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1.
Korean Journal of Ophthalmology ; : 409-416, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002359

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate and compare the clinical efficacy of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) immunoassay and tear osmolarity measurement in diagnosing dry eye severity. @*Methods@#Dry eye disease (DED) patients underwent diagnostic tests including MMP-9 assay, tear osmolarity measurement, fluorescein tear breakup time, ocular surface staining, anesthetized Schirmer test, Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire, and slit-lamp examination. The dry eye parameters were compared according to positive MMP-9 status and increased tear osmolarity. The correlation between dry eye profiles and MMP-9 positivity and high tear osmolarity was also analyzed. @*Results@#Those who tested positive in MMP-9 immunoassay had significantly higher corneal fluorescein staining score and worse DED severity than those who tested negative. The intensity of MMP-9 positivity showed positive correlation with the corneal staining score and DED severity. However, DED patients with high tear osmolarity above 308 mOsm/L did not show significantly different dry eye signs and symptoms compared to those with lower tear osmolarity values. Tear osmolarity was associated with ocular surface staining score in severe DED patients. @*Conclusions@#MMP-9 positivity was associated with ocular surface staining and worse dry eye severity. Therefore, it may be used as a useful indicator of disease severity in conjunction to other diagnostic tests.

2.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 913-922, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001812

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We analyzed the incidence and prevalence of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and the treatment patterns of AMD in response to changes in health insurance policies in South Korea. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed the incidence and prevalence of neovascular AMD in patients diagnosed between 2010 and 2019. Data were extracted from the Korean National Health Insurance System database. The incidence and prevalence per 10,000 person-years and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Furthermore, we recorded the usage of ranibizumab and aflibercept among newly diagnosed patients with neovascular AMD between 2010 and 2014. @*Results@#In total, 90,012 patients were diagnosed with neovascular AMD between 2010 and 2019. The incidence of neovascular AMD increased with age, except for individuals aged ≥ 90 years. The prevalence of neovascular AMD increased significantly from 30.29 per 10,000 person-years in 2010 to 50.8 per 10,000 person-years in 2019. The rate of intravitreal ranibizumab injections decreased following the introduction of aflibercept in 2014. Patients who switched from ranibizumab to aflibercept exhibited a higher drug switch rate than those who switched from aflibercept to ranibizumab (28.83% vs. 8.40%). Among newly diagnosed patients, approximately 65% received treatment covered by the health insurance system. On average, six injections were administered per year between 2010 and 2019; the number of injections increased in accordance with the maximum limit supported by the government. @*Conclusions@#The incidence and prevalence of neovascular AMD demonstrated an increasing trend. The treatment patterns are influenced by changes in government funding support policies. These findings provide valuable information for planning neovascular AMD treatment.

3.
Journal of the Korean Dysphagia Society ; (2): 77-106, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001658

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Dysphagia is a common clinical condition characterized by difficulty in swallowing. It is sub-classified into oropharyngeal dysphagia, which refers to problems in the mouth and pharynx, and esophageal dysphagia, which refers to problems in the esophageal body and esophagogastric junction. Dysphagia can have a significant negative impact one’s physical health and quality of life as its severity increases. Therefore, proper assessment and management of dysphagia are critical for improving swallowing function and preventing complications. Thus a guideline was developed to provide evidence-based recommendations for assessment and management in patients with dysphagia. @*Methods@#Nineteen key questions on dysphagia were developed. These questions dealt with various aspects of problems related to dysphagia, including assessment, management, and complications. A literature search for relevant articles was conducted using Pubmed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and one domestic database of KoreaMed, until April 2021. The level of evidence and recommendation grade were established according to the Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology. @*Results@#Early screening and assessment of videofluoroscopic swallowing were recommended for assessing the presence of dysphagia. Therapeutic methods, such as tongue and pharyngeal muscle strengthening exercises and neuromuscular electrical stimulation with swallowing therapy, were effective in improving swallowing function and quality of life in patients with dysphagia. Nutritional intervention and an oral care program were also recommended. @*Conclusion@#This guideline presents recommendations for the assessment and management of patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia, including rehabilitative strategies.

