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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888911

ABSTRACT

Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is defined as the occurrence of spontaneous wheals, angioedema, or both for >6 weeks in the absence of specific causes. It is a common condition associated with substantial disease burden both for affected individuals and societies in many countries, including Korea. CSU frequently persists for several years and requires high-intensity treatment; therefore, patients experience deteriorations in quality of life and medication-associated complications. During the last decade, there have been major advances in the pharmacological treatment of CSU and there is an outstanding need for evidence-based guidelines that reflect clinical practice in Korea. The guidelines reported here represent a joint initiative of the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the Korean Dermatological Association, and aim to provide evidence-based guidance for the management of CSU in Korean adults and children. In Part 1, disease definition, guideline scope and development methodology as well as evidence-based recommendations on the use of antihistamines and corticosteroids are summarized.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896615

ABSTRACT

Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is defined as the occurrence of spontaneous wheals, angioedema, or both for >6 weeks in the absence of specific causes. It is a common condition associated with substantial disease burden both for affected individuals and societies in many countries, including Korea. CSU frequently persists for several years and requires high-intensity treatment; therefore, patients experience deteriorations in quality of life and medication-associated complications. During the last decade, there have been major advances in the pharmacological treatment of CSU and there is an outstanding need for evidence-based guidelines that reflect clinical practice in Korea. The guidelines reported here represent a joint initiative of the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the Korean Dermatological Association, and aim to provide evidence-based guidance for the management of CSU in Korean adults and children. In Part 1, disease definition, guideline scope and development methodology as well as evidence-based recommendations on the use of antihistamines and corticosteroids are summarized.

3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913270

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Macrolide-refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MP) has markedly increased since 2003 and corticosteroids or second-line antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones or tetracyclines, was considered an alternative treatment modality in macrolide-refractory MP. We aimed to show the real-world treatment pattern of MP in hospitalized children and compared clinical and laboratory findings between children with and without steroid treatment. @*Methods@#We reviewed the medical records of 384 children diagnosed with MP from 6 hospitals in Korea from August 2015 to March 2016. We investigated the clinical, laboratory and radiologic findings, and medications used for the treatment of the subjects. @*Results@#The corticosteroids and second-line antibiotics were administered in 55.5% and 7.0%, respectively. The percentages of steroid administration varied from 17% to 69% in each hospital. The mean start date of corticosteroid administration was 3.4 hospital days. Patients with corticosteroid treatment had a longer length of hospital stay than those without corticosteroid. They exhibited higher rates of lobar pneumonia and pleural effusion, and required longer days until improvement in chest X-ray findings. They also had higher rates of allergic diseases and showed higher C-reactive protein levels at admission. @*Conclusion@#In the real-world practice studied in the 6 hospitals, corticosteroids were more frequently administered than second-line antibiotics to hospitalized children with MP. Children with corticosteroid adjuvant therapy had more severe pneumonia than those without. Randomized controlled trials are needed to make appropriate guidelines for macrolide-refractory MP.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741873

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Campylobacter species are common causes of bacterial enteritis. There is limited knowledge on its prevalence and clinical features because of its fastidious culture conditions. The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical features of Campylobacter enteritis in children. METHODS: We obtained stool specimens from patients diagnosed with acute gastroenteritis in the Department of Pediatrics, Nowon Eulji Medical Center (NEMC) and identified the pathogens by performing cultures or polymerase chain reactions (PCR). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with Campylobacter enteritis at NEMC between January 2012 and December 2017. RESULTS: Overall, 123 patients were diagnosed with Campylobacter enteritis (60 by culture and PCR in EnterNet and 110 by multiplex PCR). The median (interquartile range [IQR]) age of patients was 12 years (IQR, 8 to 16 years). The disease occurred all year round, but 69.9% from June to September. Symptoms included diarrhea (97.6%), fever (96.7%), abdominal pain (94.3%), vomiting (37.4%), and headache (34.1%). Compared with other treatments, treatment with azithromycin was associated with a shorter hospitalization period (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Campylobacter enteritis is common during summer and mostly infects adolescent patients. It causes severe abdominal pain and fever preceding the onset of diarrhea. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate use of antibiotics reduces the duration of the disease.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Adolescent , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Azithromycin , Campylobacter , Child , Diagnosis , Diarrhea , Enteritis , Fever , Gastroenteritis , Headache , Hospitalization , Humans , Medical Records , Pediatrics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Vomiting
5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 446-453, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742561

