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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927028

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#There are few studies describing contemporary status of mechanical ventilation in Korea. We investigated changes in management and outcome of mechanical ventilation in Korea. @*Methods@#International, prospective observational cohort studies have been conducted every 6 years since 1998. Korean intensive care units (ICUs) participated in 2010 and 2016 cohorts. We compared 2016 and 2010 Korean data. @*Results@#Two hundred and twenty-six patients from 18 ICUs and 275 patients from 12 ICUs enrolled in 2016 and 2010, respectively. In 2016 compared to 2010, use of non-invasive ventilation outside ICU increased (10.2% vs. 2.5%, p = 0.001). Pressure-control ventilation was the most common mode in both groups. Initial tidal volume (7.1 mL/kg vs. 7.4 mL/kg, p = 0.372) and positive end-expiratory pressure (6 cmH2O vs. 6 cmH2O, p = 0.141) were similar, but peak pressure (22 cmH2O vs. 24 cmH2O, p = 0.011) was lower in 2016. More patients received sedatives (70.7% vs. 57.0%, p = 0.002) and analgesics (86.5% vs. 51.1%, p < 0.001) in 2016. The awakening (48.4% vs. 31.0%, p = 0.002) was more frequently attempted in 2016. The accidental extubation rate decreased to one tenth of what it was in 2010 (1.1% vs. 10.2%, p < 0.001). The ICU mortality did not change (31.4% 35.6%, p = 0.343) but ICU length of stay showed a decreasing trend (9 days vs. 10 days, p = 0.054) in 2016. @*Conclusions@#There were temporal changes in care of patients on mechanical ventilation including better control of pain and agitation, and active attempt of awakening.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926666

ABSTRACT

Gua Sha is a traditional Asian medicine with different names in many Asian countries. It is a treatment to scrape the petechiae of the skin with ointment. It has generally been administered to patients with upper respiratory infections, heat syndrome, and pain. Herein, we report the case of a 31-year-old Cambodian man who was found dead at a farm accommodation. During the autopsy, multiple linear intradermal hemorrhages without subcutaneous damage were observed in the upper chest and both shoulders. The cause of death was sudden unexpected nocturnal death syndrome because he was a young Asian man who died while sleeping without specific findings. Since it is an unfamiliar traditional medicine in Korea compared to other Asian countries, forensic officers without background knowledge about Gua Sha initially suspected that he was severely assaulted or pressed against a particular object enough to cause crush asphyxia. Because of the difficulty of going to the hospital during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, Gua Sha was used to treat headaches and mild fever. Therefore, this case shows that understanding the culture of other countries could be helpful for investigations especially with the increase of multicultural families in Korea.

3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926272

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory failure is a condition in which gas exchange functions decrease due to various causes. Respiratory failure is one of the most common causes of intensive care unit admissions, and most cases require invasive mechanical ventilation.Current Concepts: Invasive mechanical ventilation is defined as the delivery of positive pressure to the lungs via an endotracheal or tracheostomy tube. Invasive mechanical ventilation is commonly used to replace the functions of spontaneous breathing, either fully or partially, by performing the breathing function for the lungs. It is also indicated in patients who require airway protection or have neuromuscular diseases. Invasive mechanical ventilation should not be delayed until the need becomes urgent. There is no universal set of ventilation protocols established as ideal for all patients. It is essential that doctors understand and apply the necessary methods to protect the lungs from injury associated with invasive mechanical ventilation.Discussion and Conclusion: The primary goals of mechanical ventilation are to optimize oxygenation while avoiding ventilator-induced lung injury. In patients with acute respiratory failure, the mortality rate has reduced dramatically with the application of the lung-protective ventilation strategy. Patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation will survive if they are treated and monitored according to this principle, but damage to the lungs may occur if the guidelines are not followed. Therefore, it is essential to know and adhere to the initial setup and monitoring principles.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915491