4.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 391-394, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000114

ABSTRACT

Rifampin is a potent hepatic cytochrome enzyme inducer, promoting the metabolism of many drugs. Here, we describe a case wherein rifampin-induced drug interactions affected the clinical improvement of a patient on psychiatric drugs for bipolar disorder. He was administered divalproex, risperidone, quetiapine, and clonazepam, along with anti-tuberculosis drugs HERZ, containing 600 mg rifampin. Despite taking 900 mg/day divalproex, his serum valproate levels were below 2 μg/ml, and his manic symptom persisted. Therefore, the antipsychotic risperidone (5 mg) was replaced with olanzapine (20 mg). Following this, his manic symptoms improved rapidly. Rifampin is a potent CYP3A and CYP2D6 inducer and is known to significantly reduce serum risperidone levels. Thus, even a high dose of risperidone did not induce a significant clinical effect, which was observed immediately after replacing with olanzapine. Therefore, drug interactions may have had a significant effect on clinical outcomes. Clinicians should be cognizant of drug interactions when treating psychiatric patients on rifampin therapy. The case has been sufficiently revised to protect the patient’s personal information.

5.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 188-196, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966683

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST) is a relatively specific test for bipolar disorders designed to assess the main functioning problems experienced by patients. This brief instrument includes 24 items assessing impairment or disability in 6 domains of functioning: autonomy, occupational functioning, cognitive functioning, financial issues, interpersonal relationships, and leisure time. It has already been translated into standardized versions in several languages. The aim of this study is to measure the validity and reliability of the Korean version of FAST (K-FAST). @*Methods@#A total of 209 bipolar disorder patients were recruited from 14 centers in Korea. K-FAST, Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Bipolar Depression Rating Scale (BDRS), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Instrument Brief Form (WHOQOL-BREF) were administered, and psychometric analysis of the K-FAST was conducted. @*Results@#The internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) of the K-FAST was 0.95. Test-retest reliability analysis showed a strong correlation between the two measures assessed at a 1-week interval (ICC = 0.97; p < 0.001). The K-FAST exhibited significant correlations with GAF (r = −0.771), WHOQOL-BREF (r = −0.326), YMRS (r = 0.509) and BDRS (r = 0.598). A strong negative correlation with GAF pointed to a reasonable degree of concurrent validity. Although the exploratory factor analysis showed four factors, the confirmatory factor analysis of questionnaires had a good fit for a six factors model (CFI = 0.925; TLI = 0.912; RMSEA = 0.078). @*Conclusion@#The K-FAST has good psychometric properties, good internal consistency, and can be applicable and acceptable to the Korean context.

6.
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology ; : 1-19, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966535

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to develop evidence-based recommendations for determining the surgical extent in patients with locally invasive differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Locally invasive DTC with gross extrathyroidal extension invading surrounding anatomical structures may lead to several functional deficits and poor oncological outcomes. At present, the optimal extent of surgery in locally invasive DTC remains a matter of debate, and there are no adequate guidelines. On October 8, 2021, four experts searched the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases; the identified papers were reviewed by 39 experts in thyroid and head and neck surgery. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to assess the quality of evidence, and to develop and report recommendations. The strength of a recommendation reflects the confidence of a guideline panel that the desirable effects of an intervention outweigh any undesirable effects, across all patients for whom the recommendation is applicable. After completing the draft guidelines, Delphi questionnaires were completed by members of the Korean Society of Head and Neck Surgery. Twenty-seven evidence-based recommendations were made for several factors, including the preoperative workup; surgical extent of thyroidectomy; surgery for cancer invading the strap muscles, recurrent laryngeal nerve, laryngeal framework, trachea, or esophagus; and surgery for patients with central and lateral cervical lymph node involvement. Evidence-based guidelines were devised to help clinicians make safer and more efficient clinical decisions for the optimal surgical treatment of patients with locally invasive DTC.

7.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 25-34, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917644