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is the only curative treatment for allergic diseases, but a few allergic patients receive AIT. In this multicenter cross-sectional study, we aimed to explore patient and physician perspectives on AIT through a questionnaire survey. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Allergic patients who received subcutaneous immunotherapy for at least 1 year were asked to answer a questionnaire developed by an expert panel of allergen and immunotherapy workgroup in Korea. RESULTS: A total of 267 patients (adults, 60.3%) with allergic rhinitis (91.4%), asthma (42.7%), or atopic dermatitis (20.2%) from referred hospitals completed the survey. Among patients and physicians, respectively, the overall rates of satisfaction with AIT for allergic rhinitis were 86.4% and 83.3% (kappa agreement=0.234, p<0.001), and those for asthma were 85.3% and 72.9% (kappa agreement=0.373, p<0.001). Moreover, pediatric asthmatic patients reported a significantly higher satisfaction rate than adult asthmatic patients after AIT (p=0.040). Symptom severity (p<0.001, respectively) and drug use for allergic rhinitis and asthma decreased after AIT. However, there was no significant difference in satisfaction rates between children and adults in allergic rhinitis (p=0.736). Interestingly, 35.7% and 35% of allergic rhinitis and asthma patients, respectively, reported experiencing improvement in their symptoms within 6 months of starting AIT. CONCLUSION: In this study evaluating the perspectives of patients and physicians on AIT, the majority of patients were satisfied with the efficacy and safety of AIT, but not its cost. AIT should be recommended for AR and allergic patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asthma , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dermatitis, Atopic , Desensitization, Immunologic , Humans , Immunotherapy , Korea , Patient Satisfaction , Rhinitis, Allergic , Treatment Outcome
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739515

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Croup is known to have epidemics in seasonal and biennial trends, and to be strongly associated with epidemics of parainfluenza virus. However, seasonal and annual epidemics of croup have not been clearly reported in Korea. This study aimed to examine the seasonal/annual patterns and etiologies of childhood croup in Korea during a consecutive 6-year period. METHODS: Pediatric croup data were collected from 23 centers in Korea from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2015. Electronic medical records, including multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results, demographics and clinical information were cross-sectionally reviewed and analyzed. RESULTS: Overall, 2,598 childhood croup patients requiring hospitalization were identified during the study period. Among them, a total of 927 who underwent RT-PCR were included in the analysis. Males (61.5%) predominated, and most (63.0%) of them were younger than 2 years of age (median, 19 months; interquartile range, 11–31 months). Peak hospitalization occurred in 2010 and 2012 in even-numbered years, and parainfluenza virus (PIV, 39.7%) was the most common cause of childhood croup requiring hospitalization, followed by respiratory syncytial virus (14.9%), human rhinovirus (12.5%), Mycoplasma pneumonaie (10.6%), and human coronavirus (7.3%). CONCLUSION: It is concluded that croup hospitalization has a biennial pattern in even-numbered years. PIV may be the most common cause of childhood croup; however, croup epidemics could be attributed to other viruses.


Subject(s)
Child , Coronavirus , Croup , Demography , Electronic Health Records , Hospitalization , Humans , Korea , Male , Mycoplasma , Paramyxoviridae Infections , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcription , Rhinovirus , Seasons
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716689

