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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917644

ABSTRACT

Background@#Dermatofibromas (DF) are fibrohistiocytic tumors of unknown etiology, and multiple DF (MDF) are relatively rare. MDF have been reported in the setting of autoimmune diseases, human immunodeficiency virus infection, or comorbidities treated with immunosuppressive drugs. @*Objective@#The present study investigated whether underlying conditions with impaired immune function are associated with MDF. @*Methods@#A total of 338 patients with DF was enrolled. We divided patients into two groups as MDF and solitary DF (SDF) groups. We retrospectively reviewed patient medical records and classified all patients by underlying diseases. Statistical significance of SDF and MDF for each conditions was analyzed. @*Results@#The demographics and comorbidities were compared between MDF group (n=82) and SDF group (n=256). Among underlying conditions, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (odds ratio, 10.397; 95% confidence interval, 2.743∼39.404; p<0.001) was significantly associated with MDF over SDF. Vitiligo and post status of kidney transplant were related more highly to MDF (p=0.014; p=0.014, respectively) than to SDF. Presence of overall comorbidities, autoimmune diseases, and immunosuppressive drug use were associated with DF number (p<0.001;p<0.001; p<0.001, respectively). @*Conclusion@#We propose an association between MDF and comorbidities, especially SLE and immunosuppressant use. MDF lesions seem to be impacted by compromised immune function. This is of significance since it is essential to search for associated conditions in patients presenting with MDF in dermatologic clinical settings.

2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938742

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#The purpose of this study was to analyze the survival data of salivary gland cancer (SGCs) patients to construct machine learning and deep learning models that can predict survival and use them to stratify SGC patients according to risk estimate.Subjects and Method We retrospectively analyzed the clinicopathologic data from 460 patients with SGCs from 2006 to 2018. @*Results@#In Cox proportional hazard (CPH) model, pM, stage, lymphovascular invasion, lymph node ratio, and age exhibited significant correlation with patient’s survival. In the CPH model, the c-index value for the training set was 0.85, and that for the test set was 0.81. In the Random Survival Forest model, the c-index value for the training set was 0.86, and that for the test set was 0.82. Stage and age exhibited high importance in both the Random Survival Forest and CPH models. In the deep learning-based model, the c-index value was 0.72 for the training set and 0.72 for the test set. Among the three models mentioned above, the Random Survival Forest model exhibited the highest performance in predicting the survival of SGC patients. @*Conclusion@#A survival prediction model using machine learning techniques showed acceptable performance in predicting the survival of SGC patients. Although large-scale clinical and multicenter studies should be conducted to establish more powerful predictive model, we expect that individualized treatment can be realized according to risk stratification made by the machine learning model.

3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938539

ABSTRACT

Background/Objectives@#This study analyzed the prognostic significance of clinico-pathologic factors including comprehensive nodal factors in parotid gland cancers (PGCs) patients and constructed a survival prediction model for PGCs patients using machine learning techniques.Materials & Methods: A total of 131 PGCs patients were enrolled in the study. @*Results@#There were 19 cases (14.5%) of lymph nodes (LNs) at the lower neck level and 43 cases (32.8%) involved multiple level LNs metastases. There were 2 cases (1.5%) of metastases to the contralateral LNs. Intraparotid LNs metastasis was observed in 6 cases (4.6%) and extranodal extension (ENE) findings were observed in 35 cases (26.7%). Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and perineural invasion findings were observed in 42 cases (32.1%) and 49 cases (37.4%), respectively. Machine learning prediction models were constructed using clinico-pathologic factors including comprehensive nodal factors and Decision Tree and Stacking model showed the highest accuracy at 74% and 70% for predicting patient’s survival. @*Conclusion@#Lower level LNs metastasis and LNR have important prognostic significance for predicting disease recurrence and survival in PGCs patients. These two factors were used as important features for constructing machine learning prediction model. Our machine learning model could predict PGCs patient’s survival with a considerable level of accuracy.