ABSTRACT

Background@#It is essential to determine the distribution of the causative microorganisms in the region and the status of local antibiotic resistance for the proper treatment of hospitalacquired pneumonia/ventilator-associated pneumonia (HAP/VAP). This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and causative strains of HAP/VAP, distribution of resistant bacteria, use of antibiotics, and the ensuing outcomes of patients in Korea. @*Methods@#A multicenter prospective observational cohort study was conducted among patients with HAP/VAP admitted to the medical intensive care unit of 5 tertiary referral centers between August 2012 and June 2015. Patients' demographic and clinical data were collected. @*Results@#A total of 381 patients were diagnosed with HAP/VAP. Their median age was 69 (59–76) years and 71% were males. A majority of the patients (88%) had late-onset (> 5 days) HAP/VAP. One-quarter of the patients (n = 99) had at least one risk factor for multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens, such as prior intravenous antibiotic use within the last 90 days. Microbiological specimens were mostly obtained noninvasively (87%) using sputum or endotracheal aspirates. Pathogens were identified in 235 (62%) of the 381 patients. The most common bacterial pathogen was Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 89), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (n = 52), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 25) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 22). Most of isolated A. baumannii (97%) and S. aureus (88%) were multidrug resistant. The most commonly used empirical antibiotic regimens were carbapenem-based antibiotics (38%), followed by extended-spectrum penicillin/ β-lactamase inhibitor (34%). Glycopeptide or linezolid were also used in combination in 54% of patients. The 28-day mortality rate of the patients with HAP/VAP was 30% and the 60-day mortality was 46%. Patients who used empirical antibiotics appropriately had significantly lower mortality rates than those who did not (28-day mortality: 25% vs. 40%, P = 0.032; 60-day mortality: 41% vs. 55%, P = 0.032, respectively). Administration of appropriate empirical antibiotics (odds ratio [OR], 0.282; confidence interval [CI], 0.092–0.859; P = 0.026), Day 7 treatment failure (OR, 4.515; CI, 1.545–13.192; P= 0.006), and APACHE II score on day 1 (OR, 1.326; CI, 0.988–1.779; P = 0.012) were the factors that determined the 28-day mortality in patients with HAP who had identified bacteria as pathogens. @*Conclusion@#In HAP/VAP patients, there was a large burden of MDR pathogens, and their associated mortality rate was high. Proper selection of empirical antibiotics was significantly associated with the patient's prognosis; however, there was a discrepancy between major pathogens and empirical antibiotic therapy.

5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 702-707, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904230

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to determine the relationship between environmental exposure and nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#A group of 150 patients with NTM-PD and a control group of 217 patients with other respiratory diseases were prospectively enrolled between June 2018 and December 2020 in Seoul, Korea. They were surveyed with a standardized questionnaire, and their medical records were reviewed. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated with multivariate logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#The mean ages of the NTM-PD and control groups were similar (63.8±9.2 years vs. 63.5±10.0 years; p=0.737), and most patients were female (76.0% vs. 68.7%; p=0.157) and nonsmokers (82.0% vs. 72.8%; p=0.021). Mycobacterium avium (49.3%) was the most commonly identified strain among NTM-PD patients, followed by M. intracellulare (32.0%) and M. abscessus subspecies massiliense (12.7%). There were no differences in housing type or frequency of soil- or pet-related exposure between the case and the control groups. However, in subgroup analysis excluding patients with M. intracellulare infection, more case patients frequently visited public baths ≥1 time/week (35.3% vs. 19.4%, p=0.003); this remained significant after multivariate analysis (OR, 2.84; 95% CI, 1.58–5.17). @*Conclusion@#Frequent exposure to water at public baths might affect the odds of contracting NTM-PD, excluding individuals infected with M. intracellulare strains.