ABSTRACT

Thirty years have passed since the Korean Association of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease was founded. There have been great changes in the pattern of respiratory diseases in Korean children during the last 30 years with economic development in the country. Pneumonia remains the leading cause of childhood morbidity, despite advances in the prevention and management. The incidence and mortality of pneumonia caused by typical bacterial pathogens have been reduced. However, the predominance of Mycoplasma pneumoniae or virus-associated diseases is emerging, which suggests that novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies are needed. Viral bronchiolitis is one of the most substantial health burdens for infants and young children worldwide. Although respiratory syncytial virus is the most common pathogen, molecular diagnostic techniques have identified many other viruses including human rhinovirus causing bronchiolitis. Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory condition characterized by chronic infection, airway inflammation, and progressive lung function decline. Research into the interactions between early life respiratory infections and development of bronchiectasis is imperative to halt the disease in its origin and improve adult outcomes. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe, life-threatening lung disease with diffuse inflammatory lung injury leading to pulmonary edema and hypoxia. Although many modalities to treat ARDS have been studied, supportive therapies and lung protective ventilator support remains the mainstay. This review focuses on the current trends in research on these childhood respiratory diseases through literature review and aims to investigate the impact of Korean study results in this field.


Subject(s)
Adult , Hypoxia , Bronchiectasis , Bronchiolitis , Bronchiolitis, Viral , Child , Economic Development , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Incidence , Infant , Inflammation , Korea , Lung , Lung Diseases , Lung Injury , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Mortality , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Pulmonary Edema , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , Respiratory Tract Infections , Rhinovirus , Ventilators, Mechanical
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714756

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in young children is frequently caused by adenoid and/or tonsillar hypertrophy. Adenoidectomy is the first operative method for childhood chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). We investigated factors associated with recurrent rhinosinusitis in preschool aged children with OSAS to determine the association of 2 common diseases. METHODS: One hundred forty-six children aged 2–5 years who were diagnosed as having OSAS after polysomnography between December 2003 and April 2016 were enrolled in this study. Children were divided into 2 groups with and without CRS. The 2 groups were compared in the severity of OSAS and allergy diseases and were evaluated for recurrent rhinosinusitis during the follow-up period, 1 year after diagnosis. RESULTS: Among 108 patients with OSAS who were followed up, 81 patients (75%) were diagnosed with CRS. There were no significant difference clinical and allergic characteristics between groups with and without CRS. However, bronchial asthma and otitis media was significantly more prevalent in patients with CRS than in those without (P=0.045 and P=0.000, respectively). Bronchial asthma and adenotonsillectomy was significantly associated with recurrent rhinosinusitis (P=0.005 and P=0.04, respectively) during the 1-year follow-up. CONCLUSION: Approximately 75% of preschool children with OSAS have suffered from CRS. Bronchial asthma is associated with CRS among OSAS children. Recurrent rhinosinusitis is decreased after adenotonsillectomy, and bronchial asthma is an associated factor for recurrent rhinosinusitis after a follow-up. This close relationship childhood OSAS and recurrent rhinosinusitis/bronchial asthma needs further studies to investigate their role in the association.


Subject(s)
Adenoidectomy , Adenoids , Asthma , Child , Child, Preschool , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Hypertrophy , Methods , Otitis Media , Polysomnography , Rhinitis , Sinusitis , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714075

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the clinical and socioenvironmental characteristics of sudden cardiorespiratory arrest after venipuncture in children. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective email-based survey of all members of the Korean Pediatric Society. The questionnaire included items on patient demographics, socioenvironmental circumstances of the venipuncture, type of cardiorespiratory arrest, symptoms and signs, treatment, prognosis, and presumed cause of the arrest. RESULTS: Fourteen patients were identified. Of these, 13 were young children (< 2 years old), and 1 was 14 years old. All patients had been previously healthy and had no specific risk factors for sudden cardiorespiratory arrest. Most cases (n=11, 79%) were defined as cardiac or cardiorespiratory arrest, while the remaining cases (n=3, 21%) were defined as respiratory arrest. Aspiration (n=3), acute myocarditis (n=2), and laryngeal chemoreflex (n=1) were presumed as the causes; however, the exact causes were unclear. The overall prognosis was poor (death, n=7; morbidity, n=5; full recovery, n=2). The medical institutions faced severe backlash because of these incidents (out-of-court settlement, n=5; medical lawsuit, n=5; continuous harassment, n=3). CONCLUSION: Cardiorespiratory arrest after venipuncture is unpredictable and the probable cause of most cases is a vasovagal reaction. Medical personnel must be aware of the risk of unexpected cardiorespiratory arrest during routine intravenous procedures.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Child , Demography , Heart Arrest , Humans , Myocarditis , Phlebotomy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-219827

