3, PCWP and central venous pressure at T4 were significantly higher in the DH group. Mixed venous oxygen saturation at T2 and T4 and cardiac output at T3 were also significantly lower in the DH group. Significantly greater amount of norepinephrine was infused during the induction of anesthesia in the DH group. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with coronary artery occlusive disease and concomitant DM required significantly greater amount of vasoconstrictor during the induction of anesthesia to maintain stable mean arterial pressure. In addition, more pronounced hemodynamic instability was observed during the period of grafing in these patients undergoing OPCAB.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Arterial Pressure , Cardiac Output , Central Venous Pressure , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump , Coronary Vessels , Diabetes Mellitus , Hemodynamics , Humans , Norepinephrine , Oxygen , Pulmonary Wedge Pressure , Sternum , Transplants
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