4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926729

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#With the introduction of sialendoscopy, minimal invasive surgery has become possible for the removal of sialoliths, although sialendoscopic removal of parotid stones remains a surgical challenge. Sialendoscopic stone removal can be differently applied according to the location and size of stones. This study was conducted to evaluate the surgical outcomes of sialaendoscopic stone removal and to provide a strategy for choosing an adequate surgical approach according to the characteristics of parotid stones.Subjects and Method A retrospective study was conducted of 43 patients with parotid sialolithiasis who were treated by sialendoscopic stone removal between March 2017 and January 2021. Surgical techniques were classified into sialendoscopy alone (SA), sialendoscopy-assisted transoral approach (STO), and sialendoscopy-combined retroauricular approach (SRA). The parotid gland stones were categorized by size, location, and multiplicity. @*Results@#Of the 43 patients, 13 patients underwent SA, 10 received STO, and 20 were treated with different SRA approaches. The SRA approaches included three distal, seven proximal, and ten intraglandular stone removal cases. The success rate of stone removal was 92% (12 cases) by SA, 90% (9 cases) by STO, and 100% (20 cases) by SRA. In cases of SA and STO, all patients had distant stones except for one who had proximal stones. Postoperative complications including pain, swelling, wound dehiscence, sialocele, duct stricture, and facial palsy mainly occurred in cases treated with SRAs. @*Conclusion@#Appropriate use of various sialendoscopy-assisted approaches is mandatory to preserve the gland and minimize surgical complications in patients with different features of parotid gland stones.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926620

ABSTRACT

Warty dyskeratoma (WD) is an uncommon skin tumor that histologically presents as focal acantholysis and dyskeratosis and is a common finding among acantholytic diseases such as Darier’s disease. WD most commonly occurs on the head or neck of adults as an isolated papule or nodule. To our knowledge, only 6 cases of WD in the genital area have been previously reported in the literature, and no case have occurred on the scrotum to date.We report the first case of multiple WD that occurred on the scrotum successfully treated with 0.025% tretinoin cream. A 55-year-old male presented with asymptomatic, multiple, 0.1∼0.2-cm-sized, skin-colored papules on the scrotum for the previous 6 months. A skin punch biopsy and human papillomavirus (HPV) polymerase chain reaction test were performed for a clinical suspicion of genital warts or bowenoid papulosis. The histopathologic examination showed cup-shaped epidermal invaginations with central keratotic plug. Prominent villi, acantholytic clefting and corps ronds were also shown. The patient tested negative for HPV and was diagnosed with WD with typical pathologic findings. The patient was treated with 0.025% tretinoin cream for 2 weeks, and the lesions decreased in both size and number.

6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926338

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To report the first case of a 53-year-old male patient diagnosed with central Horner syndrome, associated with vertebral artery dissection, which has never been reported in Korea to date.Case summary: A 53-year-old male patient presented with conjunctival hyperemia in the left eye for over 4 months, with a past history of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage and ruptured dissecting aneurysm in the left vertebral artery. On slit-lamp examination, mild ptosis of the upper eyelid and conjunctival hyperemia were noted in his left eye. The left pupil was smaller than the right without afferent pupillary defects in either eye. Anisocoria was greater in the dark, and dilation lag was noted in the left pupil. On systemic examination, he complained of numbness in the right upper and lower extremities and symptoms of leaning to the left when walking. After instillation of 0.5% apraclonidine, the anisocoria was reversed, and ptosis and conjunctival hyperemia disappeared. Magnetic resonance images revealed chronic infarction in the left lateral medulla, and he was diagnosed with central Horner syndrome associated with Wallenberg syndrome. @*Conclusions@#We present the first case in Korea of central Horner syndrome associated with lateral medullary infarction caused by vertebral artery dissection.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924836

ABSTRACT

The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder (KMAP-DD) first was published in 2002, and has been revised four times, in 2006, 2012, 2017, and 2021. In this review, we compared recommendations from the recently revised KMAP-DD 2021 to four global clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for depression published after 2010. The recommendations from the KMAP-DD 2021 were similar to those from other CPGs, although there were some differences. The KMAP-DD 2021 reflected social culture and the healthcare system in Korea and recent evidence about pharmacotherapy for depression, as did other recently published evidence-based guidelines. Despite some intrinsic limitations as an expert consensus-based guideline, the KMAP-DD 2021 can be helpful for Korean psychiatrists making decisions in clinical settings by complementing previously published evidence-based guidelines, especially for some clinical situations lacking evidence from rigorously designed clinical trials.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874421