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the frequency of childhood sleep problems at pediatric clinics in Seoul and Gyeonggi provinces. METHODS: Children (n=936) and their parents who visited 5 primary and 1 secondary pediatric outpatient clinics were invited to complete a Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire. RESULTS: Among patients, 901 (96.3%) answered questionnaires in sufficient detail for evaluation. The participant's mean age was 4.35±3.02 years (range, 0–18 years). The male to female ratio was 1:0.93 (466 boys, 435 girls). Habitual snoring (>3 day/week) was reported in 16.9% of the participants. The prevalence of habitual snoring in children 2 years. Insomnia was reported in 13.2% of children. The prevalence of sleepwalking, night terrors, and bruxism, is 1.6%, 19%, and 21.1%, respectively. Snoring was associated with increased incidence of sleepwalking, night terrors, and bruxism. Age was associated with insomnia and habitual snoring (P<0.05). Insomnia was more prevalent in younger (21%) than in older children (6%). Snoring was more frequent in both preschool (34%) and school-aged children (33%). The frequency of sleep disordered breathing and insomnia did not vary significantly with gender. However, snoring was more prevalent in boys. CONCLUSION: Sleep problems are frequent among children in Korea. Children with snoring have an increased risk of sleepwalking, night terror, and bruxism. Primary clinicians should consider children's sleep habits to improve their health.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Bruxism , Child , Female , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Male , Night Terrors , Parents , Prevalence , Seoul , Sleep Apnea Syndromes , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Snoring , Somnambulism
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-226332

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the prescription patterns according to characteristics of physicians using a survey distributed amongst physicians in Korea. METHODS: We surveyed the prescription patterns for allergic rhinitis (AR) of the members of the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology (KAAACI) and the Korean Association of Otorhinolaryngologists (KAO). Questionnaire contained 4 categories with 28 queries. 448 physicians including 98 internal medicine (IM), 113 pediatrics (PED), and 237 otorhinolaryngology (ENT) were responded. RESULTS: Although the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) guidelines are most frequently used in all specialties, seasonal or perennial AR is the most frequent classification system. For the definitive diagnosis of AR, ENT physicians reported using multiple allergen simultaneous test (MAST)/radio allergy sorbent test (RAST) more than others (IM, 10.9%; PED, 20.6%; ENT, 44.2%; P < 0.001). In treatment, most physicians reported that antihistamine medication is the initial treatment for AR. PED physicians prescribed fewer intranasal steroid to combinations with an antihistamine than other specialists (IM, 65.3%; PED, 42.5%; ENT, 63.3%), but preferred leukotriene antagonists (IM, 4.1%; PED, 23.0%; ENT, 3.9%; P=0.041). Overall, 53% (235/448) of the physicians performed allergen immunotherapy (AIT), and IM administers the most AIT (IM, 71.6%; PED, 42.0%; ENT, 39.5%; P=0.019). Furthermore, university and general hospital physicians prescribed more AIT than doctors at other hospital types (university hospital, 76.4%; general hospital, 64.3%; local hospital, 21.4%; private clinic, 20.2%; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The prescription patterns for AR were different according to the physicians’ characteristics and general rate of prescribing AIT is just about 53% in Korea. Thus, the development of complementary Korean-specific guidelines is needed and proper clinical instruction of AIT would be necessary.