6.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 702-707, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896526

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to determine the relationship between environmental exposure and nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#A group of 150 patients with NTM-PD and a control group of 217 patients with other respiratory diseases were prospectively enrolled between June 2018 and December 2020 in Seoul, Korea. They were surveyed with a standardized questionnaire, and their medical records were reviewed. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated with multivariate logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#The mean ages of the NTM-PD and control groups were similar (63.8±9.2 years vs. 63.5±10.0 years; p=0.737), and most patients were female (76.0% vs. 68.7%; p=0.157) and nonsmokers (82.0% vs. 72.8%; p=0.021). Mycobacterium avium (49.3%) was the most commonly identified strain among NTM-PD patients, followed by M. intracellulare (32.0%) and M. abscessus subspecies massiliense (12.7%). There were no differences in housing type or frequency of soil- or pet-related exposure between the case and the control groups. However, in subgroup analysis excluding patients with M. intracellulare infection, more case patients frequently visited public baths ≥1 time/week (35.3% vs. 19.4%, p=0.003); this remained significant after multivariate analysis (OR, 2.84; 95% CI, 1.58–5.17). @*Conclusion@#Frequent exposure to water at public baths might affect the odds of contracting NTM-PD, excluding individuals infected with M. intracellulare strains.

7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 50-58, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875603

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Critical care medicine continues to evolve. However, critical care cases require increasing amount of medical resources.Intensive care unit (ICU) mortality significantly impacts the overall efficiency of healthcare resources within a system of limited medical resources. This study investigated the factors related to ICU mortality using long-term nationwide cohort data in South Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#This retrospective cohort study used data of 14905721 patients who submitted reimbursement claims to the Korean Health Insurance Service between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2015. A total of 1498102 patients who were admitted to all ICU types, except neonatal and long-term acute care hospitals, were enrolled. @*Results@#Of the total 1498102 participants, 861397 (57.5%) were male and 636705 (42.5%) were female. The mean age at admission was 63.4±18.2 years; most of the subjects were aged over 60 years. During the 5-year period, in-hospital mortality rate was 12.9%.In Cox analysis, both in-hospital and 28-day mortality rates were significantly higher in male patients and those of lower socioeconomic status. As age increased and the number of nursing staff decreased, the mortality risk increased significantly by two or three times. The mortality risk was lower in patients admitted to an ICU of a tertiary university hospital and an ICU where intensivists worked. @*Conclusion@#The number of nursing staff and the presence of an intensivist in ICU were associated with the ICU mortality rate. Also, increasing the number of nursing staff and the presence of intensivist might reduce the mortality rate among ICU patients.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875499

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Delayed diagnosis and treatment of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) are major concerns for TB control. We evaluated characteristics of patients with smear-negative pulmonary TB who received a delayed diagnosis and identified risk factors that may have contributed to this delay. @*Methods@#We reviewed medical records of patients with smear-negative culture-positive pulmonary TB treated at a tertiary care hospital in South Korea between January 2017 and December 2018. Patients who initiated anti-TB treatment after positive cultures were included in the missed TB group, and those who initiated empirical treatment before positive cultures were included in the control group. @*Results@#Of 220 patients included, 117 (53.2%) and 103 (46.8%) were in the missed TB and control groups, respectively. Patients in the missed TB group were older (p = 0.001) and had a higher mean body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.019). Comorbidities (66.9% vs. 46.6%, p = 0.003) and immunocompromised patients (33.1% vs. 20.4%, p = 0.035) were more common in the missed TB group than in the control group. Old age (odds ratio [OR], 1.030; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.012 to 1.048; p = 0.001), high BMI (OR, 1.114; 95% CI, 1.004 to 1.237; p = 0.042), and negative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results (OR, 9.551; 95% CI, 4.925 to 18.521; p < 0.001) were associated with delayed diagnosis. @*Conclusions@#In more than half of patients with smear-negative pulmonary TB, the diagnosis was delayed. Patients with delayed TB diagnosis were older, had higher BMI, and negative PCR results.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899750