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. In subset of patients, acinic cell carcinoma (AcCC) exhibits aggressive features such as recurrence, distant metastasis, and mortality. This study aimed to investigate clinicopathologic factors influencing patients’ prognosis and to identify adverse features predictive of an unfavorable prognosis. @*Methods@#. Between January 2000 and December 2016, 59 patients with AcCC were enrolled in this study. @*Results@#. The patients’ 5-year overall survival rate was 93.3%, and their 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 80.5%. During the study period, recurrence occurred in 10 patients. The mean time to recurrence after surgery was 26 months (range, 5–60 months). During the study period, three patients died from the disease. Univariate analysis showed that sex, surgical extent, extranodal extension, T classification, and TNM stage were significantly associated with disease recurrence. Multivariate analysis showed that, among the clinicopathologic factors included in the analysis, only TNM stage displayed a statistically significant correlation with disease recurrence. @*Conclusion@#. Surgical treatment alone yielded good results for AcCC, and additional treatment did not affect the recurrence-free survival rate or the overall survival rate, even when the resection margin was less than 1 mm. Other pathologic factors did not show prognostic significance for disease recurrence or death.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901979

ABSTRACT

Background@#Cutaneous warts tend to recur despite of various treatment modalities. However, previous studies provided few data on their reinfection rate. @*Objective@#In this study, we investigated the reinfection rate along with the incidence and prevalence rates of cutaneous warts. @*Methods@#We conducted a nationwide, cross-sectional population-based study using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database from January 2006 through December 2016. Patients who visited outpatient clinics with an International Classification of Disease-10 code of viral warts (B07) were included. The reinfection rate was calculated as a percentage of patients with an initial visit in 2010 and subsequent visits for cutaneous warts with at least a six-month interval from last visit until 2016. @*Results@#From 2006 to 2016, the overall incidence and prevalence rates of cutaneous warts increased from 2.99 to 7.69 per 1,000 population and from 3.45 to 10.94 per 1,000 population, respectively. The overall reinfection rate of cutaneous warts was 30.9%. The reinfection rate of males and females was 31.6% and 30.0%, respectively. Children under ten years old had the highest reinfection rate (34.3%). @*Conclusion@#These results demonstrate that the reinfection rate of cutaneous warts is the highest in male children under ten years old. Therefore, these patients should be monitored closely after treatment.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901950

ABSTRACT

Background@#Ultrasonography is an effective noninvasive imaging modality for the diagnosis of subcutaneous masses. To date, few studies have reported skin ultrasonography using deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs).We investigated the accuracy of DCNNs for the diagnosis of epidermal cysts, lipomas, and other subcutaneous masses. @*Objective@#The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether DCNNs could diagnose subcutaneous masses with ultrasonographic images at level of competence comparable to dermatologists. @*Methods@#We created a dataset of 1,361 skin ultrasonography images obtained from 202 patients diagnosed with epidermal cysts, lipomas, and other subcutaneous masses, to train the DCNNs using ResNet18. Performance was compared with another set of 93 ultrasonographic images (24 epidermal cysts, 25 lipomas, and 44 other subcutaneous masses) from open-access articles. @*Results@#The DCNNs yielded 87.10% classification accuracy and 86.10% F1-scores. The area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity were 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86∼0.98), 75.00%, and 98.55% for epidermal cysts; 0.93 (95% CI 0.88∼0.98), 80.00%, and 94.12% for lipomas; and 0.97 (95% CI 0.93∼1.00), 97.73%, and 85.71% for other subcutaneous masses, respectively. Analysis using gradient-weighted class activation mapping revealed that the DCNNs could detect specific ultrasonographic findings of epidermal cysts and lipomas. @*Conclusion@#We propose that DCNNs combined with ultrasonography may aid in the diagnosis of subcutaneous masses in outpatient settings.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900084