Subject(s)
Allergy and Immunology , Asthma , Classification , Desensitization, Immunologic , Diagnosis , Drug Prescriptions , Hospitals, General , Hypersensitivity , Internal Medicine , Korea , Leukotriene Antagonists , Otolaryngology , Pediatrics , Prescriptions , Rhinitis, Allergic , Seasons , Specialization , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-89166

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Acute bacterial gastroenteritis (ABG) can cause more severe symptoms than acute viral gastroenteritis in children. This study was aimed at determining the etiologic trends and to examine the clinical characteristics of ABG in children. METHODS: We sent stool samples from the children with acute gastroenteritis who were treated at a secondary hospital located in Seoul, Korea between January 2011 and December 2014 to Seoul Metropolitan Government Research Institute of Public Health and Environment to find the causative organisms. Clinical characteristics of patient were analyzed through a medical records review. RESULTS: Out of 664 stool samples, 183 (27.6%) yielded bacterial pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacterial pathogen, found in 72 cases (39.3%), even though it was only tested for since 2012. The monthly isolation rate was the highest (24.6%) in August. The isolation rate of Campylobacter spp. by patient's age group was high (16.7%) in the 12- to 18-year-age group (P =0.04). In patients with bloody stool, Campylobacter spp. was the most commonly isolated (31.0%, P =0.04). When comparing C-reactive protein, the Salmonella spp.- or Campylobacter spp.-isolated group showed higher values than the S. aureus - or pathogenic Escherichia coli -isolated group (5.7±0.6 mg/dL vs. 2.1±0.3 mg/dL, P <0.01). CONCLUSIONS: S. aureus, Salmonella spp., pathogenic E. coli , and Campylobacter spp. were important pathogens of ABG among children. Considering the differences in pathogens found according to age, a clinical symptom and inflammation index might be helpful in assuming the causative organism.


Subject(s)
Academies and Institutes , Bacteria , C-Reactive Protein , Campylobacter , Child , Escherichia coli , Gastroenteritis , Humans , Inflammation , Korea , Local Government , Medical Records , Public Health , Salmonella , Seoul , Staphylococcus aureus
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13354

ABSTRACT

This study was performed to measure early changes in the serotype distribution of pneumococci isolated from children with invasive disease during the 3-year period following the introduction of 10- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in Korea. From January 2011 to December 2013 at 25 hospitals located throughout Korea, pneumococci were isolated among children who had invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Serotypes were determined using the Quellung reaction, and the change in serotype distribution was analyzed. Seventy-five cases of IPD were included. Eighty percent of patients were aged 3-59 months, and 32% had a comorbidity that increased the risk of pneumococcal infection. The most common serotypes were 19A (32.0%), 10A (8.0%), and 15C (6.7%). The PCV7 serotypes (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, 23F, and 6A) accounted for 14.7% of the total isolates and the PCV13 minus PCV7 types (1, 3, 5, 7F and 19A) accounted for 32.0% of the total isolates. Serotype 19A was the only serotype in the PCV13 minus PCV7 group. The proportion of serotype 19A showed decreasing tendency from 37.5% in 2011 to 22.2% in 2013 (P = 0.309), while the proportion of non-PCV13 types showed increasing tendency from 45.8% in 2011 to 72.2% in 2013 (P = 0.108). Shortly after the introduction of extended-valent PCVs in Korea, serotype 19A continued to be the most common serotype causing IPD in children. Subsequently, the proportion of 19A decreased, and non-vaccine serotypes emerged as an important cause of IPD. The impact of extended-valent vaccines must be continuously monitored.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Bacteremia/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Male , Pneumococcal Infections/microbiology , Pneumococcal Vaccines/immunology , Republic of Korea , Serotyping , Streptococcus pneumoniae/classification , Vaccines, Conjugate/immunology
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-81730