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Long-term oxygen therapy provides various benefits, including prolonged survival for severely hypoxic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. However, adequate management strategies for home oxygen therapy are not well established in Korea. This study aimed to explore the current situation of home oxygen therapy to provide basic data for developing a strategy for COPD patients on home oxygen therapy.@*METHODS@#In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled COPD patients using home oxygen therapy for at least 1 month. Face-to-face interviews were conducted, guided by a structured questionnaire about home oxygen therapy.@*RESULTS@#A total of 195 patients were enrolled. The mean age was 72.6 ± 9.7 years, and 76.4% of patients were men. The mean modified Medical Research Council, COPD Assessment Test, and EuroQol-5D index scores were 3.4 ± 0.8, 29.7 ± 6.8, and 0.35 ± 0.44, respectively. At rest, patients were prescribed oxygen for 12.5 ± 7.3 hr/day and used 12.9 ± 8.5 hr/day on average. During exercise, the mean duration of prescribed oxygen was 6.6 ± 4.3 hr/day, and the actual use was 1.1 ± 2.9 hr/day. A total of 25.6% of patients used ambulatory oxygen; with financial burden the main reason for nonuse. The mean number of hospitalizations and emergency room visits were 2.5 and 2.6, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#This study revealed low adherence to home oxygen therapy, poor health-related quality of life, frequent hospitalizations, and a high financial burden among COPD patients using home oxygen therapy. The study highlights the need for adequate strategies to improve the quality of home oxygen therapy.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899702

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 not yet has established its treatment, but convalescent plasma has been expected to increase survival rates as in the case with other emerging viral infections. We describe two cases of COVID-19 treated with convalescent plasma infusion. Both patients presented severe pneumonia with acute respiratory distress syndrome and showed a favorable outcome after the use of convalescent plasma in addition to systemic corticosteroid. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of convalescent plasma therapy for COVID-19 in Korea.

11.
Clinical Pain ; (2): 116-119, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897840

ABSTRACT

Cervical transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) is commonly performed to provide relief of pain caused by radiculopathy. Intra-arterial injection of particulate steroid or direct needle injury can lead to spinal artery embolism or thrombosis.Also there is a possibility of vascular spasm. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of spinal cord infarction that occurred after TFESI with non-particulate steroid in Korea. A 47-year-old female patient underwent C7 TFESI at local pain clinic. Injected materials were dexamethasone and mepivacaine. Right after the intervention, she felt muscle weakness and decreased sensation. On physical examination, she had decreased sensation from C4 to T2 dermatome in light touch and pin-prick test. Proprioception and vibration were intact. The motor grades of upper extremities were grade 1. Cervical and thoracic spine MRI was checked. Diffusion-weighted image and apparent diffusion coefficient image showed long extension of spinal cord infarction from C2 to T1 level.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892046

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Long-term oxygen therapy provides various benefits, including prolonged survival for severely hypoxic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. However, adequate management strategies for home oxygen therapy are not well established in Korea. This study aimed to explore the current situation of home oxygen therapy to provide basic data for developing a strategy for COPD patients on home oxygen therapy.@*METHODS@#In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled COPD patients using home oxygen therapy for at least 1 month. Face-to-face interviews were conducted, guided by a structured questionnaire about home oxygen therapy.@*RESULTS@#A total of 195 patients were enrolled. The mean age was 72.6 ± 9.7 years, and 76.4% of patients were men. The mean modified Medical Research Council, COPD Assessment Test, and EuroQol-5D index scores were 3.4 ± 0.8, 29.7 ± 6.8, and 0.35 ± 0.44, respectively. At rest, patients were prescribed oxygen for 12.5 ± 7.3 hr/day and used 12.9 ± 8.5 hr/day on average. During exercise, the mean duration of prescribed oxygen was 6.6 ± 4.3 hr/day, and the actual use was 1.1 ± 2.9 hr/day. A total of 25.6% of patients used ambulatory oxygen; with financial burden the main reason for nonuse. The mean number of hospitalizations and emergency room visits were 2.5 and 2.6, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#This study revealed low adherence to home oxygen therapy, poor health-related quality of life, frequent hospitalizations, and a high financial burden among COPD patients using home oxygen therapy. The study highlights the need for adequate strategies to improve the quality of home oxygen therapy.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891998