ABSTRACT

Background@#Dermatofibromas (DF) are fibrohistiocytic tumors of unknown etiology, and multiple DF (MDF) are relatively rare. MDF have been reported in the setting of autoimmune diseases, human immunodeficiency virus infection, or comorbidities treated with immunosuppressive drugs. @*Objective@#The present study investigated whether underlying conditions with impaired immune function are associated with MDF. @*Methods@#A total of 338 patients with DF was enrolled. We divided patients into two groups as MDF and solitary DF (SDF) groups. We retrospectively reviewed patient medical records and classified all patients by underlying diseases. Statistical significance of SDF and MDF for each conditions was analyzed. @*Results@#The demographics and comorbidities were compared between MDF group (n=82) and SDF group (n=256). Among underlying conditions, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (odds ratio, 10.397; 95% confidence interval, 2.743∼39.404; p<0.001) was significantly associated with MDF over SDF. Vitiligo and post status of kidney transplant were related more highly to MDF (p=0.014; p=0.014, respectively) than to SDF. Presence of overall comorbidities, autoimmune diseases, and immunosuppressive drug use were associated with DF number (p<0.001;p<0.001; p<0.001, respectively). @*Conclusion@#We propose an association between MDF and comorbidities, especially SLE and immunosuppressant use. MDF lesions seem to be impacted by compromised immune function. This is of significance since it is essential to search for associated conditions in patients presenting with MDF in dermatologic clinical settings.

8.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 334-342, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938742

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#The purpose of this study was to analyze the survival data of salivary gland cancer (SGCs) patients to construct machine learning and deep learning models that can predict survival and use them to stratify SGC patients according to risk estimate.Subjects and Method We retrospectively analyzed the clinicopathologic data from 460 patients with SGCs from 2006 to 2018. @*Results@#In Cox proportional hazard (CPH) model, pM, stage, lymphovascular invasion, lymph node ratio, and age exhibited significant correlation with patient’s survival. In the CPH model, the c-index value for the training set was 0.85, and that for the test set was 0.81. In the Random Survival Forest model, the c-index value for the training set was 0.86, and that for the test set was 0.82. Stage and age exhibited high importance in both the Random Survival Forest and CPH models. In the deep learning-based model, the c-index value was 0.72 for the training set and 0.72 for the test set. Among the three models mentioned above, the Random Survival Forest model exhibited the highest performance in predicting the survival of SGC patients. @*Conclusion@#A survival prediction model using machine learning techniques showed acceptable performance in predicting the survival of SGC patients. Although large-scale clinical and multicenter studies should be conducted to establish more powerful predictive model, we expect that individualized treatment can be realized according to risk stratification made by the machine learning model.

9.
Korean Journal of Head and Neck Oncology ; (2): 17-24, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938539

ABSTRACT

Background/Objectives@#This study analyzed the prognostic significance of clinico-pathologic factors including comprehensive nodal factors in parotid gland cancers (PGCs) patients and constructed a survival prediction model for PGCs patients using machine learning techniques.Materials & Methods: A total of 131 PGCs patients were enrolled in the study. @*Results@#There were 19 cases (14.5%) of lymph nodes (LNs) at the lower neck level and 43 cases (32.8%) involved multiple level LNs metastases. There were 2 cases (1.5%) of metastases to the contralateral LNs. Intraparotid LNs metastasis was observed in 6 cases (4.6%) and extranodal extension (ENE) findings were observed in 35 cases (26.7%). Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and perineural invasion findings were observed in 42 cases (32.1%) and 49 cases (37.4%), respectively. Machine learning prediction models were constructed using clinico-pathologic factors including comprehensive nodal factors and Decision Tree and Stacking model showed the highest accuracy at 74% and 70% for predicting patient’s survival. @*Conclusion@#Lower level LNs metastasis and LNR have important prognostic significance for predicting disease recurrence and survival in PGCs patients. These two factors were used as important features for constructing machine learning prediction model. Our machine learning model could predict PGCs patient’s survival with a considerable level of accuracy.

10.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 276-282, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926729

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#With the introduction of sialendoscopy, minimal invasive surgery has become possible for the removal of sialoliths, although sialendoscopic removal of parotid stones remains a surgical challenge. Sialendoscopic stone removal can be differently applied according to the location and size of stones. This study was conducted to evaluate the surgical outcomes of sialaendoscopic stone removal and to provide a strategy for choosing an adequate surgical approach according to the characteristics of parotid stones.Subjects and Method A retrospective study was conducted of 43 patients with parotid sialolithiasis who were treated by sialendoscopic stone removal between March 2017 and January 2021. Surgical techniques were classified into sialendoscopy alone (SA), sialendoscopy-assisted transoral approach (STO), and sialendoscopy-combined retroauricular approach (SRA). The parotid gland stones were categorized by size, location, and multiplicity. @*Results@#Of the 43 patients, 13 patients underwent SA, 10 received STO, and 20 were treated with different SRA approaches. The SRA approaches included three distal, seven proximal, and ten intraglandular stone removal cases. The success rate of stone removal was 92% (12 cases) by SA, 90% (9 cases) by STO, and 100% (20 cases) by SRA. In cases of SA and STO, all patients had distant stones except for one who had proximal stones. Postoperative complications including pain, swelling, wound dehiscence, sialocele, duct stricture, and facial palsy mainly occurred in cases treated with SRAs. @*Conclusion@#Appropriate use of various sialendoscopy-assisted approaches is mandatory to preserve the gland and minimize surgical complications in patients with different features of parotid gland stones.