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and their relationship with the onset age of wheeze in school-age children and adolescents with asthma. METHODS: Three hundred twenty-six patients, aged 6 to 19 years, diagnosed with asthma at 6 hospitals from Seoul, Gyeonggi, Daegu, and Busan were enrolled. They were categorized into 3 groups by the onset age of wheeze: group A, early onset (age or =6 years). Clinical characteristics including atopic sensitization, family history, combined allergic diseases, severity of asthma, and influence of asthma on daily life were examined. A history of hospitalization for early lower respiratory infection (LRI) and environmental tobacco smoking were studied and lung function tests were also performed. RESULTS: There was no difference in demographics, prevalence of atopy, combined allergic diseases, and family history of allergy between 3 groups. A history of sever LRI in early life was more common in groups A and B compared with group C. Sensitization to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was more prevalent in groups A and B than in group C. Forced expiratory flow between 25% to 75% (FEF(25%-75%)) was lower in groups A and B than in group C, and methacholine PC20 (provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second) was lowest in group B. Significantly lower FEF(25%-75%) and methacholine PC20 were observed in the patients who had been hospitalized with LRI in early life. CONCLUSION: Our study shows significant difference in lung function and atopic sensitization in relation to the onset age of wheeze in school-age children and adolescents with asthma, and suggests that early LRI might contribute to the development of asthma in early life.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Age of Onset , Asthma , Child , Demography , Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus , Forced Expiratory Volume , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Lung , Methacholine Chloride , Prevalence , Respiratory Function Tests , Seoul , Smoking
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-177242

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to study the antibody response of Japanese encephalitis vaccination in children using different kinds of vaccines (inactivated vaccine, live attenuated vaccine or interchanged) and evaluate the effectiveness of the vaccines to provide the basis of efficient immunization schedule of Japanese encephalitis. METHODS: Measurement of the neutralization antibody (NTAb) titers following Japanese encephalitis vaccination using different vaccines for 170 children, 2-6 year of age, who visited six university hospitals and are confirmed by immunization records. RESULTS: Among 170 children who were given primary immunization on Japanese encephalitis, 103 children were given inactivated vaccine, 64 children were given live attenuated vaccine and 3 children were given interchangeably. NTAb titers were more than 1:10 in all children of three groups. The geographic mean antibody titer was 322 in inactivated vaccine group and 266 in live attenuated vaccine group. However, there was no significant difference between two groups. In both groups, the NTAb titer showed the peak at 1-4 months after the third immunization and declined. The NTAb titers of three children who were given two kinds of vaccines alternately were 1:135, 1:632, and 1:2511, respectively. CONCLUSION: According to the results of this study in children younger than 6 years old, there is no significant difference in effectiveness between inactivated and live attenuated vaccines. However, further studies for the changes of antibody titers for a longer period of time on larger population are required.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibody Formation , Asians , Child , Cohort Studies , Encephalitis, Japanese , Hospitals, University , Humans , Immunization , Immunization Schedule , Prospective Studies , Vaccination , Vaccines , Vaccines, Attenuated
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-47109

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune neutropenia of infancy (AIN) is caused by increased peripheral destruction of neutrophils as a result of antibodies in patients' blood that are directed against their own neutrophils. Due to non-specific symptoms, benign clinical courses, and cumbersome diagnostic tests, AIN are commonly undetected. Antineutrophil antibody test for diagnosis of AIN has recently become available. Compared to its relatively lower absolute neutrophil count (ANC), the clinical course of AIN is mostly benign. Therefore, although treatment is not usually necessary for AIN, it is applicable in order to rule out other significant diseases, such as severe congenital neutropenia (SCN), which can be transformed to myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myelocytic leukemia. For this reason, several treatments can be used for neutropenia: granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) for SCN, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) for prophylaxis. Here we report on two cases of AIN confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence test using flow cytometry.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Flow Cytometry , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Neutropenia , Neutrophils , Sulfamethoxazole , Trimethoprim
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-116873

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There is currently no information regarding predisposing factors for chronic and recurrent rhinosinusitis (RS), although these are considered to be multifactorial in origin, and allergic diseases contribute to their pathogenesis. We evaluated the predisposing factors that may be associated with chronic and recurrent RS. METHODS: In this prospective study, we examined patients with RS younger than 13 years of age, diagnosed with RS at six tertiary referral hospitals in Korea between October and December, 2006. Demographic and clinical data related to RS were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 296 patients were recruited. Acute RS was the most frequent type: 56.4% of the patients had acute RS. The prevalences of other types of RS, in descending order, were chronic RS (18.9%), subacute RS (13.2%), and recurrent RS (11.5%). Factors associated with recurrent RS were similar to those of chronic RS. Patients with chronic and recurrent RS were significantly older than those with acute and subacute RS. The prevalences of allergic rhinitis, atopy, and asthma were significantly higher in patients with chronic and recurrent RS than those with acute and subacute RS. CONCLUSIONS: An association between atopy and chronic/recurrent RS, compared to acute and subacute RS, suggests a possible causal link.