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder (KMAP-DD) is a consensus-based medication guideline. To reflect advances in pharmacotherapy for depressive disorders, we have undertaken a fourth revision of the KMAP-DD. @*Methods@#The review committee for the new version of the KMAP-DD (KMAP-DD 2021) included 143 Korean psychiatrists with clinical experience in the field of depressive disorders. Each treatment strategy or treatment option was evaluated with an overall score of nine, and the treatment option was categorized into the three levels of recommendation of primary, secondary, and tertiary. @*Results@#The first-line pharmacotherapeutic strategy for mild to moderate major depressive episodes (MDE) was antidepressant (AD) monotherapy. For severe MDE without psychotic features, AD monotherapy or the combination of AD and atypical antipsychotics (AAP) was the first-line strategy. The combination of AD and AAP was recommended as the first-line for the MDE with psychotic features as well. When treatment response to initial AD monotherapy was insufficient, a combination of AAP or another AD was recommended. In the case of unsatisfactory response to initial treatment with an AD and AAP combination, switching to another AAP or adding another AD was recommended. @*Conclusion@#Generally, there were no significant changes in the recommendations for MDE management in the KMAP-DD 2021 compared to previous versions. However, it was notable that the preference for the use of AAP and AD with the novel mechanism of action including vortioxetine and agomelatine increased.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900083

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder (KMAP-DD) was developed in 2002 and revised in 2006, 2012, 2017. In 2021, the fifth edition was published.This edition reflected new findings and the latest trends in the areas of pharmacological treatment. The aim of this study is to present strategies and treatment options according to the subtype of depression using data from the KMAP-DD-2021. @*Methods@#Ninety-seven psychiatrists with clinical experience in depressive disorder were selected. The questionnaires for KMAP-DD 2021 were sent to participants via mail. KMAP-DD 2021 consists of overall treatment strategies and treatment options under specific circumstances.Each treatment strategy or treatment option was evaluated with an overall score of nine and was divided into the three phases of recommendation that include primary, secondary, and tertiary. @*Results@#For persisting depressive disorder, antidepressant monotherapy including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) (escitalopram, fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine), serotoninnorepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) (desvenlafaxine, venlafaxine, duloxetine, milnacipran), vortioxetine, and mirtazapine, was recommended as first-line medications. For melancholia of major depressive disorder, SSRI, SNRI, vortioxetine, and mirtazapine also were recommended as first-line medications. For mixed features, SSRI, bupropion, mirtazapine, SNRI, except for duloxetine, and milnacipran were recommended as first-line medications. For anxious distress, SSRI, mirtazapine, and SNRI, except milnacipran, were recommended as first-line medications. @*Conclusion@#The preferences of antidepressants by experts differed according to the subtype of depression. These findings suggest that experts treat patients with a major depressive disorder after considering the subtype of depression involved.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900082

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder 2021 (KMAP-DD 2021) was a revision of previous works. The main purpose of the current study was to amend guidelines for the treatment of a major depressive disorder (MDD) for children and adolescents. @*Methods@#The survey consisted of 21 questionnaires for children and adolescents. A total of 33 of the 46 experts in child and adolescent psychiatry answered the survey. @*Results@#Antidepressant (AD) monotherapy was selected as the 1st line option for MDD with mild to moderate severity. As the 1st line of treatment for MDD severe without psychotic features in children and adolescents, AD monotherapy and AD augmented with atypical antipsychotics (AAP) were recommended. For MDD with psychotic features, AD augmented with AAP was preferred as the 1st line of treatment. @*Conclusion@#We developed an algorithm for child and adolescent populations with depressive disorders, more specifically than the KMAP-DD 2017. We expect this algorithm will provide clinicians useful information and help in the treatment of children and adolescents with depressive disorders.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897594

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCs) are frequently diagnosed at the locoregional advanced stage (stage IVa), but controversy remains regarding whether stage IVa HSNCs should be treated with upfront surgery or definitive chemoradiation therapy (CRT). The purpose of this study was to compare overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with stage IVa HNSC treated primarily by surgery with curative intent with/without (neo)adjuvant treatment (surgery group) versus those treated primarily with CRT (CRT group). @*Methods@#. We reviewed data of 1,033 patients with stage IVa HNSC treated with curative intent at 17 cancer centers between 2010 and 2016. @*Results@#. Among 1,033 patients, 765 (74.1%) received upfront surgery and 268 (25.9%) received CRT. The 5-year OS and DFS rates were 64.4% and 62.0% in the surgery group and 49.5% and 45.4% in the CRT group, respectively. In multivariate analyses, OS and DFS were better in the surgery group than in the CRT group (odds ratio [OR] for death, 0.762; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.592–0.981; OR for recurrence, 0.628; 95% CI, 0.492–0.802). In subgroup analyses, the OS and DFS of patients with oropharyngeal cancer were better in the surgery group (OR for death, 0.548; 95% CI, 0.341–0.879; OR for recurrence, 0.598; 95% CI, 0.377–0.948). In the surgery group, patients with laryngeal cancer showed better OS (OR for death, 0.432; 95% CI, 0.211–0.882), while those with hypopharyngeal cancer DFS was improved (OR for recurrence, 0.506; 95% CI, 0.328–0.780). @*Conclusion@#. A survival benefit from surgery may be achieved even in patients with stage IVa HNSC, particularly those with oropharyngeal and laryngeal cancer. Surgery led to a reduction in the recurrence rate in patients with hypopharyngeal cancer.