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 not yet has established its treatment, but convalescent plasma has been expected to increase survival rates as in the case with other emerging viral infections. We describe two cases of COVID-19 treated with convalescent plasma infusion. Both patients presented severe pneumonia with acute respiratory distress syndrome and showed a favorable outcome after the use of convalescent plasma in addition to systemic corticosteroid. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of convalescent plasma therapy for COVID-19 in Korea.

14.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837371

ABSTRACT

Background@#Flexible bronchoscopy is one of the essential procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary diseases. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with the occurrence of hypoxia in adults undergoing flexible bronchoscopy under sedation. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 2,520 patients who underwent flexible bronchoscopy under sedation at our tertiary care university hospital in South Korea January 1, 2013–December 31, 2014. Hypoxia was defined as more than 5%-point reduction in the baseline percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2) or SpO2 1 minute during the procedure. @*Results@#The mean age was 64.7±13.5, and 565 patients developed hypoxia during the procedure. The mean sedation duration and midazolam dose for sedation were 31.1 minutes and 3.9 mg, respectively. The bivariate analysis showed that older age, a low forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), use of endobronchial ultrasound, the duration of sedation, and the midazolam dose were associated with the occurrence of hypoxia during the procedure, while the multivariate analysis found that age >60 (odds ratio [OR], 1.32), a low FEV1 (OR, 0.99), and a longer duration of sedation (>40 minutes; OR, 1.33) were significant risk factors. @*Conclusion@#The findings suggest that patients older than age 60 and those with a low FEV1 tend to develop hypoxia during the bronchoscopy under sedation. Also, longer duration of sedation (>40 minutes) was a significant risk factor for hypoxia.

15.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1034-1041, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833335

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Isoniazid (INH) mono-resistant tuberculosis (Hr-TB) is a highly prevalent type of drug-resistant TB, possibly associated with unfavorable treatment outcomes. However, definitive guidelines on an optimal treatment regimen and duration for Hr-TB are currently under discussion. We evaluated the characteristics and treatment outcomes of Hr-TB patients. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of Hr-TB patients treated at a South Korean tertiary referral hospital from January 2005 to December 2018. @*Results@#We included 195 Hr-TB patients. 113 (57.9%) were male, and the median age was 56.6 [interquartile range, 40.2–68.6] years. Mutations in katG were the most frequent [54 (56.3%)], followed by those in the inhA [34 (35.4%)]. Favorable and unfavorable outcomes were noted in 164 (84.1%) and 31 (15.9%) patients, respectively. Smoking history [odds ratio (OR)=5.606, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.695–18.543, p=0.005], low albumin level (OR=0.246, 95% CI: 0.104–0.578, p=0.001), and positive acid-fast bacilli culture at 2 months (OR=7.853, 95% CI: 1.246–49.506, p=0.028) were associated with unfavorable outcomes. @*Conclusion@#A tailored strategy targeting high-risk patients is imperative for improved treatment outcomes. Further research on the rapid and accurate detection of resistance to INH and other companion drugs is warranted.