11.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 186-189, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926620

ABSTRACT

Warty dyskeratoma (WD) is an uncommon skin tumor that histologically presents as focal acantholysis and dyskeratosis and is a common finding among acantholytic diseases such as Darier’s disease. WD most commonly occurs on the head or neck of adults as an isolated papule or nodule. To our knowledge, only 6 cases of WD in the genital area have been previously reported in the literature, and no case have occurred on the scrotum to date.We report the first case of multiple WD that occurred on the scrotum successfully treated with 0.025% tretinoin cream. A 55-year-old male presented with asymptomatic, multiple, 0.1∼0.2-cm-sized, skin-colored papules on the scrotum for the previous 6 months. A skin punch biopsy and human papillomavirus (HPV) polymerase chain reaction test were performed for a clinical suspicion of genital warts or bowenoid papulosis. The histopathologic examination showed cup-shaped epidermal invaginations with central keratotic plug. Prominent villi, acantholytic clefting and corps ronds were also shown. The patient tested negative for HPV and was diagnosed with WD with typical pathologic findings. The patient was treated with 0.025% tretinoin cream for 2 weeks, and the lesions decreased in both size and number.

12.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 490-494, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926338

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To report the first case of a 53-year-old male patient diagnosed with central Horner syndrome, associated with vertebral artery dissection, which has never been reported in Korea to date.Case summary: A 53-year-old male patient presented with conjunctival hyperemia in the left eye for over 4 months, with a past history of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage and ruptured dissecting aneurysm in the left vertebral artery. On slit-lamp examination, mild ptosis of the upper eyelid and conjunctival hyperemia were noted in his left eye. The left pupil was smaller than the right without afferent pupillary defects in either eye. Anisocoria was greater in the dark, and dilation lag was noted in the left pupil. On systemic examination, he complained of numbness in the right upper and lower extremities and symptoms of leaning to the left when walking. After instillation of 0.5% apraclonidine, the anisocoria was reversed, and ptosis and conjunctival hyperemia disappeared. Magnetic resonance images revealed chronic infarction in the left lateral medulla, and he was diagnosed with central Horner syndrome associated with Wallenberg syndrome. @*Conclusions@#We present the first case in Korea of central Horner syndrome associated with lateral medullary infarction caused by vertebral artery dissection.

13.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 37-50, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924836

ABSTRACT

The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder (KMAP-DD) first was published in 2002, and has been revised four times, in 2006, 2012, 2017, and 2021. In this review, we compared recommendations from the recently revised KMAP-DD 2021 to four global clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for depression published after 2010. The recommendations from the KMAP-DD 2021 were similar to those from other CPGs, although there were some differences. The KMAP-DD 2021 reflected social culture and the healthcare system in Korea and recent evidence about pharmacotherapy for depression, as did other recently published evidence-based guidelines. Despite some intrinsic limitations as an expert consensus-based guideline, the KMAP-DD 2021 can be helpful for Korean psychiatrists making decisions in clinical settings by complementing previously published evidence-based guidelines, especially for some clinical situations lacking evidence from rigorously designed clinical trials.

14.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 389-393, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894275

ABSTRACT

Background@#Cutaneous warts tend to recur despite of various treatment modalities. However, previous studies provided few data on their reinfection rate. @*Objective@#In this study, we investigated the reinfection rate along with the incidence and prevalence rates of cutaneous warts. @*Methods@#We conducted a nationwide, cross-sectional population-based study using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database from January 2006 through December 2016. Patients who visited outpatient clinics with an International Classification of Disease-10 code of viral warts (B07) were included. The reinfection rate was calculated as a percentage of patients with an initial visit in 2010 and subsequent visits for cutaneous warts with at least a six-month interval from last visit until 2016. @*Results@#From 2006 to 2016, the overall incidence and prevalence rates of cutaneous warts increased from 2.99 to 7.69 per 1,000 population and from 3.45 to 10.94 per 1,000 population, respectively. The overall reinfection rate of cutaneous warts was 30.9%. The reinfection rate of males and females was 31.6% and 30.0%, respectively. Children under ten years old had the highest reinfection rate (34.3%). @*Conclusion@#These results demonstrate that the reinfection rate of cutaneous warts is the highest in male children under ten years old. Therefore, these patients should be monitored closely after treatment.