15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920247

ABSTRACT

This paper analyzed previous research data to identify the most important issues to be considered during treatment of parotid gland cancer (PGC) and reviewed recent advancements in techniques in parotid surgery. For successful treatment of PGC, a preoperative surgical plan should be designed with consideration of the histologic characteristics and anatomical complexity of the tumor, and the functional and anatomical integrity of the facial nerve should be carefully inspected during surgery and damage to the nerve minimized. The need for adjuvant radiotherapy should be determined based on intraoperative findings and pathologic findings of the specimen after surgery. To optimize treatment outcomes for PGC, the extent of surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy should be decided according to histologic characteristics and risk stratification.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917640

ABSTRACT

Background@#As the use of laser therapy for skin lesions has increased significantly, laser treatment is performed in many cases without an accurate diagnosis. @*Objective@#This study aimed to analyze cases in which skin lesions recurred or remained after laser treatment by investigating the clinicopathological diagnosis. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed the patients who visited the Seoul Saint Mary’s hospital from January 2011 to December 2020, the clinical records of 518 cases of patient who had a history of laser treatment and underwent histopathological examination. @*Results@#The number and proportion of patients who visited the hospital showed a steadily increasing trend for 10 years. In 187 patients, the time between laser treatment and hospital visits was >1 year. The most common site of lesions was the face (66.2%), especially the cheek (29.3%) and nose (12.2%). Final diagnosis of the lesion yielded 59 cases (11.4%) of premalignant diseases and 55 cases (10.6%) of malignant tumors, and the rate increased with increasing age. The most common malignant tumor was basal cell carcinoma (69.1%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (14.5%) and malignant melanoma (12.7%). @*Conclusion@#In this study, we found that laser treatment for premalignant and malignant tumors is not rare. This study emphasizes that indiscriminate laser treatment should be avoided, and an accurate diagnosis and proper medical treatment by an experienced dermatologist are needed.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916464

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#:In this study, socio-demographic, drinking and emotional characteristics, and their correlations were compared among patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) according to the presence or absence of any type of criminal record. @*Methods@#:Among patients admitted to the hospital with AUD, 27 with and 31 without criminal records were included. Socio-demographic data and drinking characteristics such as first drinking age, average daily alcohol consumption were collected. In addition, the severity of alcohol problems, the degree of change readiness for drinking alcohol, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and impulsivity were evaluated using scales and statistically analyzed. Pearson’s correlation test was applied to reveal the differences in correlation of the characteristics according to the presence or absence of criminal records. @*Results@#:The first drinking age was significantly earlier in the AUD group with criminal records. Interestingly, the degree of change readiness regarding alcohol problem as shown in SOCRATES-K was significantly higher in the AUD group with criminal records. Anxiety symptoms were statistically significantly higher in the AUD group with criminal records. In AUD with criminal records, first drinking age negatively correlated with the degree of change readiness. In AUD without criminal records, first drinking age correlated negatively with the severity of alcohol problem, and the degree of change readiness, and the degree of change readiness negatively with age, and the degree of change readiness positively with the severity of alcohol problem. In Both groups, anxiety symptoms positively correlated with depressive symptoms. @*Conclusions@#:This study showed that AUD patients with criminal record had a faster first drinking age and the higher degree of change readiness regarding alcohol problem. Significantly higher symptoms of anxiety were also presented in AUD patients with criminal record than AUD patients who have no criminal records. Some differences were identified in correlations among characteristics between the two groups.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915569