16.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831882

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The incidence rate of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) is increasing worldwide. However, data regarding the age- and sex-specific epidemiology of NTM-PD are limited. This study aimed to investigate the long-term epidemiologic trends of NTM-PD within the recent 11- year period in a tertiary referral hospital in Korea. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of the patients diagnosed with NTM-PD between January 2006 and December 2016 at Severance Hospital, South Korea. @*Results@#There were 1,017 incident cases with NTM-PD during the study period. The mean age was 62.7 years, and 41.2% were men. Women were younger than men (59.9 years vs. 66.7 years, p < 0.001) and a higher proportion of women had bronchiectasis (88.6% vs. 77.1%, p < 0.001). The incidence rates of NTM-PD annually increased by 14% (95% confidence interval, 10% to 19%) from 1.2 in 2006 to 4.8 in 2016 (per 100,000 patients-year). The peak incidence rate was in the 50s for women and in the 70s for men, except for those aged ≥ 80 years. Mycobacterium avium complex was the most common causative species of NTM-PD (63.6%). @*Conclusions@#The incidence rate of NTM-PD in a tertiary referral hospital in South Korea continued to increase from 2006 to 2016. Furthermore, there were age- and sex-related differences in the clinical characteristics, which might contribute to understanding the nature of the disease and inherited and acquired host factors.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830521

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the effects of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) on improving lymphedema, quality of life, and fibrous tissue in patients with stage 2 lymphedema. @*Methods@#Breast cancer-related lymphedema patients referred to the rehabilitation center were recruited. We enrolled stage 2 lymphedema patients who had firmness of the skin at their forearm, a circumference difference of more than 2 cm between each arm, or a volume difference between upper extremities greater than 200 mL, confirmed by lymphoscintigraphy. The patients were randomly divided into the ESWT group and the control group. ESWT was performed for 3 weeks (two sessions per week); both groups received complex decongestive physical therapy. All patients were evaluated at baseline and at 3 weeks after treatment. The measurements performed included visual analog scale score, volume, circumference, QuickDASH (Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) score, bioelectrical impedance, and skin thickness. @*Results@#The patients in both groups (n=15 in each group) completed the 3-week therapy experiment. No significant differences were observed in demographic characteristics between groups. After the 3-week treatment period, improvement was noted in the circumference difference below the elbow, volume, ratio of extracellular water to total body water, and skin thickness in the ESWT group. A significant difference was found in all the above-mentioned areas except in circumference below the elbow in the ESWT group. @*Conclusion@#ESWT reduced edema and skin fibrosis without significant complications. Therefore, ESWT can be used together with complex decongestive physical therapy for treating lymphedema.

19.
Clinical Pain ; (2): 116-119, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890136

ABSTRACT

Cervical transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) is commonly performed to provide relief of pain caused by radiculopathy. Intra-arterial injection of particulate steroid or direct needle injury can lead to spinal artery embolism or thrombosis.Also there is a possibility of vascular spasm. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of spinal cord infarction that occurred after TFESI with non-particulate steroid in Korea. A 47-year-old female patient underwent C7 TFESI at local pain clinic. Injected materials were dexamethasone and mepivacaine. Right after the intervention, she felt muscle weakness and decreased sensation. On physical examination, she had decreased sensation from C4 to T2 dermatome in light touch and pin-prick test. Proprioception and vibration were intact. The motor grades of upper extremities were grade 1. Cervical and thoracic spine MRI was checked. Diffusion-weighted image and apparent diffusion coefficient image showed long extension of spinal cord infarction from C2 to T1 level.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919118

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of mortality in the world. There are no population-based studies on long-term mortality in COPD patients in Korea.@*METHODS@#Using the large, population-based, National Health Insurance Service- National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC), we identified COPD patients using the International Classification of Disease-Tenth Revision (ICD-10) and prescription details in the NHIS-NSC during 2003 to 2013. We analyzed the survival curves of COPD patients by sex, age, and cause of death.@*RESULTS@#A total of 14,127 individuals older than 40 years were diagnosed with COPD. There were a total of 3,695 deaths (26.2%) in COPD patients during the study period. The 5-year mortality of COPD patients was 25.4% (29.9% in males and 19.1% in females). The mortality rate increased rapidly with age. The most common cause of death in COPD was chronic lower respiratory disease.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study described long-term mortality in COPD patients in Korea. Higher mortality was observed in males, and it was closely related to age.

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