15.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 513-520, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894246

ABSTRACT

Background@#Ultrasonography is an effective noninvasive imaging modality for the diagnosis of subcutaneous masses. To date, few studies have reported skin ultrasonography using deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs).We investigated the accuracy of DCNNs for the diagnosis of epidermal cysts, lipomas, and other subcutaneous masses. @*Objective@#The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether DCNNs could diagnose subcutaneous masses with ultrasonographic images at level of competence comparable to dermatologists. @*Methods@#We created a dataset of 1,361 skin ultrasonography images obtained from 202 patients diagnosed with epidermal cysts, lipomas, and other subcutaneous masses, to train the DCNNs using ResNet18. Performance was compared with another set of 93 ultrasonographic images (24 epidermal cysts, 25 lipomas, and 44 other subcutaneous masses) from open-access articles. @*Results@#The DCNNs yielded 87.10% classification accuracy and 86.10% F1-scores. The area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity were 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86∼0.98), 75.00%, and 98.55% for epidermal cysts; 0.93 (95% CI 0.88∼0.98), 80.00%, and 94.12% for lipomas; and 0.97 (95% CI 0.93∼1.00), 97.73%, and 85.71% for other subcutaneous masses, respectively. Analysis using gradient-weighted class activation mapping revealed that the DCNNs could detect specific ultrasonographic findings of epidermal cysts and lipomas. @*Conclusion@#We propose that DCNNs combined with ultrasonography may aid in the diagnosis of subcutaneous masses in outpatient settings.

16.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 174-185, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892380

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder (KMAP-DD) is a consensus-based medication guideline. To reflect advances in pharmacotherapy for depressive disorders, we have undertaken a fourth revision of the KMAP-DD. @*Methods@#The review committee for the new version of the KMAP-DD (KMAP-DD 2021) included 143 Korean psychiatrists with clinical experience in the field of depressive disorders. Each treatment strategy or treatment option was evaluated with an overall score of nine, and the treatment option was categorized into the three levels of recommendation of primary, secondary, and tertiary. @*Results@#The first-line pharmacotherapeutic strategy for mild to moderate major depressive episodes (MDE) was antidepressant (AD) monotherapy. For severe MDE without psychotic features, AD monotherapy or the combination of AD and atypical antipsychotics (AAP) was the first-line strategy. The combination of AD and AAP was recommended as the first-line for the MDE with psychotic features as well. When treatment response to initial AD monotherapy was insufficient, a combination of AAP or another AD was recommended. In the case of unsatisfactory response to initial treatment with an AD and AAP combination, switching to another AAP or adding another AD was recommended. @*Conclusion@#Generally, there were no significant changes in the recommendations for MDE management in the KMAP-DD 2021 compared to previous versions. However, it was notable that the preference for the use of AAP and AD with the novel mechanism of action including vortioxetine and agomelatine increased.

17.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 186-192, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892379

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder (KMAP-DD) was developed in 2002 and revised in 2006, 2012, 2017. In 2021, the fifth edition was published.This edition reflected new findings and the latest trends in the areas of pharmacological treatment. The aim of this study is to present strategies and treatment options according to the subtype of depression using data from the KMAP-DD-2021. @*Methods@#Ninety-seven psychiatrists with clinical experience in depressive disorder were selected. The questionnaires for KMAP-DD 2021 were sent to participants via mail. KMAP-DD 2021 consists of overall treatment strategies and treatment options under specific circumstances.Each treatment strategy or treatment option was evaluated with an overall score of nine and was divided into the three phases of recommendation that include primary, secondary, and tertiary. @*Results@#For persisting depressive disorder, antidepressant monotherapy including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) (escitalopram, fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine), serotoninnorepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) (desvenlafaxine, venlafaxine, duloxetine, milnacipran), vortioxetine, and mirtazapine, was recommended as first-line medications. For melancholia of major depressive disorder, SSRI, SNRI, vortioxetine, and mirtazapine also were recommended as first-line medications. For mixed features, SSRI, bupropion, mirtazapine, SNRI, except for duloxetine, and milnacipran were recommended as first-line medications. For anxious distress, SSRI, mirtazapine, and SNRI, except milnacipran, were recommended as first-line medications. @*Conclusion@#The preferences of antidepressants by experts differed according to the subtype of depression. These findings suggest that experts treat patients with a major depressive disorder after considering the subtype of depression involved.