Subject(s)
Aluminum Hydroxide , Asthma , Carbonates , Child , Humans , Korea , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Rhinitis , Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial , Tertiary Care Centers
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28528

ABSTRACT

Zinc deficiency can result from acrodermatitis enteropathica, an inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, increased body loss, or intravenous feeding. Unlike acrodermatitis enteropathica, breast feeding-induced acrodermatitis is transient and improves when nursing ends. Breast feeding-induced acrodermatitis is caused by a ZnT-2 transporter dysfunction in the mother's mammary glands. We report a case of a 6-month-old male infant who presented with erythematous patches and plaques involving the perioral, perineal, and acral areas and loose stools since 2 weeks after birth. Atopic dermatitis was considered initially, but the lesions did not respond to topical antibiotics, corticosteroids, or maternal dietary restriction from allergenic food. The patient's serum zinc concentration was low, and the mother's serum and milk had low zinc levels. The differential diagnosis for atopic dermatitis is extensive. Physicians should be alert for the possibility of zinc deficiency dermatitis in breast milk fed infants that mimics atopic dermatitis.


Subject(s)
Acrodermatitis , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Breast , Dermatitis , Dermatitis, Atopic , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Infant , Male , Mammary Glands, Human , Milk , Milk, Human , Parenteral Nutrition , Parturition , Zinc
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788470

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune neutropenia of infancy (AIN) is caused by increased peripheral destruction of neutrophils as a result of antibodies in patients' blood that are directed against their own neutrophils. Due to non-specific symptoms, benign clinical courses, and cumbersome diagnostic tests, AIN are commonly undetected. Antineutrophil antibody test for diagnosis of AIN has recently become available. Compared to its relatively lower absolute neutrophil count (ANC), the clinical course of AIN is mostly benign. Therefore, although treatment is not usually necessary for AIN, it is applicable in order to rule out other significant diseases, such as severe congenital neutropenia (SCN), which can be transformed to myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myelocytic leukemia. For this reason, several treatments can be used for neutropenia: granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) for SCN, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) for prophylaxis. Here we report on two cases of AIN confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence test using flow cytometry.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Flow Cytometry , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Neutropenia , Neutrophils , Sulfamethoxazole , Trimethoprim
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-158742

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical characteristics of vitamin D deficiency and its association with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). METHODS: A total of 171 children aged less than two years underwent 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 tests between January 2007 and July 2009. The study was classified into two groups: normal and vitamin D insufficiency, by their vitamin 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels. RESULTS: In total, 120 children were in the normal group (mean age, body weight and heights 12.5+/-7.0, 9.3+/-0.9 kg and 76.8+/-1.1 cm), and 51 children in the vitamin D insufficiency group (9.9+/-5.4 months, 9.0+/-0.9 kg and 75.1+/-0.9 cm). Vitamin D insufficiency was most commonly diagnosed in the spring (44%). The proportion of complete breast-feeding was higher in the insufficiency (92%), and 25.5% of the children in the deficient group also experienced IDA compared that 12% of normal group. Ten children in the insufficiency group experienced bony changes. Six children received calcitriol medication in the normal group, in whom the mean vitamin 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 level increased from 39.6+/-14.6 ng/mL (pre-medication) to 41.8+/-17.2 ng/mL (post-medication), and 13 in the insufficiency group, in whom the mean vitamin 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 increased from 20.7+/-7.0 ng/mL to a mean post-treatment level of 43.7+/-23.8 ng/mL. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that approximately 30% of children aged < or =2 years experienced vitamin D insufficiency associated with subclinical rickets. Many children also experienced concurrent IDA. Guidelines for vitamin D supplement in such children must therefore be established.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anemia , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Body Weight , Calcifediol , Calcitriol , Child , Humans , Iron , Prevalence , Rickets , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency , Vitamins
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