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#An expert consensus guideline for the treatment of depressive disorder, the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder (KMAP-DD), was first established in 2002 and updated in 2017. To provide an up-to-date treatment guideline, KMAP-DD 2021 was recently completed. This study was undertaken to provide a guideline for the treatment of depressive disorder in a selected population that included females and elderly. @*Methods@#The survey conducted consisted of 7 questionnaires for each population, females and elderly, with depressive disorder. A total of 65 of 97 experienced psychiatrists answered the survey. @*Results@#For the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, venlafaxine, and desvenlafaxine were recommended as first-line therapies. For major depressive disorder (MDD) during pregnancy, antidepressant (AD) monotherapy was recommended as a first-line therapy for mild to moderate and severe depression, and combined electroconvulsive therapy and AD with atypical antipsychotics (AAP) were recommended as a first-line therapy for severe depression with psychotic features. AD plus AAP was generally recommended for post-partum depression. In elderly with depression, AD monotherapy was recommended as the treatment of choice for mild to moderate episodes, and AD monotherapy and AD plus AAP were recommended as a first-line therapy for severe depression without psychotic features. Lastly, AD plus AAP was chosen as the treatment of choice for psychotic depression. @*Conclusion@#Present study provides an updated algorithm for the treatment of females and elderly with depressive disorders. This algorithm provides a practical aid to clinicians for the treatment of females and elderly with MDD.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915568

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#To revise Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder 2017 (KMAPDD 2017) guidelines by revising antidepressant choices based on their safety, adverse effects, comorbid physical illnesses, and the clinical definition of treatment-resistant depression (TRD). @*Methods@#A 33-item questionnaire comprised of six parts was developed. A 65-expert consensus (65/97, 67.0%) was obtained on pharmacological treatment strategies regarding antidepressant choice with respect to safety, adverse effects, and comorbid physical illnesses. Multiple response sets were subjected to statistical analysis. @*Results@#The results obtained showed that first-line pharmacotherapeutic strategies based on various clinical considerations were as follows: mirtazapine (for patients with increased suicidality, Gastrointestinal discomfort, and insomnia), bupropion (for patients with orthostatic hypotension, history of a safety accident, serotonin syndrome, sedation, sexual dysfunction, and weight gain), and escitalopram (for patients with anticholinergic side effects). For patients exhibiting comorbid conditions, duloxetine was the first line pharmacotherapeutic strategy for chronic pain, escitalopram was the first-line pharmacotherapeutic strategy for diabetes, hypertension, liver disease, Parkinson’s disease, renal disease, epilepsy, and thyroid disease, and sertraline was a first-line pharmacotherapeutic strategy for arrhythmia and cardiovascular disease. @*Conclusion@#Pharmacological treatment strategy of KMAP-DD 2021 is similar to that of KMAPDD 2017. Additional study is required to determine antidepressant choices for TRD and cancer patients with depression.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915567

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Depressive Disorder 2021 (KMAP-DD 2021) was made to update new researches and data. This study focused on non-pharmacological biological treatments. @*Methods@#Ninety-seven psychiatrists with extensive clinical experience in the non-pharmacological biological treatment of depressive disorder were primary selected and a questionnaire was sent to each of them by mail, 65 of the 97 replied. @*Results@#Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) was recommended as an initial strategy for major depressive disorder, severe depressive disorder with/without psychotic features with urgent suicidal risk, or a severe depressive episode with psychotic features in pregnant patients, for non-responders on pharmacotherapy for a moderate depressive episode, and as a second strategy for non-responders on antidepressant monotherapy or combination therapy combined with physical illness. For pregnant women with a severe episode of major depressive disorder, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was preferred as a first-line strategy, and as a second strategy for non-responders on combined antipsychotic and antidepressant therapy and non-responders with comorbidity and physical illness. Complementary or novel treatment was not recommended as the first-line treatment strategy for depressive disorder, but transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), light therapy, and omega-3 fatty acid nutritional therapy were second-line treatment strategies. @*Conclusion@#ECT and rTMS are initial strategies in specific clinical situations. Preferences for complementary or novel treatments such as tDCS, light therapy, and omega-3 fatty acid nutritional therapy have increased gradually, but in practice, their usages are still limited.

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