18.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 193-203, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892378

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder 2021 (KMAP-DD 2021) was a revision of previous works. The main purpose of the current study was to amend guidelines for the treatment of a major depressive disorder (MDD) for children and adolescents. @*Methods@#The survey consisted of 21 questionnaires for children and adolescents. A total of 33 of the 46 experts in child and adolescent psychiatry answered the survey. @*Results@#Antidepressant (AD) monotherapy was selected as the 1st line option for MDD with mild to moderate severity. As the 1st line of treatment for MDD severe without psychotic features in children and adolescents, AD monotherapy and AD augmented with atypical antipsychotics (AAP) were recommended. For MDD with psychotic features, AD augmented with AAP was preferred as the 1st line of treatment. @*Conclusion@#We developed an algorithm for child and adolescent populations with depressive disorders, more specifically than the KMAP-DD 2017. We expect this algorithm will provide clinicians useful information and help in the treatment of children and adolescents with depressive disorders.

19.
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology ; : 225-234, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889890

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCs) are frequently diagnosed at the locoregional advanced stage (stage IVa), but controversy remains regarding whether stage IVa HSNCs should be treated with upfront surgery or definitive chemoradiation therapy (CRT). The purpose of this study was to compare overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with stage IVa HNSC treated primarily by surgery with curative intent with/without (neo)adjuvant treatment (surgery group) versus those treated primarily with CRT (CRT group). @*Methods@#. We reviewed data of 1,033 patients with stage IVa HNSC treated with curative intent at 17 cancer centers between 2010 and 2016. @*Results@#. Among 1,033 patients, 765 (74.1%) received upfront surgery and 268 (25.9%) received CRT. The 5-year OS and DFS rates were 64.4% and 62.0% in the surgery group and 49.5% and 45.4% in the CRT group, respectively. In multivariate analyses, OS and DFS were better in the surgery group than in the CRT group (odds ratio [OR] for death, 0.762; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.592–0.981; OR for recurrence, 0.628; 95% CI, 0.492–0.802). In subgroup analyses, the OS and DFS of patients with oropharyngeal cancer were better in the surgery group (OR for death, 0.548; 95% CI, 0.341–0.879; OR for recurrence, 0.598; 95% CI, 0.377–0.948). In the surgery group, patients with laryngeal cancer showed better OS (OR for death, 0.432; 95% CI, 0.211–0.882), while those with hypopharyngeal cancer DFS was improved (OR for recurrence, 0.506; 95% CI, 0.328–0.780). @*Conclusion@#. A survival benefit from surgery may be achieved even in patients with stage IVa HNSC, particularly those with oropharyngeal and laryngeal cancer. Surgery led to a reduction in the recurrence rate in patients with hypopharyngeal cancer.

20.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 389-393, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901979

ABSTRACT

Background@#Cutaneous warts tend to recur despite of various treatment modalities. However, previous studies provided few data on their reinfection rate. @*Objective@#In this study, we investigated the reinfection rate along with the incidence and prevalence rates of cutaneous warts. @*Methods@#We conducted a nationwide, cross-sectional population-based study using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database from January 2006 through December 2016. Patients who visited outpatient clinics with an International Classification of Disease-10 code of viral warts (B07) were included. The reinfection rate was calculated as a percentage of patients with an initial visit in 2010 and subsequent visits for cutaneous warts with at least a six-month interval from last visit until 2016. @*Results@#From 2006 to 2016, the overall incidence and prevalence rates of cutaneous warts increased from 2.99 to 7.69 per 1,000 population and from 3.45 to 10.94 per 1,000 population, respectively. The overall reinfection rate of cutaneous warts was 30.9%. The reinfection rate of males and females was 31.6% and 30.0%, respectively. Children under ten years old had the highest reinfection rate (34.3%). @*Conclusion@#These results demonstrate that the reinfection rate of cutaneous warts is the highest in male children under ten years old. Therefore, these patients should be monitored closely after treatment.

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